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rr . . . The word of the cross . . . is . . . to us . . . the power of God." 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

Unburn Cruris 

Vol. I'' January, A.D. 1963 ^ No. 1 

Hprtwm (taria 

Vol. I January, A.D. 1963 No. 1 

A Bimonthly Review of Clerical Literature 
Published by the Passionist Fathers 
Province of Saint Paul of the Cross. 

Cum Superiorum permissu 

Ad instar manuscripti 

For private circulation only 

Opinions expressed by contributors do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the editor. 


86-45 178 Street 

Jamaica 32, N. Y. 

Telephone: AXtel 7-0044 

Cable Address: Veecee New York 

(Jan. 1963 issue reprinted in response to popular demand.) 


The establishment of Verbum 
Crucis, a privately circulated bi- 
monthly clerical review under the 
editorship of Father Aloysius 
McDonough, C.P., Prefect of Stud- 
ies, is a new venture in the Province 

of Saint Paul of the Cross. It comes 
to the brethren with full Provincial 
approbation as another aid for 

keeping them informed of significant developments in the field of ec- 
clesiastical studies. 

We are currently passing through one of the great turning points of 
history. Old societies, old customs, old forms of expression are passing 
away and yielding their place to the new. The Church is immersed in 
this world-wide ferment. She is making an intense reexamination of Her 
own traditions, probing more profoundly Her ancient beliefs, seeking to 
understand more clearly the world which Jesus Christ redeemed, and 
considering wiser legislation to meet the needs of our times. 

The world of biblical exegesis is alive with exciting research, as loyal 
sons of the Church, following the clear directives of Leo XIII in Pro- 
videntisshnus Deus and Pius XII in Divino Afjiante Spiritu, keep pre- 
senting us with fresher insights into the grandeur of Divine Revelation. 
Moral theologians, catching fire from this dynamic research of biblical 
scholars and needled into sharper clarifications by recent research in such 
fields as sociology, political philosophy, technology, psychiatry, and 
medicine, are rewriting their manuals. The social upheavals of the past 
century have brought forth a carefully elaborated social doctrine which 
Pope John declares is "an integral part of the Christian concept of life." 

The Church is refashioning Her public worship, retaining the permanent 
tradition but modifying the external garments. Canon Law, confronted 
with multiple problems of ecclesiastical organization in order to meet 
new conditions, is also in process of redevelopment. Literature, drama, 
radio, television, movies, all mass media of expression, are in ferment 
as the Kingdom of God engages and clashes with the powers of this world 
and struggles to give direction to the age of the future. 

Today, the busy priest feels it is impossible to keep abreast of all these 
significant developments. Even the digests keep multiplying and we cur- 
rently have such publications as Theology Digest, Family Digest, Social 


Action Digest, and the so-called Catholic Digest. We have biblical digests 
such as The Bible Today, and ecclesiastical study digests such as Chicago 
Studies. Excellent journals, too numerous to mention here, treat the above 
subjects more in depth. 

Confronted with this current avalanche of information, we feel sure that 
the busy Passionist will feel grateful for periodic, friendly tips from our 
brethren who, by assignment, are continually immersed in these develop- 
ments. The Lectors of the Province are in a favored position to direct our 
attention to more significant articles and to their import. We have asked 
them to keep us posted, not with another flood of lengthy, technical 
articles, but with brief, meaty notes, informing us of recent important 
opinions, insights, and decisions, and telling us where we can find further 
information. In doing this, they propose to keep in mind the special needs 
of our apostolate, as we seek to comprehend this rapidly changing world 
in the divine light of the wisdom of the cross. 

Vade — felix libellus ! Ad multos annos ! 

— Gerard Rooney, C.P. 

The dominant motif of this 
column is indelible appreciation — to -p J • |. ftf .J a | 

Father Provincial, for his sponsor- 
ship of Verbum Crucis in general, 

and in particular for his guest 

editorial; to all and each of our contributing editors, for their efficient 
and gracious cooperation; to our very many well-wishers, at home and 
abroad, for their encouragement. 

Likening our bimonthly to a trial balloon, we have been on the 
launching pad since October last. Now ready to go into orbit, we pray 
that we gain and maintain altitude, that unfavorable conditions do not 
ground us. From all gremlins, deliver us, O Lord ! 

Our readers will be interested in salient excerpts, from communiques 
addressed to the contributing editors of VC. 

October 1 7 — Purpose and benefit to the Province: An educational accom- 
modation for the Brethren, many of whom do not have access to all 

clerical literature, and most of whom are too busy to keep au courant. VC 
should clarify and extend horizons of clerical thought, expedite the 
process, and also whet intellectual appetites. 

Reason for the title Verbum Cruch: To give the review a Passionistic 
aura. That aura typifies our ratio existentiae as a community. Each issue 
will feature a vignette on the Sacred Passion. 

Sources: Publications carrying items of outstanding significance to priests 
and clerical students. Utilization of Sources: To list and to appraise with 
as much brevity as clarity will permit. 

From the Celian Hill: Roman correspondents will cover the Council; 
and, as soon as the ink is dry, will redact for our purpose, the latest issues 
of Acta Apostolic ae Sedis, Acta Congregationis Nostrae, et at. 

November 18 — The success of VC will depend, for the most part, upon 
the contributing editors. In ratio to our success, we can render the Brethren 
a unique service, and further our educational renaissance. 

December 2 — "The purpose (of the publication) is to relay brief notes, 
consisting at most of a few paragraphs, covering recent, significant de- 
velopments. These notes are to be accompanied with suggested reading, 
of the kind readily available to and readable by the average busy monk. 
The 'average, busy monk' is to be the main beneficiary." (Provincial) 

In the pioneer days of The Sign, Father Harold Purcell featured a 
department entitled: "Brickbats & Bouquets." We expect both brickbats 
and bouquets — send them in! And you are invited to send in to VC, 
problems or questions of general interest, for discussion under Ouaestiones 

S. v., b. e. V. 

— AMcD 

Worth reading, and then rereading — by both students and teachers: 
"Docility and the Student," by Joseph L. Lennon, O.P. ; Columbia, 
December, 1962. 

Saint Paul 
of the Cross Passiology 

According to the Mind 
of the Liturgy 

"O Lord Jesus Christ, who didst endow holy Paul with rare 
charity, for preaching the mystery of the cross, and willed that 
through him a new family should flourish in the Church, grant, 
that through his intercession we may bear thy Passion ever in 
mind on earth and be deemed worthy to receive its fruit in 
heaven. Who liveth and reigneth in the unity of the Holy Spirit, 
God, forever and ever. Amen." 

Since Pope Damasus, in the last half of the fourth century, the Collect 
has been both the lock and the key to the liturgical commemoration of 
mysteries, seasons, and saints. The term Collect connotes the exact idea 
of the Greek synaxis and refers originally to the assembly of the faithful 
for divine service, especially the Station days in the Roman churches. 
In this sense it referred to preliminary celebrations before the Mass proper. 
In time, as these preliminaries diminished in length and importance, the 
term applied to the first public prayer made by the celebrant in the name 
of the people and by the commission of Holy Church. 

The Collect is the key to the daily liturgy, since it is a petition for 
the grace of the day. It is also a link or a lock since it ordinarily ties in 
each hour of the divine office with the Mass liturgy of the day. In form, 
the Collect is truly and purely Roman. Hence, no counterpart for it in the 
Eastern liturgies. Its terseness and businesslike approach moves one writer 
to attest: "Nothing in the missal is so redolent of the character of our 
rite, nothing so Roman as the old Collects — and nothing, alas, so little 
Roman as the new ones." 

The form of the Collect is stylized, formal and periodic. We have the 
address, the dependent clause, the petition (usually in antithesis), and the 

The address is invariably directed to the Father as Deus. It is St. Thomas 
Aquinas who initiates the few exceptional variants directed to the Son, 
Jesus, because the mystery or personage has an especially close relation 

to the Incarnation. The dependent clause introduced by qui or quia gives 
the reason for the petition. The petition proper picks up the basis estab- 
lished in the preceding and begs a present grace and a future reward. 
The conclusion is always Trinitarian in one or other accepted form. 

Despite the cavalier dismissal of the entire Mass of the feast of St. Paul 
of the Cross by one eminent English liturgist, as being a poorly assembled 
collection of unrelated parts, let us meditate on the Collect of the Mass 
of our Holy Father and Founder. 

Liturgically, it follows perfect form. Because of St. Paul's intimate con- 
nection with the Passion, it is addressed to the Lord Jesus Christ. The 
basis for the petition is that Christ Himself gave an outstanding love to 
His servant that he might preach the Passion, and yet more, through him 
the same Christ willed that a new family should flourish in the Church. 
(In this phrase liturgically, historically and juridically significant is the 
fact that our Congregation is flourishing, contrary to the fears of the faith- 
ful Brethren and the cants of the cynical!) The petition is that through 
the intercession of St. Paul of the Cross we may presently on earth be 
continually mindful of His Passion, so that in future in heaven we may 
merit its fruit. The conclusion is the customary Trinitarian apostrophe. 

Here in two incisive phrases the life, work, spirit, and vocation of St. 
Paul of the Cross are both condensed and extended for all to learn. 

As Passionists, we see the demands of our own vocation clearly manifest. 
Our need for rare charity toward God and neighbor, if we are to preach 
the Passion by word, in missions, retreats, novenas, etc. ; or in the written 
word in our own publications or others; and if we are to extend the 
Congregation interiorly by an increase of unity and community spirit, as 
well as exteriorly by an extension of its influence, through worthy labors, 
and increment of vocations. In this prayer we also beg for our own 
perfection by a continual remembrance of the Passion within ourselves, 
and just as grace is the seed of glory, so too the constant memory of 
the Passion on earth is the germ of participation in the Resurrection of 
Jesus for all eternity. 

— Jude Mead, C.P., M.A. 

'The badge of intellect is a question mark." (Quote) 


Certainly one of the highlights of 
the First Session of II Vatican Coun- 
cil was the debate on the Sources 
of Divine Revelation. As one 

Bishop, recently returned from the 1 neology 

Council, remarked: "It sent us 
scurrying for our theology books!" 
It is now familiar news how Pope 
John XXIII terminated the discus- 
sion on Nov. 21, and ruled that the controversial draft should be re- 
written by a special commission. All anxiously await the final clarification 
of the Council. 

As regards this debate, it is important to note that the Fathers of the 
Council were concerned not so much with the content of the proposal 
as the proper formulation of it, so as to take into consideration recent 
developments in this particular field. For a concise and general under- 
standing of the problem involved, we recommend the following two 
articles: "The Council and the Sources of Revelation" by Avery Dulles, 
S.J., in America, Dec. 1, 1962; and, "Turning Point at the Council" by 
Gregory Baum in Commonweal, Dec. 21, 1962. The general tenor of 
both articles shows that the authors side with the "Progressives" of the 

The debate, as Father Dulles points out, is concerned in general with 
the nature of Revelation, and the sources of Christian Doctrine. More 
specifically, it regards the precise relationship between Sacred Scripture 
and Tradition. The question is: Are Scripture and Tradition two different 
ways by which a single truth is transmitted to us, or rather have they a 
distinct content in such wise that certain truths are transmitted by 
Scripture while other revealed truths, omitted by Scripture, are given us 
by Tradition alone? The original text of the Council stressed the distinc- 
tiveness of the two sources. The objectors demanded an entirely new text 
which would express the common qualities of the sources, and thus give 
the project an ecumenical value. 

Everyone accepts as basic this definition of the Council of Trent (DB 
783) : Supernatural revelation is "contained in the written books and in 
the unwritten tradition that the apostles received from Christ Himself 
and that was handed on, as it were from hand to hand, from the Apostles 
under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, and so has come down to us." 

In the course of the years the meaning of "unwritten tradition" became 
clearer, so that today it is understood as the communication by the teaching 
Church of the revelation made by Christ and His Spirit to the Apostles. 
Note that this concept includes three very important elements: (1) the 
doctrines taught; (2) the act of teaching; (3) the Church as the agent 
of the teaching. (Cf. Burghardt, S.J., "The Catholic Concept of 
Tradition," Proceedings of the Catholic Theological Society of America, 
1951). More in detail, these ideas are part of the present understanding 
of Tradition. Between present traditions and the past there is no difference 
relative to the doctrine taught — both are the same. However, with regard 
to the act of teaching, there can be growth and progress, precisely because 
of the vital character of the teacher. The body of men who make up the 
magisterium changes with successive generations. Thus, the acts by which 
these men communicate the revealed truth to each age are vital expressions 
of a present consciousness and understanding of the revealed doctrine 
that is preserved and nourished in them by the Holy Spirit. So the growth 
in the Church's consciousness in her presentation of it are the measure of 
the growth and progress possible in Tradition. 

Because Tradition is a living, present thing, it follows that it does 
not need to be discovered in the past. The Positive Theologian may very 
well study the traditions of the past centuries and demonstrate its con- 
formity with traditions of the present century. But Tradition now in the 
20th century is not the mere repetition of ancient or medieval formulae, 
but the present manifestation of the revealed truth that the Church's 
teaching authority holds fresh in its consciousness. 

Understanding all this we can now move on to the precise problem of 
what is the relationship between Sacred Scripture and Tradition? (Cf. 
Owens, "Is all Revelation Contained in Sacred Scripture?", Studia Montis 
Regis, 1958.) This is the area in which the theologians disagree and 
dispute. We can summarize the opinions as follows : 

(1) Some theologians maintain that revelation is contained totally in 
Tradition, and partially in Sacred Scripture. (Van Noort, Michel, 
Bainvel, Franzelin, Yelle, Vacant) 

(2) Others place revelation partially in Sacred Scripture and partially 
in Tradition. Thus Tradition is a vessel independent of and sup- 
plementary to Scripture. (Bellarmine, Canisius, Cane) 

(3) Finally, others consider Scripture and Tradition as two aspects of 

a single source, rather than two special deposits. All revelation is 
contained in Scripture, while at the same time Scripture never dis- 
closes its full meaning unless read in the atmosphere of an 
authentic tradition. Modern writers thus speak of the coinherence 
of Scripture and Tradition. They maintain that apart from the 
Church, the Bible does not disclose its full meaning. The New 
Testament was, after all, the crystallization produced by the Spirit 
of the apostolic preaching, and hence it was intended to be read, 
announced and understood within the apostolic community. There 
was, moreover, the guarantee given by our Lord that, this com- 
munity built upon the Apostles would always have the Spirit 
with it, explaining the meaning of the Gospel and giving greater 
insight into the mysteries contained in it. Apart from this Tradition, 
Scripture is not the Word of God in the full sense. 

At the same time — and this is strongly emphasized by the modern 
writers — Tradition, alive in the Church, is basically the understanding, 
guided by the Spirit, of the apostolic preaching as found in Scripture. 
Tradition is never, therefore, independent of Scripture. Tradition is 
pervaded by Scripture, it preaches Scripture. For this reason it is the task of 
the magisterium to see to it that the Church's preaching is constantly 
nourished by Scripture, purified and revivified, deepened and made more 
powerful with Scripture. Thus it is that Tradition coinheres with Scripture. 

How future sessions of the Council will formuate its solution to the 
problem remains to be seen. 


Schongen G., "Tradition and Apostolic Preaching," Theology Digest, Vol. 

1, no. 2, 1953, pp. 88-91. 
Dejaifve G., "Scripture, Tradition and the Church," Theology Digest, 

Vol. IV, no. 2, 1958, pp. 67-72. 
Geiselmann J., "Scripture and Tradition in Catholic Theology," Theology 

Digest, Vol. IV, no. 2, 1958, pp. 73-78. 

— Norman Demeck, C.P., S.T.L. 

"Send me a man who readsl" (Christopher Kraft, Director, Project 

Dogmatic Theology 

Nature of Theology 

Cwiekowski, F. J., S.S., "Biblical Theology as Historical Theology" The 
Catholic Biblical Quarterly 24 (1962) pp. 404-411. 

Interesting effort to define the place and scope of this new field of 
theology. Footnotes show the difficulty of the problem and the uncer- 
tainty of the solution. As also does E. H. Maly in reviewing Stanley's 
"Christ's Resurrection in Pauline Soteriology" in Theological Studies 
23 (1962) p. 654, where he notes the need of the biblical theologian 
to translate Semitic thought-patterns into those which are meaningful 
for modern man — hence to rationalize. 

Nicolas, J.-H., O.P., "One Theology or Many" Theology Digest 10 
(1962) pp. 209-214. 

Variety of theological systems tempts one to withdraw to Denzinger 
and the Bible. Such would be destructive of the basic need of thinking 
man to "understand" the faith. N. notes partiality of our best systems, 
but their indispensableness also. 


Congar, Y., O.P., "Constant Self-Renewal in the Church" Theology 

Digest 10 (1962) pp. 184-188. 
Cren, P.-R., O.P., "Du reformable et de l'irreformable dans l'figlise" 

Lumiere et vie n. 59, pp. 73-93. 

Two of the many minds of the Church stimulated by the prospect of 

a Council that is to reform and renew the face of the Church. Both 

are practical and humble in their suggestions. 
Liege, P.- A., O.P., "Quand le monde questionne l'figlise" Lumiere et vie 

n. 59, pp. 57-72. 

Counsels against the naive optimism that sees all modernizing change 

as per se desirable, and also against the oversimplifying pessimism that 

sees the world as wholly sinful as long as its complete conversion is 

delayed. L. discusses the values of 20th century secular society that are 

open to the Gospel and that the Church must listen to, embrace and 

elevate if the Gospel is to be incarnate in our time. 

PP. John XXIII, "Rendre a l'figlise la splendeur des traits de sa jeunesse" 
Lumiere et vie n. 59, pp. 5-20. 

A collection of texts from messages and encyclicals of Pope — pre- 
cisely those sections that emphasize purifying, reforming and rejuvenat- 
ing task of the Council. May be very useful to any of our preachers in 
their effort to revive Christian sense. 

Journet, C, "Who Are Members of the Church?" Theology Digest 10 
(1962) pp. 179-183. 

The structure of the Church and the relation of non-Catholics to it 
receives lucid treatment from J. who has long defended the realism 
and orthodoxy of maintaining that all who receive the influence of 
Christ's grace are somehow members of the visible Church. Since the 
remarks of Cardinal Bea (cf. Theology Digest 10 (1962) p. 214), his 
view adds another extrinsic probability to its already great intrinsic 
probability. On the same matter, see: St. John, H., O.P., "Our Sepa- 
rated Brethren" Worship 37 (1962) pp. 74-83. 

Hanahoe, E. F., S.A., "Ecclesiology and Ecumenism" The American 
Ecclesiastical Review 147 (1962) pp. 226-242; 319-337. 

In its role as arch-conservative advocatus diaboli, the AER has another 
article on ecumenism. Unassailable when it declares that the theological 
principles of ecclesiology are normative for a sound ecumenism, and 
that the magisterium is normative for all theology. However, H.'s 
firm rejection of "imprudent irenicism" has the overtone of questioning 
the prudence of any brotherly move that is not proximately ordered to 
conversion. This leaves no room for a Cardinal Bea or a Msgr. Willi- 
brands. It is downright unjust to say in criticism of the rival Unity 
Octave of the Abbe Paul Couturier: "It might be unjust to suggest that 
the Abbe denies Catholic teaching." 

Rahner, Karl, whose fame is spreading (cf. Time, Dec. 12, 1962), has 
his stimulating potpourri Theological Investigations reviewed by the 
highly respected Cornelius Williams, O.P. in The Thomist 25 (1962) 
pp. 448-452. This review is hardly enthusiastic. 


McKenzie, J. L., S.J., "Pastoral Apologetics and Modern Exegesis" 
Chicago Studies 1 (1962). 

False view of 19th century historicism has influenced the apolo- 
getics of our manuals. It collapses in the face of widely-accepted views 


of contemporary exegesis. McK.'s article is clear and well-ordered and 
can be very helpful in keeping things in focus for preachers, pastors 


Frisque, J., "Priest and Laymen in the Church" Perspectives Sept.-Oct. 
(1962) pp. 138-145. 

Important article for those who preach lay retreats, direct confra- 
ternities, parish societies, etc. What is the role of the layman? Is he 
not to bear witness by authentically embracing and transforming the 
world as it is, rather than merely using it extrinsically, directing it to 
religious guidance of souls? An editorial on p. 127 helps spell out 
significance of the article. 

Foster, J., "The Culture of the Feelings" The Clergy Review 47 (1962) 
pp. 641-668. 

Another plea for the need to incarnate the life of grace in the im- 
mediate situation of the world environment. 


Motherway, T. J., S.J., "Adam and the Theologians" Chicago Studies 1 
(1962) pp. 115-132. 

Evolution questions are old chestnuts for retreat houses. Interesting 
study of the state of "safe" limits imposed by te peculiaris creatio 
hominis" as determined by a survey of the consensus theologorum. The 
opinion which would confine the direct action of God to the production 
of a soul infused into an already living organized body is regarded as 
unsafe. Indeed, it seems that the opinion is not only unsafe, but 
absurd, for the question is metaphysical; and how could the complete 
and ultimate disposition in matter escape the direct action of Him who 
is the sole creator of the form? 

Teilhard de Chardin, the evolutionary anthropologist whose works 
were the object of a "Monitum" 30 June 1962. 

The commentary on the monitum, printed in Osservatore Romano 
and circulated in translation to Rectors of Seminaries by order of the 
Apostolic Delegate, states clearly the errors in the words of T. Fr. G. 
Isaye, S.J., (in Nouvelle Revue Theologique 94 (1962) pp. 866-869), 
approaches the problem in a more irenic vein, noting the valid intuitions 
that T. offers to the study of a competent theologian. 



Moell, C J., S.J., "The Christ We Worship" Chicago Studies 1 (1962) 
pp. 144-157. 

Interesting article noting the success with which the Liturgy avoids 
the pitfalls into which private devotion and popular preaching some- 
times fall, when attempting to cope with the mystery of the Redeeming 
Incarnation. Summarized on pp. 156-157. 

Lyonnet, S., S.J., ''Scriptural Meaning of Expiation" Theology Digest 
10 (1962) pp. 227-232. 

Superb piece of biblical theology. Can't be recommended too highly. 
Should clarify some thinking on reparation and sacrifice which too 
often is made to sound like an "appeasing" of God. 

Fransen, P., S.J., "Sacraments, Signs of Faith" Worship 37 (1962) 
pp. 31-49. 

Sacramental theology has been getting some refreshing rethinking 
which manifests the wealth of the sacramental system in the framework 
of an enriched view of the Mystical Body and of sanctifying grace. 
These insights should be more reflected in popular preaching. This 
article is excellent, though it is marred by some anti-scholastic "grow- 
ing pains." I might respectfully suggest that any of the brethren who 
finished their dogmatic study of the sacraments a decade ago will find 
their view broadened by a study of: 

Roguet, A.-M., O.P. Christ Acts Through Sacraments (Liturgical 

Press, Collegeville) pp. 162. $1.25 
Louvel, F., O.P., & Putz, L. J., C.S.C., Signs of Life (Fides) 

pp. 155 $0.95 
Schillebeeck, E. H., O.P., Le Christ, sacrement de la rencontre de 

Dieu (Sheed & Ward promises a translation soon.) 

O'Neill, O. P., "Extreme Unction: Suffering in Christ" Doctrine and 
Life 12 (1962) pp. 501-508. 

Concluding the provocative series of articles on the sacraments this 
review has carried. Useful insights on redemption of body, theology of 
suffering. Carefully avoids excessive or fringe opinions, such as that 
which makes it a visa through Purgatory. First-rate popularization. 

— Cronan Regan, C.P., S.T.D. 

Morality of Periodic Moral 

Continence Theology 

There is an article in Theological Studies, December 1962, on Periodic 
Continence written by Fathers John C. Ford, S.J., and Gerald Kelley, S.J., 
which should be of great interest to any priest who is seeking a clear 
picture of the morality of this practice. So much has been written on this 
subject that it might seem superfluous to deal with it again. However, 
consciences are de facto confused about the use of rhythm. Speculative 
opinions are proposed in press and pulpit as if they were binding on the 
consciences of the faithful. Following such opinions, obligations under 
pain of sin, even of mortal sin, are sometimes unjustifiably imposed in the 
confessional. Marriage counselors, physicians, and priests fail, at times, 
to distinguish between these theological opinions and the teaching of the 
Church. This has resulted in widespread confusion and consequent harm 
to souls. The article under discussion goes a long way towards dispelling 
this confusion. 

In the first section, the authors survey the theological state of the ques- 
tion prior to the Allocution of Pius XII to Obstetrical Nurses, October 
28, 1951. The second section explains and comments on Pius XII's 
teaching on periodic continence contained in that Allocution. The pur- 
pose of the authors throughout is to lay the foundation for a pastoral 
practice which does justice to the sanctity and meaning of marriage, to 
the moral teaching of the Church, and to the right of the faithful to know 
the difference between that teaching and the mere private opinions of 

Of special significance is the authors' treatment of "the duty to pro- 
create," as enunciated by Pope Pius XII in the above-mentioned Allocu- 
tion. This teaching was the cause of some surprise and has been the 
source of much theological discussion. The statement was made at a time 
when the majority of theologians were teaching that individual couples 
do not have a duty to procreate, and at a time when no such duty seemed 
necessary to provide for the conservation of the race. And though, from 
the viewpoint of theology, the statement of Pope Pius was a most signifi- 


cant development, it was made, not in an encyclical letter or some simi- 
larly imposing document, but in an address given in the vernacular to a 
group of laywomen. Because of various circumstances the papal teaching 
came as a surprise to many. But surprising or not, and prescinding from 
the degree of solemnity or authority which attaches to it, it is now the 
accepted theological position and has been the object of much discussion. 
The authors have given a clear and enlightening treatment of the various 
theological opinions that have revolved around this teaching. Among the 
questions currently debated and discussed in this article are the following: 

(1) Whether the basis for the duty to procreate is the married state 
itself or only the use of marriage; 

(2) What are the virtues or virtue that inculcates the obligation — 
piety, justice, or chastity; 

(3) Whether the duty is limited only by excusing cause, or is fulfilled 
when a certain number of children is reached; 

(4) Whether it is a grave obligation, binding upon individual couples 
under pain of mortal sin. 

Among many fine points, there is one which the authors stress which 
is of practical pastoral importance. It is by no means uncommon for some 
priests to insist that the existence of a grave reason for the practice of 
periodic continence binds individual couples sub gravi. Such a position 
can hardly be squared with the sound and proper use of probabilism. 
Perhaps some reflection on the conclusion of their article might avert or 
correct excessive rigorism in this matter: "In helping married people to 
make a decision as to the lawfulness of using rhythm, it seems much more 
important to make sure that their consent is truly mutual, and that they 
are able to practice it without serious dangers to chastity or marital har- 
mony and family welfare, rather than to inquire meticulously into the 
justifying reasons. After all, they are almost always the best judges of the 
reasons they may have for spacing their children or limiting their family 
by these means, and it was Pius XII himself who said that the limits 
within which these means are permissible are quite broad." 

— Bertin Farrell, C.P., S.T.D. 

"They who learn nothing from the past are doomed to repeat it." 



Medical — Moral 

John Cavanaugh, M.D., "How 

Pastoral Reliable is Rhythm?" — Marriage, 

November, 1962. An article typical 

1 JlCOlOgy of a current rash of writing on 

rhythm. Basal temperature, glucose 

testing, calendar, etc. All lack the 
'fail-safe' element. Pregnancy risk 
in rhythm is 14.4%. "The missing 
link in rhythm cycle is date of 

Along this line, electronic vagi- 
nometer described in N.Y. Times (11/29/62) may be the hoped for 
breakthrough. (In experimental stage at Massachusetts General Hospital 
for few years.) One unpublicized result is the finding that the 14-day 
constant factor (between ovulation and menstruation) is now considered 
to be 20 days. May account for rhythm babies. 

T.L. "Reviews," The Irish Ecclesiastical Record, Nov., 1962; reviews 
McFadden, Medical Ethics, 5th edition. New edition well done; omits 
extensive treatment of some age old topics and deals with modern prob- 
lems: "In no department does the application of moral principles to life 
appear to be as thorough as in medical ethics. Problems turn up, are 
debated, solved and become part of the received teaching; others take 
their place .... The result is a thoroughly readable text book which is 

E. Laforet, M.D., "Current Literature," Linacre Quarterly, Nov. 1962, 
writes 4 pages of references and abstracts to current medical-moral 
literature ! 

Pastoral Psychology 

Sister Helen James John, S.N.D., "The Wide-Eyed Young," America 
(11/10/62) p. 1032, Professor of Philosophy at Trinity College, writes 
on the encounter with truth of self-assured collegians: ". . . believe in 
the infallibility of practically everyone . . . , they want truth, not just 
more of what someone says . ..." A first-class study of the paradoxes 
involved in adolescent psychology and the problems of communicating to 
this knowing and/or believing mind. 

G. Winter, "Modern Man's Milieu," Christian Century, 1/17/62, p. 
1355. Is a review of B. Bethelheims, The Informed Heart — ". . . Funda- 


mental in mass society is the individual's discovery of his own personal 
grounds in freedom and spontaneity; i.e., a reflective discovery of his 
unique identity . . . ." This seems to be the type of book that makes us 
realize that the 'Purpose of Life' talk is far from being irrelevant. 

J. Foster, "The Culture of the Feelings," Clergy Review, November 
1962. This is a 27-page article on the inenicaciousness of sterile knowl- 
edge. It is useless to perpetuate a teaching technique devoid of sensitivity 
to the total person. We must understand how he feels, and why he feels 
and what he feels for: "Culture of the feelings cannot even be initiated 
if there is felt no need to work within the actuality of people's lives." 
This is a most provocative article and is highly recommended for writers 
of sermons. 

Francis Braceland, M.D., NY. Times Book Review, 11/18/62, p. 46, 
reviewing Erick Fromm, The Art of Loving, in a new paperback edition 
says that "real love is a power which breaks through walls which separate 
men; and its active character lies in giving, not receiving. A fine, much 
needed work by a wise man." Another work even more highly recom- 
mended would be the new paperback edition of Cardinal Suenens, Love 
and Control (Newman). 

P. J. Rice, review of M. Gross, The Brain Watchers in America 12/8/ 
62 p. 1227) ". . . frenzied book ... is an insult to respectable psy- 
chologists. Is an expose of the sort associated with yellow journalism. Is 
an 'analysis of the psychological testing industry' .... The quackery that 
has attached itself deserves whatever castigation it gets .... BUT this 
is a lopsided product out of place on same shelf with fine psychological 

T. Dubay, S.M., "Psychological Needs in the Religious Context," 
Review for Religious, November 1962. Not only should a religious' 
physical needs be met in the religious life but also his psychological needs. 
These are, very briefly: 1) sense of personal worth; 2) sense of achieve- 
ment or accomplishment. And, to these needs there is a corresponding 
obligation on superiors to recognize these and further them. This is an 
excellent article in an issue that is heavy with Pastoral Psychology. There 
are two other good articles, "Self Acceptance and Religious Security" and, 
"Interpersonal Relations." Several books reviewed should be in each 
monastery library: Vaughn, Mental Illness and the Religious Life (Bruce) ; 
"Many misconceptions about mental illness have been abolished . . . 
however, this change of attitude has not influenced the thinking of priests 


and religious as it ought." . . . Snoeck, Confession and Pastoral Psy- 
chology (Newman), "... most useful single volume . . . ." 

Freud — a new movie appearing in most big cities has received a 'sepa- 
rate classification' by the Legion of Decency. It might help to quote the 
reason for this: "Directed with sensitive restraint and regard for good 
taste . . . dramatizes the first third of his career . . . would suggest to 
layman that thinking never moved beyond the pansexualism emphasized 
in the film." 



"Modern Approach" 
Scri P ture to the Gospels 

Before the Gospels, there was the Gospel! The Church recounted the 
wonderful works of Jesus, His Passion and Resurrection, and proclaimed 
her faith in the significance of those events for a generation before the 
writing of the first of our four canonical Gospels. The written Gospels 
were occasioned by the desire and the need to preserve this apostolic testi- 
mony to Christ the Lord. 

For years the attention of Gospel students was centered on the Synoptic 
Problem, seeking an explanation of the concordia discors of the first 
three Gospels. It was accepted as axiomatic by most non-catholic scholars 
that Mark is the oldest of the canonical Gospels and that Matthew and 
Luke depend on Mark, and on a postulated written collection of Sayings 
of Jesus, called simply "Q." Many Catholic scholars of the first rank, such 
as Pere Lagrange, accepted this hypothesis, called The Two Source Theory, 
on condition that "Q" was identified with the primitive Aramaic Gospel 
attributed by early tradition to the Apostle St. Matthew. 

At the end of World War I, Martin Dibelius and Rudolph Bultmann, 
working independently, developed a new approach to the Synoptic Gospels, 
called by Dibelius Formgeschichte, rendered in English Formcriticism. 
Formcriticism stresses the relation of the written gospels to the Church. 
The evangelists drew their material from the preaching and teaching of 
the Church, placing in a framework of their own creation, individual units 


which had already been formed to meet the apologetic, didactic, cate- 
chetical and liturgical needs of the Church. The work of the original 
Formcritics was vitiated by their theory on the Creative Community and 
their conclusion that the Christ of Christian faith is not the Jesus of 
History. Both these conclusions, however, flow from a philosophical 
prejudice and not from the critical method of the scholars. 

Many modern Catholic biblical scholars recognize the validity of the 
Formcritical method and use it in their endeavors to reconstruct the his- 
tory of the formation of the gospels. It has been very helpful in enabling 
the exegete to discover the precise nuance of many Gospel pericopes. 
From the viewpoint of Apologetics it has also been of great service. Form- 
criticism has led the non-catholic world of biblical and theological 
scholarship to recognize what we Catholics have always stressed: the 
priority of the teaching Church to the Book. The New Testament is the 
expression of the Church's teaching and faith! 

In the Gospels we have the sayings and deeds of Jesus as they were used 
by the Church in her preaching, teaching, catechetics and liturgy. The 
framework in which these forms are placed is the work of the individual 
evangelists, who have put the stamp of their own personalities and the- 
ological perspectives on the material they drew from the Church's tradi- 
tion. Since World War II, a new school of non-catholic scholarship, 
called Redaction Criticism, has been insisting on the individuality of each 
Evangelist's theological outlook, a truth always stressed by Pere Lagrange. 

A balanced study of the Gospels must take into consideration the sound 
principles of both Form and Redaction Criticisms. We must distinguish 
three stages in the transmission of the Gospel material: 1) the words and 
deeds of Jesus; 2) The Church's use and application of Jesus' sayings and 
deeds; 3) the presentation and use of this material by the individual 
evangelists. It is this last stage which God has inspired to be written for 
the nourishment of our faith and spiritual life. This, therefore, and not 
a harmony of the Gospels or an attempt to compose a biography of Jesus, 
must be the first object of a Christian study of the Gospels. "A harmony," 
writes Canon Cerfaux, in his beautiful book La Voix Vivante de I'Evan- 
gile, "necessarily sacrifices the individual character of each of the evan- 
gelists .... Each of them traces an authentic portrait of Jesus. To mingle 
their characteristics is to introduce into the divine work a human concept, 
a choice necessarily personal and arbitrary." A harmony tries to create a 
photograph from four inspired portraits. Let us study each of the por- 


traits so that we may learn the sublime vision each of the artists had of 
the divine Master and Lord. 

Read: "The Gospels in the Light of Modern Research," Barnabas 
Ahern, C.P. Chicago Studies, Vol. I, No. 1, Spring 1962, pp. 5-16; "The 
Preacher and the Historical Witness of the Gospels," Francis J. McCool, 
S.J., Theological Studies 21, I960, pp. 517-543; "Towards Understanding 
the Gospels," V. T. O'Keefe, S.J., Catholic Biblical Quarterly 21, 1959, 
pp. 171-189; "Faith, Reason and the Gospels," edited by John J. Heaney, 
SJ. ; Newman, 1961; New Testament Reading Guide, 1, "Introduction 
to the New Testament," Roderick MacKenzie, S.J., The Liturgical Press 

—Richard Kugelman, C.P., S.T.L., S.S.L. 

Declaration of the General Curia 

Applying the general principles CanOll Law 

contained in Canons 22 and 23, 

the General Curia has formally de- 
clared that until the new Regu- 
lations of the Congregation are 

approved and promulgated, the present Regulations retain their force, 
those matters excepted which have been abrogated or reordered by the 
Revised Rules and Constitutions. 

9 October 1962 

Acta Congregations, XXII (1962), 

p. 195 

Dictionarium Morale et Canonicum 

Edited by P. Palazzini, Vol. I, Catholic Book Agency, Rome. The first 
volume of this long-promised dictionary, A — C, is now in print, and 
generally speaking is what it purports to be. For clear, concise definitions 
and succinct treatment of a particular topic in Moral Theology or Canon 
Law, it will be an invaluable reference work in any library. One decided 
drawback: only the first volume is ready and that has been in preparation 
for over two years; next volume will be ready "soon" ! Also, price is high: 
$30.00 per volume. Present binding is poor; will have to be rebound 
for reference work. 


Decree of the Sacred Penitentiary 

Indulgences granted for offering of pain and suffering: Our Holy 
Father, John XXIII, desirous that spiritual fruit accrue to those souls 
who suffer humbly in union with Christ whatever crosses come to them 
from the hand of God, has granted the following indulgences: 

Plenary (under the usual conditions) to be gained by all the faithful 
who daily offer to God their sufferings, whether these be physical or 
mental. They may use any formula of offering. A confessor may commute 
the conditions necessary for gaining the indulgence for those who would 
be legitimately detained from gaining it otherwise, in accordance with 
Canon 935. 

Partial indulgence of 500 days for the faithful, whenever they offer any 
present sorrow or pain by some pious aspiration. 

Ferdinand Cardinal Cento, Penh. Maior 
4 June 1962 (AAS, LIV 1962, p. 475) 

Decree of the Sacred Cong, of Rites 

Beginning December 8, 1962, the name of St. Joseph will be placed in 
the Communic antes of the Canon of the Mass, in accordance with the 
directions of His Holiness, Pope John XXIII. 

The insertion follows the name of the Blessed Mother, and reads as 
follows: "Communicantes, et memoriam venerantes, in primis gloriosae 
semper Virginis Mariae, Genetricis Dei et Domini nostri Jesu Christi: 
sed et Beati Joseph eiusdem Virginis Sponsi et beatorum Apostolorum ac 
Marty rum tuorum . . . ." 

(At this comparatively late date, we embody the above text of the 
decree, because some of our missals, here and there throughout the 
Province, have inaccurate insertions.) 

The Jurist, Oct., 1962, Vol. XXII, No. 4, pp. 448-467: 
An article by Joseph F. Marbach of the Military Ordinariate, entitled: 
" Veterans as Clerical and Religious Candidates: a Word of Caution," is 
well worth the attention of Vocational Directors and others concerned 
with this apostolate. It stresses the importance of an often forgotten 
source of information concerning potential candidates for the religious 
life — namely, military records. Father Marbach cites 105 examples of 
"John Does" whose reports were sent "to astonished rectors and novice 
masters." And these cases are only a sampling! 


Since the Military Vicar is considered the Ordinary of the candidate 
during the latter's time of service, no matter where he is stationed, a 
testimonial letter is required from him in accordance with Canon 544, #2, 
and the instruction of the S. Consistorial Congregation of April 23rd, 
1951 (AAS, XLII (1951), p. 565), i.e., when the candidate has been in 
the service for more than a year. But even with regard to a candidate who 
spent only a short time in the service, although a testimonial letter from 
the Military Ordinary is not required by law, still a questionnaire to the 
M.O. might reveal information pertinent to his qualifications. The office 
of the Military Ordinariate is located at 30 East 51st St., New York 22, 

— Damian Towey, C.P., J.C.L. 

The priest, carrying on the apos- 

tolate of the Word in the modern C^\% \% 

world, must have a "sense of his- 

tory" if he is to effectively carry out HlStOTV 

his work in the milieu in which 

Divine Providence has set him. He 

must, as best he can, understand 

that milieu which has been shaped 

by its historical past. Like the good 

doctor or psychiatrist who is seeking to interpret the symptoms he finds in 

the patient, he must have some acquaintance with the history of the case. 

This need for a "sense of history" in approaching the problems of 
various aspects of life has been recognized by the theologians, who now 
devote a good deal of attention to history as a factor in their theological 
research. Principles, theological and otherwise, remain in the abstract 
unless applied to concrete cases of the historical order. The best periods 
of theology have been those in which theology applies itself to the real 
problems of the times. Men like Father John Courtney Murray, S.J., and 
Gustave Weigel, S.J., to mention only two, realize this and strive to give 
room for the historical consideration in their theological speculations. 

Father John Courtney Murray has applied himself to the work of a 
Catholic interpretation of the American scene in his work We Hold These 
Truths (New York: Sheed & Ward, I960). It is not formal history as 


such, but one cannot escape the sense of American history which pervades 
the book. It was, no doubt, for this reason that the American Catholic 
Historical Association awarded Father Murray the John Gilmary Shea 
Award for this work. It is must reading for priests who would like to cut 
their way through the snares of the liberal-conservative debate of our 
times and take a solid Catholic view of the American scene. 

The contemporary events of the Second Vatican Council also will 
attract the priest's attention to books on the councils. Philip Hughes' The 
Church in Crisis, a History of the General Councils, 325-1870 (New 
York: Hanover House, I960) gives a good general treatment to the sub- 
ject. Three other books are of great interest, not so much as formal 
histories, but for their use of and interpretation of the historical back- 
ground for the Council: Hans Kiing, The Council, Reform and Reunion 
(New York: Sheed & Ward, 1961); Lorenz Jaeger, The Ecumenical 
Council, the Church and Christendom (New York: P. J. Kenedy, 1961), 
and, Henri Daniel-Rops, The Second Vatican Council (New York: Haw- 
thorn, 1962). Of general background interest is Hubert Jedin's A History 
of the Council of Trent, Vol. II: The First Sessions at Trent, 1545-47, 
translated by Dom Ernest Graf, O.S.B. (St. Louis: B. Herder, 1961). 

Other historical works of interest to the priest reader are: Roman 
Catholicism and the American Way of Life edited by Thomas T. McAvoy, 
C.S.C (Notre Dame, Indiana: University Press, I960); E.E.Y. Hales, 
The Catholic Church in the Modern World (New York: Image Books, 
I960) ; M. C. D'Arcy, S.J., The Meaning and Matter of History (New 
York: Meridian, 1961). — Venard Byrne, C.P., H.E.L., Ph.D. 

For many people, philosophy 

simply constitutes a compact unity 

Philosophy anc * mere ty serves the purpose of 

being a helpmate to theology. In a 
work On the Use of Philosophy 

(Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1962, $2.75), 
Jacques Maritain writes of the ways in which philosophy assists one to 
live in the immediate and real world. The three essays of this short work 
are clear statements why the world needs philosophers, and how the 
pursuit of truth and intellectual justice can aid men of different faiths. 
This makes an interesting work for all concerned with the social signifi- 
cance of rational truth. 


In a work of a more technical bent — but not totally so — James Collins 
concerns himself with the problems of unity and diversity in modern 
thought. This work, Three Paths in Philosophy, (Henry Regnery Co., 
Chicago, Illinois, 1962, $7.50) takes the reader through the main path- 
ways in contemporary philosophy, i.e., existentialism, naturalism, and 
theistic realism. The third section on theistic realism will give the reader 
a much broader notion of philosophy than his seminary course did. It 
will help him to appreciate the modern problems relative to a perennial 

Very often in a seminary study of Thomism, a basic understanding of 
other philosophic systems of thought is neglected. Father Harry R. 
Klocker, S.J., in his work Thomism. and Modern Thought (Appleton- 
Century-Crofts, New York, 1962, $4.00), presents a remedy for this 
need. Although written as a text book, this work has not the staccato of 
such ; it makes for easyflowing reading for those with some knowledge of 
St. Thomas ; and the selected readings aid in giving a more extended view 
of the philosophies under consideration. 

Jean Paul Sartre would maintain that the essence of man is found in the 
fact of personal existence. The essence of man is best understood in its 
relationship to the existence of God. This indicates why man is obsessed 
with the idea of God. Father Edward Sillem's work, Ways of Thinking 
About God (Sheed and Ward, New York, 1961, $3.75), discusses the 
demonstrations of St. Thomas and, in an imaginary conversation between 
Aquinas and certain modern philosophers, attempts to show the line on 
which St. Thomas would have conducted the discussions about God's 
existence today. This work represents the proofs in the light of modern 
criticism. In the McAuley Lectures of I960, recently published in book 
form (St. Joseph College, West Hartford, Conn.) Etienne Gilson pre- 
sents a very readable essay on this subject of God's existence, entitled, 
Can the Existence of God Still be Demonstrated? In the third chapter 
of No Absent God (Harper and Row, New York, 1962, $4.50) Father 
Martin D'Arcy considers the same problem. This latter work is especially 
helpful inasmuch as it takes up the modern empirical challenge and shows 
that the acceptance or rejection of God does make a real difference in 
human life. 

In the realm of modern morality two things advocated by Aristotle are 
to a large extent missing, i.e., natural moral virtues, and the concept of a 
natural law morality. These are necessary for any rational moral system. 
Henry B. Veatch's work, Rational Man (Indiana University Press, Bloom- 


ington, 1962, $5) in non-technical language gives a modern interpreta- 
tion of Aristotelian ethics and helps to meet this need. A useful work in 
the explanation of natural morality to any group. 

The following items from some of the reviews make for interesting and 
practical reading on modern philosophical themes: 

"Demographic Revolution, Its Social and Moral Implications" Chicago 
Studies (Mundelein, Illinois, Vol. 1, No. 2, Fall 1962, p. 204). This 
is a consideration of world population that can be most helpful in the 
understanding of the problem of population-explosion. 

"International Social Justice in 'Mater et Magistra'," World Justice 
(Louvain University, Vol. IV, No. 1, Sept. 1962, p. 53). This is a very 
informative article, since "Mater et Magistra" is the first encyclical to deal 
with international social justice among nations. 

"Culture and Morality," The Critic (Thomas More Association, Chi- 
cago, Illinois, Vol. XXI, No. 3, December 1962, p. 15). In this article 
Gerald Vann, O.P., shows the relation and relevance between the notions 
of culture and morality. This is a good article showing that these two 
cannot be separated. 

Philosophy Today (Celina, Ohio, Vol. 6, No. 2/4). This entire volume 
dated Summer 1962 was not actually published until the end of October. 
The entire volume is on the relation of religion and philosophy. The 
article on "Christian Philosophy," p. 133, is of special interest. 

—John J. Reardon, C.P., Ph.D. 

_ Morality and Business, by Henry 

J- Wirtenberger, S.J. The author has 
Sociology attempted a textbook for business 

schools but has succeeded in giving 

the preacher and confessor a valu- 
able presentation of the principles of business ethics, a review of actual 
problems and some case studies. (Loyola University Press, No. Ashland 
Ave., Chicago 13, Illinois, $5.00.) 

One Hundred and One Delinquent Girls, by Leo Trese. A sociological 
and statistical analysis of the relative significance of some nine factors 
contributing to the delinquency of the youthful residents of a Good 
Shepherd School. An attempt at the old problem of "Why?" Case studies 
give the book special interest and value. (Fides Publishers, Notre Dame, 
Indiana, $3.95.) 


The Ghetto Game, by Dennis Clark. No Catholic is better informed on 
the problems of the city than this author or more keenly aware of the 
moral dimensions of "urbanization." This is a study of the social, eco- 
nomic, and political realities of city racial conflict. (Sheed and Ward, 64 
University Place, New York 3, N.Y., $4.00.) 

Christianity and Social Progress (Christian Family Movement Study 
Guide). For the parish priest who wants a ready-made program for an 
adult discussion group on the recent Papal socio-economic teaching, this 
is the answer. (Christian Family Movement, 1655 Jackson Blvd., Chicago 
12, 111., $2.00.) 

Primer on Interracial Justice, by Robert Senser. The young and zealous 
former editor of Work gives us first, a theoretical presentation of the 
principles of racial justice and secondly, a program of action for indi- 
viduals and groups. This is a study of America's number one social moral 
problem. (Helicon Press, 1120 No. Calvert St., Baltimore 2, Md., $2.95.) 

Fundamentals of Christian Sociology, by Rev. James Alberione. Soci- 
ology is here understood in the sense of applied social ethics and Catholic 
social doctrine. A brief exposition of the basic principles. (Daughters of 
St. Paul, 50 St. Paul's Ave., Jamaica Plain, Boston 30, Mass., $2.50.) 

The Challenge of Hunger, by Noel Drogat, S.J. There really is a prob- 
lem of "exploding" population in the newly emergent nations. Father 
Drogat, unlike some Catholic writers, honestly attempts to face the task 
of feeding these members of Christ. He offers solutions. I can't person- 
ally feel they are adequate, or entirely realistic in view of the magnitude 
of the problem. 

Latin America — The Eleventh Hour, by Gary MacEvin. The Province is 
already on the threshold of South America. The future may see a greater 
commitment. By the year 2000, one-half of the Catholics in the world 
will be South Americans, or half the Church will have been lost. The 
desperate urgency of the economic, social and religious situation in these 
Catholic countries is here vividly presented. (P. J. Kenedy, 12 Barclay St., 
N.Y., 8, N.Y., $4.50.) 

"The Ethics of Business Enterprise" — The entire Fall issue of the 
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science is 
devoted to a multi-faceted study of existing ethical theory and practice in 
American corporate enterprise. (American Academy, 3937 Chestnut St., 
Philadelphia 4, Penna.) 

The Pyramid Climbers, by Vance Packard. Slick and superficial, but 


beneath all the smoke, there is some fire. The preacher will find a forceful 
presentation of the workings of some of the capital sins in modern man- 
agement practices. (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N.Y., $5.00). 

— Michael J. Brennan, C.P., M.A., Ph.L. 

Vatican Council II 

It would be vain to anticipate ~~ 

the conclusions of the conciliar LitlirffV 

debates on the Liturgy. But basic 
to all the discussions would be ~~~ 

this: the idea and definition of the 

Liturgy. The stress is away from collecting and ordering rubrics and 
toward the broader, theological bases. Focus on the mediation and Priest- 
hood of Christ, the Mystical Body of His faithful, and the influence of 
the Holy Spirit breathing in the Church. The definition having been 
emphasized, then it would be easier to bring rites and rubrics into har- 
mony with the main objectives. 

Articles and Books 

"The Council and Liturgical Reform" is the theme of the Dec. 1962 
issue of WORSHIP magazine (Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minn.). 
The whole issue is especially good, but three articles might be pointed out: 

(1) "Vatican Council II" by Frederick R. McManus is a general 
gathering together of the stray notes we have noticed in the papers 
concerning the liturgical deliberations. 

(2) "Sacraments, Signs of Faith" by Peter Fransen sums up the 
modern trends in sacramental theology in excellent fashion. Two 
opinions which have to do with liturgy concern: 

(a) "The law of appropriation": when the meaning and content 
of a given symbol is too rich to be expressed completely in that 
symbol, human nature supports it with other symbols. Therefore, 
"it is unsound to consider whatever symbolic actions do not belong 
to the 'form and matter' of the sacrament, i.e., to their valid admin- 
istration, as 'mere ceremonies.' They belong to the very structure of 
the sacrament and, even if they can be changed, adapted, abolished 
and omitted in case of necessity, when they are performed, in the 
very act of the liturgical action, they do belong to the integrity of 
the sacrament and they share in its divine dignity and meaning." 

(b) "The law of extension . . . every symbol . . . tends to 
extend itself in similar, although only analogical, symbolic actions." 


Thus the conventual Divine Office, Benediction, Blessed Sacrament 
Processions and Holy Hours, may be seen as extensions of the 
Sacrament of the Eucharist. Therefore, these practices should not 
be deprecated, and the "law of extension" may open the way for 
a more acceptable theology of sacramentals. 

(3) "Ecumenical Orientations" by Hans Kiing discusses the 
priority of liturgical reform in the work of the Council. "A successful 
renewal of the liturgy will be reflected in all the activities of the 
Church. And a successful attempt to give the liturgy a more ecu- 
menical form will be decisive for the cause of reunion." The elements 
of such a reform are then examined in detail. 

"Sacred Ordinations in Gratian's Decretum: The Conferring of the 
Order of Episcopate and of the Order of Presbyterate" by Ladislas Orsy, 
S.J., in the April 1962 issue of The Hey thro p ]ournal (Heythrop College, 
Oxford, England) summarizes: 

(a) It cannot be proved that the difference in the rite of ordination 
is a sign of a difference in Orders; 

(b) Consequently, on this ground, both theories about the distinc- 
tion between Presbyterate and Episcopate are possible; 

(c) The theory of a one indivisible Priesthood offers a better 
explanation of the fact that a Deacon elected Bishop does not need 
to receive the Sacrament of Presbyterate. But it should not be for- 
gotten that this theory is a modern construction, and the fact that 
supports it is of limited importance. 

Taylor, Michael J., S.J., The Protestant Liturgical Revival (West- 
minster, Maryland, Newman, 1962, $5.50). The Catholic view of the 
liturgical renewal taking place in some of the major American Protestant 
churches. Focuses on Sacramental or Eucharistic renewal and innovations. 
Informative and interesting. 

Fellerer, Carl G., The History of Catholic Church Music (trans. 
F. A. Brunner, C.Ss.R., Baltimore, Maryland, Helicon Press, 1962, $7.50). 
A large, informative up-dating of what was an outstanding book. It is 
definitely not of stimulative value to the ordinary seminarian or priest, 
because of its mass of detail and name-dropping, its many musical inser- 
tions (often incorrectly transcribed) and its many inaccuracies. It would 
be valuable, nonetheless, for the priest or seminarian musician. It is not 
the ideal history of Catholic Church Music. 

Lechner-Eisenhofer, The Liturgy of the Roman Rite (New York, 
Herder & Herder, 1962, $8.50). This work is a history book of the 
Roman Rite. It is also the revision and translation of a semi-classic. It is 


encyclopedic in scope and filled with detailed knowledge, references, etc. 
Except for minor points, it is a good history. 


January 13 — The Holy Father 
stated that future generations, look- 
ing back at the Second Vatican FrOttl the 
Council, would admire the respect 
and seriousness with which the 
Conciliar Fathers treated the fun- 
damental realities of life. 

Celian Hill 

Reports re His Holiness' health: Very many and very conflicting. 

Acta Cong. Nostrae: 

Latest Passionist Bishop: Appointed Titular of Polemonio, and Prelate 
Nullius of the new diocese of San Luis de Montes Belos, Brazil — the 
Rev. Stanislaus Van Melis, of Holland. Prior to expulsion by Communists, 
Father Stanislaus spent many years in Bulgaria. After that, at Rome, he 
attained the doctorate at the Oriental Institute; was Provincial of the 
Dutch Province; then, a missionary in Brazil. Consecration, Holland, 
February 2nd. 

Archbishop Peruzzo, C.P., of Agrigento, Sicily, who was on the Prepara- 
tory Commission for the Council, has been elected a member of the The- 
ological Commission. 

Passionist Bishops present at the Council: 

From Italy: Bishops Peruzzo and Batistelli ; 

Africa: Bishops Hagendorens and Pesce; 

Indonesia: Bishop Sillekens; 

U.S.A. Bishop O'Gara; 

Philippines : Bishop Olwell ; 

Argentina : Bishop Deane ; 

Brazil : Bishop Pellanda ; 

Bolivia: Bishop Cibrian ; 

Peru: Bishops Elorza and Olazar. 

Monitor Ecclesiasticus: (Fasc. II: 1962) Augustinus Pugliese reviews 


two works of Father Ladislaus Ravasi, C.P., of the Sacred Congregation 
of Religious: 

(a) De Vocatione Keligiosa et Sacerdotal/, Romae, 1957, pp. 272; 

(b) Pontes et Bibliographiae, de Vocatione Keligiosa et Sacerdotali, 
Romae, 1961, pp. 136. 

Reviewer praises Father Ladislaus' work as a valuable historical, juridical, 
and moral synthesis of the principal problems re religious and priestly 
vocations. "Sound doctrine clearly explained, ably written, constitutes a 
veritable summa." 

Sept. 24, 1962: Seventeenth Biblical Week, Italy. We quote His Holi- 
ness, in part: "The student of the Sacred Text is not and must not be 
only a learned admirer or an anxious explorer of the ineffable riches of 
the Bible. Before all the biblical student is one who listens to the Word of 
God fearfully and fearlessly. He realizes that his is not a cold letter, 
enclosed in archival documents; it is a living message which comes from 
God and is to be welcomed with open mind and loving heart — as it was 
welcomed by the prophets, apostles and numberless God-fearing men of 
the Old and New Testaments. 

The Pope expressed two wishes: 

(1) Before all, let love for the Sacred Texts increase and lead to 
meditation on their message. Hunger for and thirst after the Word of 
God — the vivifying breath of the soul. 

(2) Work for the penetration of the Divine Word into the life of 
the people — of families, of the community. This is the good news they 
await. This is the revelation of the new heavens and the new earth which 
will attract human hearts. 

Acta Apostolicae Sedis: 9-8-62 (Ser. Ill, v. IV, N. 11:) 

On September 9, His Holiness addressed the Spiritual Directors of 
Seminaries. The leading ideas of his message are as follows: Spiritual 
Direction is the most important work in a Seminary, because it is achieved 
in the intimacy of the human conscience, where deep convictions are im- 
printed and where the transformation of character takes place. Ordinarily, 
young men need expert direction in order to know how to follow the 
inspirations of the Holy Spirit. This is a difficult and delicate mission. 
Common sense, shrewdness and experience are not enough. Study is 

Be mindful that present-day Seminarians belong to a generation which 


has known two cruel wars; they come from a world which is evolving 
with amazing speed. Yet, fundamental principles retain their total value. 
Teach them to understand the world in which they are going to live and 
work. This does not mean they are to compromise with a worldly spirit, 
or minimize the importance of mortification. A mistaken adaptation con- 
cerned only with softening seminary life or soothing nature too much 
would mold a personality totally opposed to Jesus, Priest and Victim. 
Modern adaptation to the demands of the times must be resolved in a 
deeper assimilation to the personality of Christ Crucified, Seminarians 
must become enamored with the Cross, in order that they may learn how 
to love the poor conditions in which the clergy so often have to live, in 
order to face courageously the renunciations and hardships of the apos- 
tolate. Firm discipline must be joined to a useful, progressive freedom 
which will train them to rule and discipline themselves. 
AAS: 9-29-62 (Ser. Ill, v. IV, NN. 12-13) 

On September 22, 1962, Pope John addressed the Italian Association 
of Catholic teachers. He stressed three points: 

(1) Theirs is a service of love to be rendered with dignity and fresh 
enthusiasm. The fruits of teachers' work endure a whole lifetime. 

(2) It is a vocation to be lived in a supernatural spirit, with reliance 
on the means of grace. This supernatural spirit means: a convinced and 
continual recourse to prayer; constant endeavor to work, without ostenta- 
tion, in the name of Christ. Teach with the warmth of the Gospel spirit. 
Be living witnesses of the strength and harmony of the faith. Offer the 
world a consistent image in thought and action. Know how to respect the 
liberty, inclinations and tastes of student; know how to wait and be 

(3) Wise and opportune adaptations are to be made. New applica- 
tions and adaptations increase responsibilities of teachers. To achieve this, 
there is required a greater mastery of self, an enlightened and joyful 
patience, continual presence of mind, and readiness to understand — to 
reply — to direct. 

Be impartial and prefer the souls preferred by Christ — the sinners, 
the poor, the sick, children. Never discourage. Follow the souls entrusted 
to your care by prayer and love. Do not be alarmed if your educational 
work fails immediate results. Lift your eyes to Christ the Teacher and 
look at vaster horizons of the spirit. 

—Silvan Rouse, C.P., S.T.L. 


Apud hierarchiae quosdam (epi- 

scopos, presbyteros — diaconos, for- 

QliaeStioneS san) inaequum est, immo et in- 

# justum, adeo fraudulentiam sapere, 

UlSpUta, taC semel atque iterum, semel et saepius, 

unam et eandam personam (vivam 

vel defunctam) in benefactorum 
societatem adscribere. Quaerkur: De 
suffragiorum applicatione, praesertim Missae fructuum, quid dicendum? 

For some, the above inquiry is more than a question — it is a problem- 
atical question. By way of answer and solution, we first quote from a 
neutral source — The Rev. Raymond J. Neufeld, Editor of "The Question 
Box," The Tablet, Brooklyn, N.Y. (1-20-62). 

Q. "Please explain how the name of a deceased person is accepted 
for enrollment in the same purgatorial society more than once, when it 
definitely states that, the deceased shares in a certain number of Masses 
and benefits of other devotions through the year." 

A. "Did you ever sign a petition, along with your relatives, your 
fellow-employees, or the people on your block to gain some advantage? 
It was with the hope that your signature would add some strength toward 
gaining the object of the petition. 

"Purgatorial societies and confraternities for the living and the dead 
all offer certain benefits which redound to the person enrolled. A person 
enrolled twice receives the benefits of two enrollments. The application 
of benefits in the type of enrollment you refer to depends on the number 
of persons requesting the benefits. A dozen people requesting the benefits 
are twelve times more powerful than one. So, the answer to your question 
is, the greater the number of requests for the benefits of enrollment in a 
spiritual society, the greater benefits to the soul enrolled. 

"You see, the organization which conducts the society or the confra- 
ternity does not dole out the benefits. The Lord does that. When Masses 
are included, the Lord Himself is the Judge of the distribution of the 
fruits of those Masses. When indulgences are applied to the suffering 
souls, the application is made by their Judge — He applies the fruits of 
our good works as He sees fit. Since the fruits of the Mass are infinite, 
and the distribution of graces and indulgences resulting from prayer 
depends on God's judgment, we can see how multiple petitions on our 
part gain greater benefits for those mentioned. 

"Let's not worry about someone else's purgatorial society certificate 


diminishing the value of the one we give. The Lord grants to each soul, 
living or dead, the benefits of each offering." 

Sound theological thinking, in re the above question or/and problem 
hinges upon two basic facts — the worth of the Eucharistic Sacrifice, and 
the unique position of Christ as the Divine Almoner. 

In appraising the worth of the Mass, there is only one reliable yard- 
stick — the Sacrifice of Calvary. According to that norm, the value of the 
Mass is INFINITE — a human term weakly imitative of a divine concept. 

To speak of the fruitage of the Sacrifice as an infinite potential could 
be misleading. The fruitage is actual. But, distinguish we must between 
possibly and actually applied fruitage. Unfortunately, a school of thought 
has confused possible and actual application. We cannot contend, de- 
fensibly, that a divine response to our suffrage is applied to a soul in want, 
with IBM precision. We suppliants are not the arbiters of applied super- 
natural benefits. Rather, in the allocation of "the unsearchable riches of 
Christ," we depend upon the Divine Almoner. 

Judging by His attitudes toward us, as revealed in the inspired records, 
it is reasonable to assume that, in response to our suffrage for others, He 
deigns to be influenced by certain factors. One such factor, the deserving- 
ness of the needy; another, the dispositions of the intercessor. We know 
that, He adverts to the relative worth of the widow's mite. (Luke XXI: 
1 — 4) He commended even importunity. (Luke XI: 8) 

Multiple enrollments by way of suffrage bespeak an unearthly impor- 
tunity, as well as an awareness of the esprit de corps which animates and 
typifies the Communion of Saints, and an enthusiastic confidence in the 
attentive interest of the Divine Almoner. We who belong to this school 
of thought are not upset because another school of thought does not see 
eye to eye with us. But we do not like the word "skulduggery." It is not 
a nice word. — Aloysius McDonough, C.P., S.T.D. 

"The vast cultural heritage that is ours, and the necessity of a Christian 
formation that will enable us to be articulate and intelligent witnesses to 
the truth of Christ, could — and one can say this without exaggeration — 
require a lifetime of constant, reasonably paced reading. Such is the 
challenge facing both the Catholic publisher and the educated Catholic 
today." (David McManus, President, Helicon Press, Baltimore, Md. 
America 11-24-62.) 


A Religious Gift of Enduring Worth 

Praise Be to Thee, O Lord! 

Selections of Sacred Music Taped originally for the 

by the Passionist radio program, 

Holy Cross Seminary Choir "The Hour of the Crucified" 

of (A new 33-1/3 

Dunkirk, N. Y. high fidelity record) 

Selections include: 

Ave Maria — Witt 

To Christ the King — Sister Mary Rafael, BVM 

Trumpet Voluntary — Purcell 

Glory to Christ the King — Eberle 

My Soul Doth Magnify the Lord — Chant & Falso Bordone 

The Seven Last Words — Udulutsch 

Hallelujah Chorus — Handel 

Packaged in attractive album slip case Postpaid in U.S.A. 


Holy Cross Seminary Dunkirk, N. Y. 

A Note for Posterity 

"Time doth not loiter." (Sheik 
Ilderim to Ben Hur) Obviously, 
the first issue of V C is late! 
Causal factors are several and 
varied, but do not add up to 
anyone's fault. At Cape Canav- 
eral, a launching according to 
calendar and clock is a rare 
exception. We trust that, here- 
after, tardy issues of V C will 
be rare exceptions. 



Guest Editorial 1 

Editorial . 2 

Passiology 4 

Fundamental 6 

j Dogmatic 9 


Moral 13 

Pastoral 15 

Sacred Scripture 17 

Canon Law 19 

Church History 21 

Philosophy 22 

Sociology 24 

Liturgy 26 

From the Celian Hill 28 

Quaestiones Disputatae 31 

". . . And a small drop of ink, 
falling, like dew, upon a thought produces 
That which makes thousands, perhaps 
millions think/* (Byron) 

'. . . The word of the cross . . . is ... to us ... the power of God." 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

Unburn Cruris 

Vol. I April, A.D. 1963 No. 2 

Unburn dniria 

Vol. I April, A.D. 1963 No. 2 

A Quarterly Review of Clerical Literature 
Published by the Passionist Fathers 
Province of Saint Paul of the Cross. 

Cum Superiorum permissu 

Ad instar manuscripti 

For private circulation only 

Opinions expressed by contributors do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the editor. 


86-45 178 Street 

Jamaica 32, N. Y. 

Telephone: AXtel 7-0044 

Cable Address: Veecee New York 


O God, Who, in Thine ineffable providence, didst will 
that, Thy servant JOHN should be numbered among the 
highpriests, grant, we beseech Thee, that he who on 
earth held the place of Thine only-begotten Son, may 
be joined forevermore to the fellowship of Thy holy 
pontiffs: through the same Our Lord, Jesus Christ, Thy 
Son, Who with Thee liveth and reigneth in the unity 
of the Holy Spirit, God, throughout all ages. Amen. 

A. D. 1958—1963 

In behalf of His Holiness, Pope PAUL VI, Bishop of Rome, Successor 
of Saint Peter, Vicar of JESUS CHRIST, Prince of the Apostles, Supreme 
Pontiff of the Church Universal, Patriarch of the West, Primate of Italy, 
Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Servant of the Servants of God, 
Sovereign of the State of Vatican City: 

"The Lord preserve him and give him life, and make him blessed upon 
the earth, and deliver him not up to the will of his enemies." (Ps. XL) 

O God, the shepherd and ruler of all the faithful, look propitiously 
upon Thy servant PAUL, whom Thou hast been pleased to appoint pastor 
over Thy church: grant, we beseech Thee, that both by word and by 
example, he may edify those over whom he is placed and, together with 
the flock committed to his care, may attain unto life everlasting: through 
Our Lord, Jesus Christ, Thy Son, Who with Thee liveth and reigneth in 
the unity of the Holy Spirit, God, throughout all ages. Amen. 

A. D. 1963 

' "" In retrospect: In response to pop- 

r« i*. • 1 ular demand, the January issue of 

Verbum Crucis has been rerun 

and, thanks to Father Provincial, 

_ — _ _ ^ graduated to a change-over 

from offset to linotype. Unavoid- 
ably, this change-over and rerun 
have occasioned delay. Editorial pre- 
science must have inspired that 
"Note for Posterity," (January, cover iii). But we decline to don the 
coverall policy featured by transportation schedules — "subject to change 
without notice." 

We appreciate the "brickbats and bouquets" invited and received. The 
few criticisms written in, heard, or overheard do not measure up to the 
strict definition of a brickbat. In quoting "B & B" excerpts, the letter (E) 
will indicate the scribe as a member of the Eastern Province; the letter 
(W) a member of the Western Province. 

The Very Reverend James Patrick White, C.P., telephoned from Chi- 
cago, to reserve an adequate supply of copies of VC for the "Monks of 
the West." In an air-mail letter, written in Korea, posted from Japan, 
the Western Provincial granted permission to invite the Lectors and other 
competent persons of Holy Cross Province to join the VC staff of contrib- 
uting editors. Ever so much, we appreciate His Paternity's affirmative and 
gracious response to our request. 

In prospect: Father Provincial has issued an official statement of policy, 
to clarify the nature and purpose of Verbum Crucis. The full text of 
this statement will be sent to contributing editors. Quotations in part will 
be of interest to all readers. From the second issue onward, VC will be 
reduced from a bimonthly to a quarterly. This reduction will thin out the 
burdens entailed for the staff and will safeguard our fiscal health. 

Departmentally, our quarterly will comprise topical columns, annotated 
bibliography, questions and problems that clamor for reply and solution. 

Topical vignettes will be selected from all areas of ecclesiastical learn- 
ing relevant to our monastic life and apostolate, and will include refer- 
ences to pertinent literature adapted to the general reader. For the future, 
topicals will predominate. 

Bibliographical columns will be a service devoted to recent publications, 

"of the kind readily available to and readable by the average busy monk." 
Quaestiones Disputatae will cover not only controverted items, as such, 
but also any questions of general interest. Communications to the editor 
should be signed by the one posing a question or a problem, but if the 
proponent so prefer, his identity will not be published. 

Father Provincial concludes his statement of policy "with words of 
warmest commendation for all those so charitably cooperating in this 
splendid service to the Brethren." 
S. v., b. e. V. (Remember?) 

— AMcD 

A Privilege 
and a Price 


When the evangelists sat down to write the story of our salvation, they 
had a tremendous amount of material from which to choose. They could 
not record everything, for St. John remarks that if this had been done 
the whole world would not be large enough to contain the books that 
would have to be written. Under God's inspiration, they found the solu- 
tion to the problem. They chose what they considered most important to 
accomplish their purpose, what would best satisfy the spiritual needs of 
the people of all times. And so, it is of great significance that they not 
merely recorded the fact of our redemption and that it was accomplished 
by Our Lord's sufferings and death and resurrection — but each of the 
evangelists went into closest detail. Each gave almost a blow-by-blow de- 
scription of Our Lord's sufferings. In doing this, they were not merely 
following the pattern of the preaching of the apostles, but they were 
adhering to the emphasis given by Christ Himself. Time after time, He 
had predicted not merely the fact of the redemption, but just how it 
would be brought about — the Son of Man must go up to Jerusalem, where 
He would be delivered into the hands of His enemies, would be mocked 
and scourged and spit upon; He would die, but the third day He would 
rise again. And even when Our Lord's repeated teaching had apparently 
been wasted, and the disciples had not grasped the why and the wherefore 

of the redemption or even the fact of the redemption, Christ went through 
the whole explanation once more for the disciples of Emmaus. He said 
to them: "O foolish ones and slow of heart to believe in all that the 
prophets have spoken! Did not the Christ have to suffer these things 
before entering into His glory?" (Luke xxiv:25) 

When St. Paul of the Cross founded the Congregation, and bound us 
by vow to have and to promote devotion to the Passion of Christ, there 
were some features of his preaching and practice that were peculiar to his 
own times and his own country, and these need not be perpetuated or 
imitated. However, what was basic to the preaching of St. Paul is basic 
today. The detailed and the well-applied story of the Passion is something 
of value to the twentieth century in America, just as much as it was to 
eighteenth-century Italy. We need to have that story deeply and clearly 
impressed upon our minds if we are going to be truly devoted to the 
Passion, and it must form the core of our preaching and teaching if we 
are going to share that devotion with others. We may think that we have 
found a simple performance of our task if we copy a few technical terms 
or a few learned sentences from a theology book, perhaps even a few 
Greek or Aramaic expressions, and impress our hearers with the convic- 
tion that we are pretty learned fellows. But while we should know what 
is latest and best in the theology of the Passion, we are frustrating our 
own purpose if we do not present this in a way that our hearers can not 
merely understand but use as a practical means of devotion to Christ 

There are no two of us who will see the story of Our Lord's sufferings 
in precisely the same way; nor will any two of us promote devotion to 
them in exactly the same manner. But there must be something common 
to all of us in our thinking and our preaching. And that common denomi- 
nator should be the whole story and the exact story of Our Lord's suffer- 
ings as the evangelists have given it to us. In our preaching, we should 
seek and find the modern application, yet without despising what the best 
Passion preachers of the past have had to offer. In his paintings, Salvatore 
Dali is able to take the story of Calvary and present it in modern tones 
and overtones that have enabled so many to grasp this message for the 
first time. Yet his accomplishments have not displaced what is old in 
Christian art and also good. Millions of people will make it a point to 
see Michelangelo's venerable Pieta when it is brought to this country, and 

while some will do this out of sheer curiosity, we can hope that most 
people will see in it the glimpse they need of the beauty and the inner 
meaning of Christ's death. And so too, in our portrayal of the age-old story 
of the sufferings of Christ, there is plenty of room for our up-to-date 
considerations, our up-to-the-minute application of the Passion to modern 
problems. This takes thought, prayerful thought. It is not the easiest thing 
in the world to acquire for ourselves, or pass on to others. But it is a price 
in terms of time and prayer and study that we should be happy to pay 
for the privilege of being the chosen preachers of the Passion of Christ 
to the modern world. 

Suggested references: Van Zeller, OSB, Approach to Calvary, $2.95, 
Sheed & Ward; Weaver, CP, His Cross in Your Life, $3.25, Alba; 
Regamey, OP, The Cross and the Christian, $3.25, Herder of St. Louis; 
Leen, CSSp, Why the Cross? Sheed & Ward. 

— Rupert Langenstein, CP, MS 

Religious Vows in the Life of the 
Church. We were happy to see the O • • 1 

recent publication of the doctorate spiritual 

dissertation of Father Cronan Re- 

gan, CP, Lector of Theology at TheOlOgy 

St. Ann's, Scranton. In the intro- 
duction, Father Cronan points out 
that he intends to establish the so- 
cial value of the religious life for 

the Mystical Body of Christ. The matter of the thesis revolves about four 
doctrinal points: the nature of the community of spiritual good; what 
it means to merit for another; what it means to satisfy for another; and 
the nature of religious vows. To summarize the doctrine contained therein 
we would say that the thesis takes as a premise these words of Pope Pius 
XII: "In the Body, thanks to the Communion of Saints, no good can be 
done, no virtue practiced by individual members without its contributing 
something also to the salvation of all." The truth of these words is then 
analyzed in the light of the doctrine of St. Thomas. Finally, the author's 
theological insight enables him to conclude with these words: "Clearly, 

then, the religious life is not an anachronism in the Church. Considering 
this life solely from the point of view of its contribution to society, it is 
the source of priceless benefits to the social welfare of the supernatural 
society of the Church. On condition that the religious fervently strives to 
realize the holocaust implied by his vows, he is one of the greatest assets 
to the contemporary world." I am sure that all who are interested in 
deepening their understanding and appreciation of the religious life will 
find this thesis helpful. 

by Cronan Regan, CP, STD 

What is the profound contribution each sincere religious' life 
makes to the Mystical Body of Christ? This is the question Father 
Regan examines in the light of the theology of St. Thomas Aquinas. 
The study involves a close scrutiny of the notions of merit and satis- 
faction, of the way spiritual benefits are shared in the Communion 
of Saints, and of the vows of religion and Christian perfection. 

Written as a doctoral dissertation for the Faculty of Theology at 
the Angelicum in Rome, the book is not excessively technical. It 
should be of value to anyone involved in the direction, training or 
recruiting of religious. Copies are available at $2.50 from the author. 

St. Ann's Monastery 
1239 St. Ann St., 
Scranton 4, Pa. 

The Theology of Christian Perfection. The Province may be interested 
to know that, at the beginning of the current school year, we introduced 
an official textbook for the students' two-year Course in Spiritual The- 
ology. The book chosen was The Theology of Christian Perfection, by 
Royo, OP, translated and adapted by Aumann, OP (Priory Press, Du- 
buque, Iowa. $10.95). This book was selected for many reasons. 

The original of this book (Spanish, and now in its 4th edition) has 
been hailed and recommended by many masters of the spiritual life as 
the best book at the present time in the matter of spiritual theology. M. M. 
Philipon, OP, wrote this encomium: "The best manual of spiritual the- 
ology which has appeared to date — the most ordered and complete, a true 
summa of spirituality. This is a work of extraordinary informative value 
and yet possessing a notable doctrinal solidity." Anyone interested in 
some reviews can consult: Homiletic and Pastoral Review, Dec. 1962, 


p. 257 (favorable review) ; Pastoral Life, Nov.-Dec. 1962, p. 58 (a rather 
unfavorable review by Parente, but, I don't think he appreciates the argu- 
ments of Royo). In Part I of the book, Royo establishes the doctrinal 
foundations for all spirituality. Part II analyzes the essence of Christian 
perfection. The following five parts are, then, preeminently practical: the 
negative aspects of the Christian life (struggle vs. sin, devil, world) ; 
positive means of spiritual growth; the life of prayer; secondary means 
of sanctiiication; and mystical phenomena. Of special importance in this 
book is the author's exact definition of mysticism, its relationship to the 
normal development of the soul's spiritual life, and the specific role 
played by the Gifts of the Holy Ghost in this growth. 

From the viewpoint of the course itself, the use of a definite textbook 
stabilizes it by giving a determined framework for the two years devoted 
to these matters. It also allows the Lector to give an integral treatment of 
the essentials of Spiritual Theology. 

We feel that this book can provide superabundant food for thought, 
contemplation, spiritual reading, and practical application for all. 

Carmelite Spirituality. Anyone interested in a practical synthesis of Car- 
melite spirituality, especially of the Interior Castle of St. Teresa, can find 
it in two books just reprinted by Fides Publishers: / Want to See God, 
and, / Am a Daughter of the Church. Both these books are the work of 
P. Marie-Eugene, OCD, long recognized as the authority of Teresian 

Spiritual Life Institute of America. (SLIA) The Spiritual Life Institute 
of America is the result of the efforts of William McNamara, OCD, 
former editor of the Spiritual Life magazine. It grew out of his experience 
as a retreat preacher in all parts of the country. From his encounters with 
various groups, the conviction grew that the major weakness of the Church 
in America is its failure to communicate its message. After discussions and 
consultation with many others, he concluded that this was so because of 
a "fragmentation" or reduplication of the Church's efforts in this country, 
and a "thinness, superficiality, and ineffectiveness" rising out of failure to 
concentrate on the "one thing necessary — natural and supernatural con- 
templation." The Spiritual Life Institute exists not to correct these prob- 
lems, but to call attention to them, and to get others to collaborate in re- 
search and reflection on them. The aims of the Institute are to be achieved 
by: 1) A program of seminars (the first one was held recently in Mil- 

waukee) ; 2) Houses of Learning and Leisure (which will be, first of all, 
houses of contemplation, in which the liturgy will be celebrated in a fitting 
manner; then, places to bring together various groups of people to com- 
municate on fundamental problems; and finally, retreat houses and centers 
for spiritual theology and spiritual direction) ; and, 3) a publication pro- 
gram which includes a monthly magazine to be known as Forefront. The 
director of development and publishing for the Institute is Donald Thor- 
man, author of the recent, much praised book, The Emerging Layman. 

A booklet, America's Spiritual Crisis (obtainable from SLIA, 436 N. 
Michigan St., South Bend, Ind., for $1) is the result of the first invita- 
tional seminar sponsored by the SLIA. It contains Father William's views 
on the basic spiritual crisis facing America today. In it one may find a 
wealth of insight and observation about the special state of America which 
will inform, inspire and, perhaps, frighten you. However, the purpose of 
'America's Spiritual Crisis is not to tell us how to solve these problems, 
but rather to make us aware of the difficulties we face. He sees our present 
crisis as due to our failure to attach ourselves sufficiently to indispensable 
sources of humanness and the tendency to become overly attached to cer- 
tain values. By meditating upon these two facets of our modern society, 
Father William hopes to make the Church relevant to the world today. 

— Norman Demeck, CP, STL 

"Have parsed VC ... an excellent job — am sure it will be a big help 
to everyone. Could someone enlighten us re new books for sermon ma- 
terial?" (E) 

"... VC strikes a note of learning and scholarliness, of wisdom and 
power, and of challenge to every CP. May it help us all to become more 
efficient in our Passionist vocation. Kindly extend my congratulations to 
all your associates in this valuable publication." (W) 

"I would like very much to see a larger part of Verbum Crucis de- 
voted to the Sacred Passion." (E) 


Dogmatic Theology 

Niche of Professional Theologians 

It is now clearly evident to all that the theologians present at the Second 
Vatican Council will have a tremendous influence on the final decisions 
of the Magisterium. Their investigations into the meaning of God's Reve- 
lation, their opinions and observations are all necessary to the Teaching 
Church in these crucial days. They have been summoned from all over the 
world to assist those involved in proclaiming to the world the divine 
message to man. 

The role of the professional theologian in the Church was the subject 
of the presidential address given at the latest Theological Convention, and 
recently published. "The Professional Theologian — An Instrumental Cause 
in the Ecclesia Doc ens," Aloysius McDonough, CP, The Catholic Theo- 
logical Society of America, Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Con- 
vention, pp. 269-275. 

The theme developed in this paper is that, "although in an auxiliary, 
subsidiary capacity, the personnel of the Ecclesia Docens is integrated by 
the inclusion of the theologians." 

(A limited number of reprints available, without charge, upon applica- 
tion to author. For copies of Proceedings, apply to: CTSA Editorial Office, 
St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y. $3.50 per copy.) 


In the last few years there have been many books and articles written 
which deal with the tract on faith. 

Running through many of these discussions seems to be a conviction 
that in the West there has been a tendency to emphasize the intellectual 
aspect of faith. Due to valid historical reasons this emphasis has, at times, 
been necessary. However, the definition of faith as we find it in the man- 
uals is that, faith is "an act of the intellect, moved by the will, elevated 
by grace." More and more, theologians are coming to realize that to stop 
at the intellectual aspect of faith will not do full justice either to the 
scriptural idea of faith or to our own theological traditions. 

Faith is not merely the intellectual acceptance of a series of abstract 
truths, a mere intellectual assent. Faith is the act of the whole man, mind 
and will, it is the personal meeting between man and God. As we see it 
expressed so often today, faith is a personal encounter. 

The stress today seems to be on faith as grace, faith as a wonderful gift 
of God, a gift which takes a man far beyond the power of his own reason, 
which truly convinces him of things that appear not. This is certainly not 
something new in Catholic theology, but it is something that has not been 
made clear in our efforts to show the rational basis for faith, the objective 
value of Apologetics. 

Modern thinking is in reality an effort to bring into perspective the 
total Catholic teaching of faith. St. Thomas clearly placed faith beyond 
the powers of human reason and argument when he wrote: "Whatever 
man may teach externally, he labors in vain unless the Holy Spirit provide 
interior understanding; for unless the Spirit were present to the heart of 
the hearer, the words of the teacher would be idle ; and this is true to such 
an extent that, even the Son, speaking through the instrument of his 
humanity would accomplish nothing, unless He himself also worked in- 
teriorly, through the Holy Spirit." {In Joann. XIV, 26) 

The following are some sources which will give an understanding of 
the work being done in this tract on faith. 

"The Biblical Idea of Faith," by Bruce Vawter, CM, Worship, Aug.- 
Sept., I960, reprinted in Guide, May, 1961, No. 158. 

What Is Faith, by Joseph Cahill, SJ, Paulist Press (Doctrinal Pamphlet 

"The Preambles of Faith," by Guy de Broglie, Theology Digest, Vol. 
VII, No. 1. When St. Thomas speaks of truths that are "preambles of 
faith," he means this in the sense that they precede the articles of faith, 
not necessarily the act of faith. 

"Faith: Personal Encounter With God," by Rene Latourelle, SJ, The- 
ology Digest, Vol. X, No. 4, pp. 233-238. 

"The Act of Faith," by H. Francis Davis, Theology Digest, Vol. I, 
pp. 119-122. 

"Two Theories of Faith," by John L. Murphy, Amer. Eccles. Rev., July, 
1962, pp. 14-36. 

"The Inner Testimony of the Spirit," by Stanley Kutz, The Ecumenist, 
Vol. I, No. 3, Feb. -Mar. 1963, pp. 38-40. 


What Is Faith? by Eugene Joly, Hawthorn Books, 1958. (This book is 
Volume Six of the Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Catholicism.) 

Original Sin and Concupiscence 

A series of three articles on these topics has recently appeared in the 
Irish Theological Quarterly. In the articles J. P. Mackey points out some 
of the complaints of moral philosophers concerning the traditional pre- 
sentation of the Catholic doctrine on original sin. He stresses the fact that 
original sin is essentially the privation of grace. It is sin in the sense that 
it does represent an alienation from God. To hold that there is no per- 
sonal guilt involved in original sin, and then try to hold on to some 
remnant of guilt by using the idea of corporate personality is confusing, 
to say the least. 

M. feels that in many of our explanations of concupiscence we seem 
to introduce into man's nature a positive inclination to evil. The basis of 
this often lies at the distinction we make between the sense appetites and 
reason. "It is very misleading to speak of the sense appetites as if they 
acted without the rational powers or before them. It is precisely this atti- 
tude to the sense appetites, especially when they are thought to be the 
basis of an inclination to evil, which leads theologians to speak of them 
as the 'lower' appetites, in a derogatory sense. It is far more realistic and 
indicates a far more healthy outlook to see the sense appetites as part of 
the structure of human nature and part of a human being by which he is 
put in contact with the things which are necessary to his survival and for 
his happiness." 

His own explanation of concupiscence is a resume of Theological Inves- 
tigations (Vol. I, Chapter 11) by Karl Rahner. Concupiscence "appears 
more as a retarding of our free disposal of ourselves, whether that be a 
disposal for good or ill, than as a positive tendency of any part of us 
towards evil. It is ethically neutral in itself and ambivalent in the sense 
that it offers resistance to our evil purposes as it does to our good inten- 

"Moral Philosophers and Original Sin," by J. P. Mackey, Irish Theo. 
Quart., July, 1962; 

"The Catholic Doctrine on Original Sin," J. P. Mackey, I.T.Q., Oct., 

"Original Sin: Concept of Concupiscence," J. P. Mackey, I.T.Q., Jan., 

1963, —Aquinas McGurk, CP, STL 


The Morality 
Moral c t 

or the 

eo °^ Intrauterine Ring 

Father Zalba, SJ, the Spanish moral theologian, writing in Periodica 
(1962, pp. 167-182), discusses the morality of the "intrauterine ring." 
The ring is a plastic coil-like object inserted by a physician into the uterus 
for the purpose of preventing children. Doctors are not sure how it works. 
Many believe the presence of this foreign body in the uterus causes the 
tubes leading from the ovaries to contract and block passage of the egg 
to the womb ; others think it does not prevent conception but rather causes 
an abortion of the impregnated ovum. It can be kept as long as desired 
and does not interfere with menstruation. It was used about 40 years ago, 
but abandoned because of the painful irritation of the metal. It is used 
now in Japan and Korea in the lighter, plastic form, weighing 1-1^ 
ounces. (Described in Newsweek: 7:23, 1962, p. 30.) The following is 
a summary of Father Zalba' s conclusions. 

1) Insertion of the intrauterine ring: Sinful or not? 

A. Is its insertion always forbidden? Not necessarily. The ring might 
have a good use — for example, to prevent the spread of lung cancer. The 
ring, like steroids, might be necessary or useful for corporal or corporal- 
mental health of the person. In these cases it could be lawfully used by a 
single or married woman when the conventional remedies are of no help. 

B. It is wrong for a woman to insert it with the intention of preventing 
a pregnancy. (171-172) 

C. It is probably licit for a single woman (a nun in Africa), or a wife 
to insert it because of danger of rape, in self-defense and reasonable use 
of bodily faculties. (172-180) During this short period of time the wife 
could not have relations with her husband. 

2) Use of marriage while ring is present in the uterus. 

Does it prevent conception, or cause an abortion? Both possibilities are 


considered. It is more likely, according to present medical data that, it 
prevents conception. 

A. // // prevents conception: 

1. Whenever the ring is inserted for a sufficient reason (health), both 
parties may seek and render the debt. (183-184) 

2. When the reason ceases, both parties should per se abstain from mar- 
riage until the ring is removed, if the ring can be removed without grave 
inconvenience. (183-184) 

3. If the wife inserts or retains the ring without sufficient reason, she 
cannot seek the debt, unless her years of fertility have ceased, or she would 
suffer a great hardship in removing it. She may, however, render the 
debt to her husband lawfully seeking. (184-185) 

4. If the husband is guilty of the insertion of the ring, or consents to 
its insertion, he cannot ask the debt until he repents and does what he 
can to have the ring removed. (185-187) 

B. // it causes an abortion: May marriage be used? In general, the 
conclusions are more severe. 

1. Spouses wishing to use marriage should arrange for the removal of 
the ring, unless such action would be dangerous to the life of the wife. 

2. If one party refuses to consent to its removal, he or she cannot seek 
the debt; the innocent party may licitly ask and render the debt for a grave 
cause. (188) 

3) Obligation to have the ring removed by a physician: 

A. Ring lawfully inserted may be retained as long as the cause for its 
insertion continues to exist. Any reasonable cause will justify its per- 
manent existence for those not using matrimony (nuns and widows and 
others) or for the married after child-bearing age. (189) 

B. If it is medically possible but financially burdensome to have the 
ring removed, it is probable that the obligation for its removal is tem- 
porarily suspended. (190) 

C. If the operation would endanger her life or lead to serious and 
prolonged inconvenience, the wife is excused from obligation. (191) 

— Nicholas Gill, CP, JCD 



-~~ In recent years, many priests 

Sacred ^ ave ^ een P u22 ^ e< ^ ky tne modern 

biblical movement. How has it de- 
veloped so rapidly since the Second 
War? Why are catholic scholars 

now holding views, which were 

frowned upon only thirty years ago ? 
How solid is this movement? Any 
priest who desires answers to these 
questions will find them in The Bible, the Word of God in Words of 
Men, by Jean Levie, SJ (P. J. Kenedy, $7.50). The last part of this 
work is a treatment of inspiration and the roles played by God and man 
in producing Holy Scripture. The principles given here solve many of 
the seeming difficulties — scientific, historical and theological — which the 
reader may encounter in the Bible. 

That there have been and still are real excesses in biblical criticism 
must certainly be admitted ; and the Monitum of the Holy Office, June 20, 
1961, is a severe warning against opinions in circulation which compro- 
mise the historical and objective veracity of Holy Scripture, both Old and 
New Testament, and particularly of Christ's words and deeds. 

However, quite a number of opinions in Scriptural matters have been 
unjustly stigmatized as excessive. P. G. Duncker, OP, in "Biblical Criti- 
cism" {Catholic Biblical Quarterly, January, 1963, p. 22) examines sev- 
eral such opinions. Of especial interest to ecclesiologists is his evaluation 
of the alleged excessive opinion, concerning the famous Petrine text of 
Mt. XVI: 13-19. In the same article is recounted the notorious Dain Co- 
henel (a pseudonym for an Italian priest, Dolindo Ruotulo) incident. 

A better understanding of the Psalms is an ever present desire of those 
who daily pray the divine office. Unfortunately, the need for a modern 
Catholic commentary on the Psalms remains unfulfilled. In the opinion 
of many, the best detailed commentary on the Psalms in English is still 
Kilpatrick, a non-catholic — first published over seventy years ago! 

However, The Psalms are Christian Prayer, by Thomas Warden (Sheed 
& Ward, N. Y., $3.95), while it does not provide the badly needed 
commentary on the psalms, does provide a valuable introduction to the 


theology and thought patterns of the Psalms and, indeed, of the whole 

The new (October, 1962) monthly biblical periodical, The Bible Today, 
continues to provide excellent articles by outstanding American scriptural 
scholars. The March issue (1963) is centered about the single theme of 

The first article is on the nature of biblical history which is crucial to 
the understanding of any part of the Scriptures. Its thesis is that the Bible 
is not a mere chronicle of events, but a divinely inspired interpretation of 
particular events. The Scriptures, therefore, are not a textbook of ancient 
history but a theology of history. The articles which follow describe the 
two great salvation acts of God. 

The Exodus, the first of these divine acts, took place at the time of 
Moses when God acted to save Israel from slavery and annihilation. The 
life, death, and resurrection of Christ was the second of these divine inter- 
ventions when, in the fulness of time, God acted through His Son to save 
all mankind from sin and death. Both saving acts were extended in his- 
tory through divinely established liturgical rites. In thus treating these 
themes, the articles in the March issue seek to show the continuity of the 
divine saving action. 

— Aidan Mahoney, CP, STL 

"(VC) is an epochal event in the history of the Province. I . . . find 
the contents interesting, instructive, inspirational." 


"A wonderfully helpful magazine for the priests. With my one-track 
mind in . . . , I tend to miss developments in other fields. Will now have 
no excuse for not being alerted. God bless all the contributors." (W) 


The Constitution: De Sacra Liturgia 

LitUrgV One of the most tangible results 

of the First Session of Vatican 11 

was the approval, almost unanimous 
{placet, 1922 ; placet juxta modum, 
180; non placet, 11) of the Preface and first chapter of the Constitution 
on the Liturgy. This chapter is entitled: General Principles of Renewing 
and Promoting the Sacred Liturgy. The succeeding chapters which deal 
with specific application of the principles to the Mass, Sacraments, Divine 
Office, etc., were thoroughly discussed but not voted upon. Chapter One, 
as well as the other parts of the Constitution, will have to be formally 
promulgated with the approval of the Holy Father at a public session, at 
which the Bishops will vote again on the entire constitution. Hence, the 
text of this important document has not yet been published. 

The contents of the document, along with the aspects of the debate con- 
cerning them, filtered out through official and unofficial sources. Perhaps 
in order to offset some false rumors, but more likely to give the clergy 
and faithful opportunity for discussion and preparation for possible 
changes, an article outlining the salient features of Chapter One appeared 
in the semi-official L'Osservatore Romano, December 8, 1962. Diocesan 
papers printed summaries and fragments from this excellent summary. 
An English translation of the L'Osservatore article in full can be found in 
Worship, February, 1963, p. 153. 

Contents of Chapter One 

If there was fear that Vatican II would speak fine words but accomplish 
little genuine renewal, a glance through the outline of Chapter One of the 
Constitution on the Liturgy will dispel those fears. 

The Chapter contains five parts: The Nature of the Liturgy and its 
Importance in the Life of the Church; Liturgical Formation and Active 
Participation; Reform; Promotion of Liturgical Life in Diocese; Diocesan 
or Regional Organization for Promotion of Liturgy. 

Some of the more noteworthy features of Chapter One are: 

(1) The doctrinal section sees the work of the liturgy as the work of 
Christ Himself, the first Sacrament, and as the work of the Church, the 
general Sacrament established by Christ. The worship rendered to God and 
the holiness which God effects in man is put into sharper relief. The fact 


that the liturgy is wholly structured in a system of sensible signs is accen- 
tuated as well as the teaching that the liturgy is the summit and source of 
the Church's every activity. 

(2) Number 19 states that henceforth the liturgy must be counted 
among the major disciplines in the ecclesiastical curriculum. It is to be 
treated both from a theological and historical aspect, as well as from a 
spiritual, pastoral and juridical aspect. The Council recommends that pro- 
fessors of other theological disciplines, especially dogma, and spiritual and 
pastoral theology, put the mystery of Christ and the history of salvation 
into clear focus, according to the intrinsic requirements of each subject. 
In this way, the relationship of each discipline with the liturgy should 

(3) Article 22 constitutes an historical departure. After noting that 
the competent authority for liturgical reform is the Holy See alone and 
then, by law, the Bishop, it is stated that through a concession of law this 
authority can also be episcopal-territorial, supradiocesan and regional. The 
execution, application, and adaptation of the chapters that follow is allo- 
cated to this authority. This bold step sanctions the beginnings of a 
decentralization in the area of liturgy. 

(4) Whenever possible, a form for the celebration of rites which is 
communal even externally, will be preferred to quasi-individual and pri- 
vate form. Active participation is to be promoted. 

(5) Liturgical Language. This question was the most discussed in all 
the debate. Eighty-one speakers were heard. The main points are: 

(a) The use of the Latin language, excepting in the case of particular 
law, shall be preserved in the Latin rites. 

(b) But the use of the vernacular, whether in Holy Mass or in the 
administration of Sacraments and other parts of the liturgy, is 
granted a larger role, especially in the readings and admonitions. 

(c) It will be the right of the regional authority mentioned above to 
establish the manner and use of the vernacular language, with the 
reservation that what is determined be confirmed by the Holy See. 
With these statements Vatican II, in officially introducing bilingual- 
ism into the life of the Latin Liturgy, takes a stride that will be 
memorable in history. 

(6) The liturgy is to be adapted to the legitimate traditions and spe- 
cific religious culture of various peoples. 


Questions Liturgical 

1. At Solemn Mass and Sung Mass, may the people chant the entire 
Pater Noster with the celebrant? At present, no. Worship, Jan. p. 128. 

2. What changes are there in the rite of blessing holy water and in 
the asperges rite? 

(a) In the first prayer for the blessing of salt the words "et sanctifi- 
care" are omitted. 

(b) Each prayer ends with the so-called short conclusion "Per Christum 
Dominum Nostrum." 

(c) The priest puts salt into the water only once instead of three times. 

(d) During the Asperges and Vidi Aquam the celebrant and ministers 
are no longer directed to recite the psalm "Miserere" during the 
sprinkling. It is sufficient that the psalm verses be sung. Worship, 
Jan. p. 130. 

3. May the new rite for adult baptism, arranged in a series of parts, 
be used at the present time in the United States? Yes, but permission of 
local ordinary is required. Worship, March, p. 257. 

4. May one bow in direction of the book in concluding the Secret 
Prayer? Yes. American Ecclesiastical Review, Feb., p. 133. 

— Xavier Hayes, CP 

(Graduate School of Liturgy, 
Notre Dame University) 

"... congratulate you and your collaborators for Verbum Crucis. It is 
just what every one of us should have on his desk regularly. It is a praise- 
worthy initiative of which the Province can be proud." 

— Malcolm, CP 




Today this term is being used Pastoral 

more and more frequently, and in a 
very inclusive sense. Since the scope 

of priestly studies and work is so 

great, there is an increasing use of 
ancillary subjects. However, the tele- 
ology of such a wide spectrum of 
problems must be maintained and a 

new work has just been issued to try to coordinate some of these efforts: 
Dizionaria di Teologia Pastorale, 2 vols. (Edizioni Paoline). 

The frequency of the use of this term was obvious in Conciliar state- 
ments from Pope to periti, and highlights its importance. Cf. also: 
Degrjize, "Fundamental Problem of the Church at this Hour of the 
Council," Christ to the World, 1963, p. 12. 

Theology of Preaching 

One element of great interest to us as professional preachers is the 
new emphasis given to preaching in the new Liturgical Constitution ap- 
proved by the Vatican Council: cf. Stanley, SJ, "Fonts of Preaching" 
(Worship, Feb. 1963), p. 164. Along this line one of the best articles 
in recent years regarding a theology of preaching is that of Grasso, SJ, 
'II kerigma e la predicazione' (Gregorianum, I960) p. 424. 

Rover, OP, "The Sacramental Efficacy of the Act of Preaching" in the 
Proceedings of the Catholic Theological Society, 1962 . . . "an awakened 
interest in the theology of preaching are the recent developments in Pas- 
toral Theology and the allied art of catechetics." R. speaks about two 
modes of union with God through Christ, that of sacrament, that of the 
word. .."... the work of preaching is a special medium for the con- 
tactus fidei, moving souls to conversion or deeper communion." 

Chenu, OP, "Spirituality of Matter" in Theology Digest, 1963, p. 63, 
indicates lines of integration necessary for preachers whose eschatological 
emphasis must not undermine an incarnational spirituality. This combi- 
nation assures that the Cross will be presented as relevant in a theology 
of the laity. The Cross is redemptive. (Regarding incarnational spiritual- 
ity— cf. C.T.S. Proceedings for 1962, p. 207) 

K. Rahner, "Religious poverty in a changing world" in Theology Di- 


gest, 1963, p. 51 ff. Poverty, as a sign and characteristic of the apostle 
should be reexamined for each age — and faced squarely. 

Pfeifer, SJ, "Popular Devotions: A New Look" in Homiletic and Pas- 
toral Review Feb. 1963, gives an explanation and outline of what are 
known as "Bible Vigils." These are becoming common in some areas, and 
actually provide a new setting for the preacher. 

"More on Preaching," The Priest, March 1963. An article, written 
crisply, demonstrating that better public relations on the parochial level 
will insure a successful mission. The missionary of "thirty years experi- 
ence" who wrote the article — our Father Thomas A. Sullivan, CP. 

A missionary recommends The God Who Loves Us, sermon outlines 
by Weber and Kilgallon ; booklet form, from Liturgical Press, Collegeville. 

An interesting stream of books is soon to emerge that promises to be 
stimulatory reading for professional preachers. 

R. Drury, Preaching 

P. Hitz, To Preach the Gospel 

A. Henry, A Mission Theology 

Dubay, Sisters Retreat (based on questionnaire to 1300 sisters) 

Winklkofer, The Coming of His Kingdom (the last things) 

Some Pastoral Problems 

Fund of material can be found for speaking to laymen who are fathers 
of families: C. Barbeau, The Head of the Family (Fides). 

Excellent review, in length, in Cross Currents (Winter, 1963), p. 107, 
of de Lestapis' Family Planning and Modern Problems; points up the 
isolation of the people of God in solving this problem — a solution that is 
foolishness to the world. 

Anyone dealing with youth should read The Adolescent, the recently 
published proceedings of the Fordham Institute of Pastoral Psychology. 
Also, McCormick, SJ, has a very complete article on "Heterosexuality 
and Adolescence" in The Review for Religious, Jan. 1963, p. 75. 

J. Fichter, SJ, "Anti-clericalism" in Critic, 1963 — examines the gener- 
alizations made recently concerning the increase of lay-clergy tensions. 
He examines the recent literature, reports on a nation-wide study of priests 
and people and concludes (what is today verified in South America) 
". . . the real danger of anticlericalism will come from the conservative 
reactionary laity. These are the people already causing us trouble. They 


want to keep the status quo. They find the Church too liberal on race 
relations, on labor unions, on social justice." 

Problems developing from Supreme Court decisions on the relationship 
of religion to education (cf. whole issue of Social Order, March, 1963) 
will make the Church in the United States all the more resourceful — 
apostolic, to implant morality. (Cf. V. Novak, "How Best to Implant 
Morality" in Guide, Dec. 1962, p. 6.) Especially, when in a recent survey 
of Catholic couples 36% thought that divorce laws should be relaxed; 
33% didn't consider birth control immoral; 48% said what a mature per- 
son does with his body is his own concern; 52% said it would make a 
difference if they took a job where they had to take orders from a negro. 
(Cf. Schidler, "Catholics and Catholic Values" in Apostolate, 1963, p. 37.) 

Medical-Moral Matters 

Writing in his Alumni magazine, Dr. Bauer puts together a mosaic 
composed of thalidomide, "population explosion," individual rights, etc. 
The emerging picture is the popular and persuasive justification for the 
Brave New World. As Dr. B. warns ... "no member of society can be 
secure if that society adopts a three-pronged approach to solving problems 
in living — sterilization, abortion and euthanasia. What is now permissive 
and voluntary may inevitably become compulsory and mandated." Francis 
Bauer, M.D., "Sterilization and Abortion," Redman, 1963, p. 27. 

Relations between superiors and subjects pose new problems when the 
medical problems involve psychiatry. Professional secrecy, common good, 
individual rights, paternal forum, etc., are all elements that must be har- 
monized. This Father Ford, SJ, does in "Superiors, Subjects and Psy- 
chiatry" in CTS Proceedings, 1962. 

Pastoral Psychology 

One of the best articles written in recent years on the dynamics of scru- 
pulosity is reprinted in the new magazine Insight. Written by Dr. George 
Mora, it is entitled "Interpersonal Dynamics between Priest and Penitent." 
(Insight 1:1) 

Under the general heading of "maturity and spiritual direction," we 
would like to recommend three articles that could be read with profit by 
those engaged in this phase of apostolic activity. First is by Leo Hettich, 
"Personal Maturity — Some Viewpoints and Themes." (Insight: I, 2). 
H. examines maturity from four perspectives: psychological, philosophi- 


cal, theological and intuitive — and then highlights some themes of per- 
sonal maturity. Second is by T. Gannon: "Emotional Growth and Spiritual 
Growth." {Ibid.) Here G. attempts to answer the question: "To what 
extent can psychological insight into man's emotional life contribute to 
a solution of the problem of spiritual growth?" The third article is by 
Father Augustine Paul, CP, "Maturity and Spirituality" in CTS Proceed- 
ings, 1962. The author divides his paper into two parts. The first part 
concerns the question: "Can the neurotic be a saint?" To this the answer 
is a consoling "yes." The second part of the paper is a work of constructive 
theology. Simultaneously he brings into focus three categories of being: 

a) the instinctive drives upon which even our spiritual life must be built; 

b) the characteristic of the neurosis which is an index of unsolved con- 
flicts among our instinctive drives; c) the truths of faith which supply 
dogmatic motivation for harnessing those instinctive drives to the pursuit 
of maturity. 

G. Ramsey: "Aids for the Minister in Detecting Early Maladjustments," 
in Pastoral Psychology, Feb. 1963 ... an article based on a training course 
given to Air Force Chaplains. Such things as overactivity, underactivity, 
depression, emotional variability, tension- reducing habits, etc., are all well 
harmonized into an article that will have great demand. 


Desmond J. Vella: "Canon Law 

Canon Law and ^ M y stical Bod y>" /**»'* 

October 1962. In Mystici Corporis 
Pius XII declared: "There can be 
no real opposition or conflict be- 
tween the invisible mission of the Holy Spirit and the juridical com- 
mission of Ruler and Teacher received from Christ. Like body and soul 
in us, they complement and perfect each other, and have their source in 
our Redeemer." Vella's article develops this idea. His theme: "The juridi- 
cal aspect of the Church, therefore, is not something artificial and extrane- 
ous. It pertains genuinely and integrally to the social activity of the 
Mystical Body. ... A realization of the place of law in the salvific mission 
of the Mystical Body of Christ will enable us to employ Canon Law 
according to its true science and spirit with the maximum benefit for 


John F. Dede, S.S.: "Business Pursuits of Clerics and Religious," The 
Jurist, January 1963. This short, clear and well-documented paper, deliv- 
ered last October at the Canon Law Convention, is a commentary on Canon 
142 and the decree of 1950 which punishes grave violations of this canon 
with an ipso facto excommunication specially reserved to the Holy See. 

Dede maintains: "It would seem, then, a valid assertion to say that not 
all profit is forbidden. What is forbidden is the amassing of superfluous 
wealth as an end in itself, through the practice of forbidden business 
dealings." This element is lacking, he thinks, when "the operation is 
carried on solely for a restricted purpose which is for the good of the 
Church, that is, providing for the works of religion and charity, the sup- 
port of the clergy, the spread of the faith." 

Confessors for religious and priests will be interested in Dede's com- 
ment on the materia notabilis required for incurring the excommunica- 
tion: "We would submit, then, that it is safe to say that when the habitual 
practice of illicit business by a cleric or religious reaps a profit of $5000 or 
more, then there has been a grave violation of the law, and given the neces- 
sary subjective conditions, the automatic penalty of excommunication spe- 
cially reserved to the Holy See is incurred." 

Funeral Masses on Prohibited Days: On June 22, 1962, the Congre- 
gation of Rites granted, for a period of ten years, the faculty of offering 
a funeral Mass in the dioceses of the United States on certain days other- 
wise prohibited by n. 406 of the new Code of Rubrics (I960). 

Provided (1) the body be present and (2) at least one Mass corre- 
sponding to the Mass of the day be offered in the church where the fu- 
neral rites are celebrated, the Funeral Mass is thus permitted on the 
following feasts: 

1 ) Most Sacred Heart of Jesus 

2) St. Joseph (March 19) 

3) Sts. Peter and Paul 

4) Vigil of Christmas 

5) Anniversary of the Dedication of the Church where the funeral 
rites are celebrated 

6) Feast of the Titular of the Church where the funeral rites are 
celebrated. _ The j^^ 0ctober 1962> p# 483> 


Papal Permission for Alienation: Superiors and those Fathers who are 
confessors for religious will be interested in an important change in the 
sum requiring permission from the Holy See for acts of alienation. 

Commentarium pro Religiosis, 1962, p. 227, reports that on June 30, 
1962, the Congregation of Religious raised from $5000 to $15,000 the 
sum requiring papal permission. Canon 534 lists the acts to which this 
sum applies. Canon 2347, 3° punishes with an ipso facto excommunication 
those who knowingly fail to obtain papal permission when it is required 
b y c - 534. i # ^ 

"The ability to recruit — and to inspire and direct youths — is not some- 
thing every priest or religious has instinctively. It is a skill that is devel- 
oped — something a person is trained to use expertly. It is based on knowl- 
edge: knowledge of how God calls an individual to His service; knowledge 
of how the Church calls a person to the religious life or priesthood ; and 
knowledge of human nature." In view of these words of Godfrey Poage, 
CP, everyone interested in the promotion and development of vocations 
should read Selection and Incorporation of Candidates for the Religious 
Life by Basil Frison, CMF (Bruce, Milwaukee, $5.75). 

Frison's book is a commentary on Articles 31-34 of Sedes Sapientiae 
which deal with: 1) the nature of the requisite vocation; 2) the promo- 
tion of vocations; 3) admission to novitiate; and 4) the advancement of 
students to profession and to Orders. The author also offers an extensive 
treatment of the Instruction Religiosorum Institutio of Feb. 2, 1961, which 
deals with the selection and investigation of candidates for the religious 
priesthood. He comments on the Holy Office's Monitum concerning psy- 
choanalysis and shows that the Monitum in no way lessens the force of 
norms requiring that the candidates' psychological fitness be investigated; 
e.g., n. 31 of Religiosorum Institutio. 

Review for Religious, May, 1962, carries five interesting articles on the 
International Congress on Vocations held in Rome. Three of the articles 
are addresses made at the Congress, including that of Godfrey Poage, 
CP, the first major address ever delivered by a Vatican official before a 
Roman Congress in English. This same issue also carries an article by 
Thomas Dubay, S.M., on "Public Relations and the Vocation Shortage." 

* * * 
Joseph F. Gallen, SJ, in "Questions and Answers," Review for Re- 


ligious, January, 1963, pp. 97-100, deals with the use of Canon 522 in 
hearing the confessions of an entire community of Sisters, when requested 
to do so by a pastor or by a Mother Superior. Gallen's answer is the most 
liberal interpretation to appear thus far in any American publication. 
He points out that Canon 522 demands only two conditions for validity: 
1) that the confessor have jurisdiction for at least one other woman, secu- 
lar or religious; 2) that he hear the confessions in a legitimate place. He 
maintains that such a use of Canon 522 will also be licit, especially when 
it is not prudently possible to secure a supplementary confessor or another 
priest who possesses special jurisdiction for the Sisters. 

— Fintan Lombard, CP, JCL 

Reading in the history of philos- 
ophy is often a good way to re- Philosophy 
activate one's interest in philosophy. 
Any work of Etienne Gilson is 
worthwhile. But it may be that his 

historical work has been his best. And so Modern Philosophy, a new his- 
torical work treating the period from Descartes to Kant, is recommended, 
coming as it does from the hand of a master and giving as it does an 
historical survey of a most important period. (Random House) 

For those who may wonder just what America has contributed to the 
general philosophical scene, The Spirit of American Philosophy by 
John Smith may be of interest. (Oxford: $5) Lucidly and logically the 
contributions of such men as William James, Josiah Royce, John Dewey 
and Alfred North Whitehead are set forth. 

The Education of Man is an anthology of the work of Jacques Maritain 
on "the philosophy of education and the status of Christian education at 
the present time." (Doubleday: $3.95) It is very Thomistic in manner. 
Some reviewers have found some parts of the book weak. But still it is 
a worthwhile survey of a very important subject. 

Turning to recent periodicals, Philosophy Today (Winter, 1962) has 
two articles of more than passing interest. Everyone seems to be writing 
on this subject, but still "Morality and Depth Psychology" by Louis Gei- 
ger, OP, has some worthwhile Thomistic observations. Another article, 
"Blondel and Our Times," gives a brief survey of the work of one of the 
most important Catholic figures on the recent philosophical scene. 


The Critic (April-May, 1963) has an article by Brother Luke Grande, 
FSC, which is entitled "Existentialism in Modern Drama." Again this 
is a subject which is a perennial favorite in Sunday magazines, etc. But 
this article is interesting and informative for anyone interested in seeing 
how and to what degree the minds of some dramatists have been captured, 
or at least influenced, by Existentialism. 

Two articles in World Justice (December, 1962) merit attention. 
Michael Fogarty's "Principles of Legal Intervention in Social Security," 
calmly and convincingly discusses the intervention of the state in the 
economy. The article treats of the causes that justify and even at times 
necessitate such intervention. The hazards of such intervention and the 
considerations that should restrain it are also set forth. In the same issue 
Con Kuppens, in an article entitled "A Legal Philosophical Analysis of 
the Population Problem," begins with a cold, abstract presentation of the 
principles consequent on man's right to life. The second half of the article 
lines up these principles with the terrible imbalance and inequity that do 
exist in the world today, inequities of wealth and territorial room to live. 
The wealth of America and the poverty of Asia, the crowded conditions of 
Japan and the vast open spaces of Australia are some of the imbalances 
that justice cannot ignore. Kuppens sets forth the demands of justice in 
a convincing, unhysterical mode. 

— Patrick McDonough, CP, PhL 

From Karl Marx to Mao Tse- 
Sociology Tsung by Henri Chambre, SJ. (P. 

J. Kenedy and Sons, New York. 
~ $4.95) Just translated from the 

French, Father Chambre' s exposi- 
tion of the tenets and development of Communist theory from Marx to 
the present is comprehensive (including recent developments in inter- 
national politics) as well as clear and orderly. 

The Emerging Layman by Donald Thorman. (Doubleday, Garden City, 

N. Y.) A strictly American, "feet on the ground" statement of where 

we stand on the lay apostolate and what the future can hold. A simple 

and practical book. A study group could take it chapter by chapter. 

Right Reverend New Dealer: John A. Ryan by Francis Broderick. 


(Macmillan, N. Y. $5.95) The colorful career of a controversial pioneer. 
Well written, objective. With some reservations, even The Tablet ap- 

Pius XII and Technology by Rev. Leo J. Haigerty. (Bruce, Milwaukee. 
$4.75) Thirty-four complete addresses and excerpts from thirty-five others 
on the subjects Pius XII called his "constant preoccupation." With a bril- 
liant introduction, ample notes and index. 

"American Catholics and the Radical Right" by Stanley Rothman {Social 
Order, April, 1963.) For the paradoxical tendency of a substantial seg- 
ment of American Catholicism to adhere to the super-patriotism of the 
"far right fringe," a distinguished Columbia professor proposes a socio- 
historical explanation. 

"Mater et Magistra and Its Commentators" by Donald Campion, SJ. 
(Theological Studies, March 1963) A summation of Catholic and secular 
reaction to Pope John's monumental social encyclical with a compre- 
hensive bibliography. 

"Right of Migration" by Marcelino Zapico, OP. (Theology Digest, 
Spring, 1963) Facing the problem of population pressures and the un- 
equal distribution of resources, the author asserts a right, founded in the 
jus gentium, to migration. 

"Things Old and New in Pacem in Terris" by John Courtney Murray, 
SJ. (America, April 22, 1963) Some initial but penetrating reflections on 
the encyclical, its salient points and significant advances over previous 
teachings of the Magisterium. 

"Some Information on the Present Situation of American Catholics" by 
Andrew Greeley (Social Order, April, 1963). A positive and highly opti- 
mistic analysis of recent statistics on the religious, educational and eco- 
nomic position of American Catholics. 

— Michael Joseph Brennan, CP, MA, PhL 

"Inertia in Business Ethics," by Baumhart, SJ, and Fitzpatrick, SJ, 
(America 6-1-63). Theme well indicated by subtitle: "Why can't business- 
men and theologians get together on these tangled problems?" A myopic 
comment from the business side of the table: "Theologians are the laziest 
men in the world . . . they don't have to worry about eating." In 1948, 
at the Chicago convention of the Catholic Theological Society, Godfrey 
Schmidt, attorney for New York Archdiocese, chided theologians for 
neglect of capital-labor problems. Entering this field, our Father Boniface 


Cousins is about to join Father Baumhart, SJ, at Harvard, for a course 
and degree in business administration. There will be endless demand 
for the written and spoken word of a moralist with this additional 

trainin S' -AMcD 

" March 7 — Since 1926, many of 

Pf rim tfie our fathers attained their graduate 

degrees in the sacred sciences at the 
Cell £111 Hill athenaeum Angelkum. On the pa- 

tronal feast, John XXIII visited 
~~ ~~ "" ~ the Angelkum, elevating its status 

to that of a university, and desig- 
nating it under the new title of The 
Pontifical University of St. Thomas. 
March 18, 19, 20 — The Basilica of Saints John and Paul was the setting 
of the solemn triduum in honor of the first native-born American to be 
beatified. On three successive evenings, pontifical Mass was celebrated by 
Cardinals Ritter, Cicognani, and Larraona. Cardinal Spellman presided in 
the sanctuary of his titular church. Other memorable features of each 
evening: the Sistine Choir; seminarians from the North American College, 
as minor officers of the functions; over 1,000 sisters. The city floodlighted 
the facade and campanile of our church. The triduum was hosted by the 
Vincentian Fathers, the postulators of the cause of Blessed Elizabeth Seton. 
April — At the urgent invitation of the Bishop of Capetown, Father 
Barnabas Ahern of the Western Province went to Ghana, to give confer- 
ences to the clergy, and to lecture at the university. 

Discourses of Pope John XXIII 

The following thoughts have been culled from addresses given by Pope 
John XXIII, selected because of their pertinence to priests, future priests 
and the sacerdotal ministry. 

1) "The social order changes but the demands of the human spirit re- 
main intact. Men of all times seek, in the man of God, one who dispenses 
truth, consolation and goodness. To assist the needs of our brethren with 


a father's heart and with unshaken confidence in the help of God's grace 
always produces abundant fruits, even though they may not be immediate. 
This is a consoling truth which should encourage each one to spend him- 
self generously for the triumph of God's kingdom in the place assigned 
to him by God's will. The apostle must not seek immediate consolations 
or visible results ; rather he should keep his gaze fixed on the pastoral and 
missionary horizons of the Church. The future is in the hands of God 
and is full of supernatural promise for one who endeavors to work with 
extreme fidelity right to the end. 

"The glorification of St. Vincent Pallotti invites everyone to gi\e him- 
self to the primary and principal work: HOLINESS OF LIFE through 
the sanctification of souls. This encouragement to holiness is reinvigorated 
and takes on a special resonance in this year of the Council, which intends 
to exalt the marks of Holiness and Apostolicity along with the other marks 
of the Church. Pastoral activity is not based on human instruments, shrewd- 
ness, or the power of technical means. Certainly it knows how to use these, 
but above all, it knows how to evaluate them for that little which they 
are. Without denying their real and true value, we know that their efficacy 
is nil where prayer is absent, where Eucharistic worship, profound knowl- 
edge of the Sacred Scriptures and the patrimony of Christian asceticism is 
lacking. St. Vincent Pallotti shows us the primacy of prayer; the hierarchy 
of values, subordinating every other demand to that of holiness in oneself 
and in others." 

2) "The good priest draws profit from the gifts of grace which the 
Church offers him for the perfect development of his priesthood. Our 
Lord never abandons good priests. God looks after them with special 
paternal care. Priests must live mortified lives, stopping or controlling 
with many a decisive No, the velleities and caprices of the senses, and, at 
times, even good inclinations, which are to be disciplined for the sake of 
the whole. Becoming a good priest certainly does not mean seeking per- 
sonal advantage but working fervently for the complete victory of Our 
Lord Jesus Christ. It is not enough to live in conformity with Christian 
teaching and then take refuge in isolation, maintaining that our task is 
done. That is not enough. Our Lord willed and wills the salvation of all. 
Look at the Council: what rich developments and perfection it is indicat- 
ing! Already the Council attests to the union willed by Our Lord, the 
union of all peoples, though of different origin and race, with their vari- 


eties of language, rites and customs. At the first moments, we might have 
looked upon this with fear and apprehension; today it opens our hearts 
to the deepest of hopes. It is beautiful to live, to sacrifice oneself and even 
to die, if necessary, for such a sublime ideal. May each one of you always 
proclaim the good news: Christ is living, Christ is victorious." 

3) "Go out to seek the sheep almost everywhere. You must teach these 
sheep the way which leads to the Temple of the Lord. It is in the Lord's 
Temple that the Word of God is dispensed in its own atmosphere. 

"In a church, however small or modest it be, there is a certain grace 
of place. Consider the beauty of the House of God, where sacred services 
are well prepared, where a fervent parochial community by its communal 
prayer and chant seems to sustain the priest at the altar. It is in these 
sanctuaries which vibrate with faith, that many distracted and fallen away 
souls have rediscovered the meaning of Christian life, the grace and bless- 
ing of belonging to the Church. 

"Dispense the Word of God generously. The Word of God is the seed. 
(Luke 8:11) Don't fear about its abundance or apparent waste. The scien- 
tific technique of modern advertising has no fear of repetition; the priest 
sometimes does. It can even happen that he holds back from refilling the 
furrows with the seed of God's word precisely when it is more necessary 
and obligatory, namely, in the summer time. The power of the Apostle's 
teaching is always vital: "preach the word, be urgent in season, out of 
season . . . with all patience and teaching. (I Tim. 4:2) The one who 
sows does not reap in the immediate tomorrow. The sower continues his 
work for years and years: and, when the timid stalk shall rise up from 
the earth to render its sixty or hundredfold harvest, the tired workman 
will have already, perhaps, entered into the joy of His Lord. 

"Be attentive to the way in which you explain the Word of God. Do it 
in simplicity, clarity. In this way your hearers will not misunderstand you; 
they will not be taken up with the fascination of oratory, nor will they 
stop solely at the ideas and go no farther. 

"For this reason, without rhetorical or polemical display, explain the 
social doctrine of the Church, which you must know in its entirety. Be 
very convinced that it speaks for itself, that it penetrates the hearts and 
conquers them with the power of persuasion, enlightened by the eternal 
principles of the Gospel. 


"Pastoral service opens vast horizons for your zeal. It demands of you 
youthful generosity, fervent thinking, fervent action." 

—Theodore Foley, CP, STD 

May 24 — The Vatican Radio announced the annual convention of The 
Catholic Theological Society of America, Hotel Coronado, St. Louis, June 
24-27. Programmed speakers: The Very Rev. Gerard Rooney, CP, the 
Rev. Bertin Farrell, CP, the Rev. Carroll Stuhlmueller, CP. 

Divine Word News Service will provide a world-wide mailing service, in 
12 languages, on Ecumenical Council news, during the second session of 
the Council. Releases will be mailed from Rome, once or twice weekly. 
For three months, the air-mail edition will cost $10.00; the surface- 
mail edition, $5.00. Send remittance before August 15, to Rev. Ralph 
M. Wiltgen, SVD, Divine Word News Service, Collegio del Verbo 
Divino, Via dei Verbiti, Roma, Italia. 

Teilbard de Chardin: 

Concerning the controversy over Qu^6StlOH6S 

the writings of Pere Teilhard de .p.. 

Chardin mentioned in the January JJlSpUtatae 

issue of VC, I thought, in fairness 

to Pere Teilhard, that the following 
points should have been set forth: 

1) none of the writings of Teilhard has been placed on the Index; 

2) the monitum deliberately avoids making any judgment on his scientific 
theories as such; 3) his personal loyalty to the Church has not been 
impugned by the monitum of the Holy Office; 4) nowhere does the 
monitum attribute any particular error to Pere Teilhard and condemn it 
as held by him; 5) the monitum of June 30, 1962 "exhorts the Ordinaries, 
as well as all Superiors of Religious Institutes, Rectors of Seminaries and 
Presidents of Universities to efficaciously protect souls, especially of youth, 
against the dangers of the works of Pere Teilhard de Chardin and his 
followers." It is very interesting, especially in view of the present contro- 
versy over Teilhard, that the Holy Office refrained from condemning his 
works by placing them on the Index. 


Priests and students who wish to know what this controversy is all about 
might do well to read the article "The Phenomenon of Man, A Review of 
the Reviews" by John P. Dedek, in the first issue of Chicago Studies, An 
Archdiocesan Review, Spring 1962. 

It may be pertinent to note with reference to Christian prudence that, 
ecclesiastical authorities understandably at one time forbade many writings 
of Pere Lagrange to be used by seminarians. His famous lectures at Tou- 
louse, published under the title "La Methode Historique," in which he 
treated of the literary forms of the Bible, were for many years the object 
of sharp controversy and grave suspicion. With the passage of time and 
progress in biblical research the atmosphere cleared and finally Pius XII 
in the encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu "canonized" the exegetical prin- 
ciples of Lagrange's "La Methode Historique." 

—Richard Kugelman, CP, STL, SSL 

Multiple Enrollments 

Another correspondent writes that, in our explanation of the reason for 
accepting more than one enrollment for the same party in The Passionist 
Benefactors' Society, it would have been pertinent to emphasize that, after 
all, it is a benefactors' society, and just as our Lord does not allow even a 
cup of water given in His Name to go without its reward, so also does 
He bless those who, by alms to us, further the work of a Congregation 
completely dedicated to the extension of His kingdom. 

And Father Provincial writes in that these enrollments are more prop- 
erly referred to as enrollments in The Passionist Benefactors' Society. 
They are for the living as well as for the dead. They advance the work 
of the Congregation, while also providing spiritual benefits for those en- 
rolled, whether living or deceased. To call them "purgatorials" is to under- 
state their complete purpose. Especially today, such a designation leads to 
misunderstanding, and invites unfortunate controversy. 

— AMcD 

"... VC contains many items of interest and information, and promises 
to be a good instrument for keeping the Passionist of the USA well 
informed." (W) 




Oremus 1 

Editorial 2 

Passiology 3 

Spiritual 5 

Theology ^ Dogmatic 9 

Moral 12 

Sacred Scripture 14 

Liturgy 16 

Pastoral Theology 19 

Canon Law ....... 22 

Philosophy 25 

Sociology 26 

From the Celian Hill 28 

Quaestiones Dispulatae 31 


"The roots of education are bitter, but 
the fruit is sweet." (Aristotle) 

"The lips of the priest shall keep knowledge, 
and they shall seek the law at his mouth" 

(Mal.: II: 7) 

". . . The word of the cross . . .is . . .to us . . . the power of God! 1 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

TSwbum (Eruris 

Vol. I July, A.D. 1963 No. 3 

Hertmm (Eruria 

Vol. I July, A.D. 1963 

A Quarterly Review of Clerical Literature 
Published by the Passionist Fathers 
Province of Saint Paul of the Cross. 

Cum Superiorum permissu 

Ad instar manuscript* 

For private circulation only 

Opinions expressed by contributors do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the editor. 


86-45 178 Street 

Jamaica 32, N. Y. 

Telephone: AXtel 7-0044 

Cable Address: Veecee New York 

Progress is a bewitching word. 
It captures the imagination and 
fires the emotions. The dream of 


new horizons is a challenge to the 

courageous and an escape for the -C/dltOri^l 

weak. Progress can be a tempta- 
tion and an inspiration, it pro- 
vides both the dangers and glories 
of growth. 

Our world is in ferment, the Church is in ferment. Old ideas and 
established patterns are being challenged, honored formulations are being 
reevaluated. Facets of reason and revelation are receiving new stress. 

Honest differences are argued among dedicated men. This struggle is 
the law of Christian life. Out of this agony comes the ecstasy of a new 
birth. The Holy Spirit is again brooding over the earth and His breath 
is like a mighty wind. In Genesis and at Pentecost that breath brought 
forth a new creation. 

We are privileged to struggle for the creation of a new life for the 
Body of Christ. But we must strain to hear the word spoken by the 
Holy Spirit. 

Struggle is always difficult. But when our struggle is against an out- 
side force or towards a clearly known goal, we strive with an inner 
assurance. Today a large part of our struggle is concerning and within 
a framework we have known and loved. Our lives, our attitudes, our 
thought-patterns have been molded by this framework. Yet we must 
struggle, honestly and courageously, to see whether the various parts of 
this framework are still the most effective means to procure the growth 
of the Body of Christ. Our struggle is with our own attitudes and 

To do this necessitates an acquaintance with the thoughts and attitudes 
of others. We do not necessarily accept their conclusions and convictions. 
With deep respect for their sincerity and integrity, we listen to them, 
read their works and discuss their ideas. It is normal that we react against 
an opinion which rejects an idea we have long cherished. To keep our 
minds open to the movements of the Holy Spirit despite this normal 
human reaction is a hard struggle. 

As preachers of the good news of salvation we must make the effort. 
Whenever and wherever the Holy Spirit moves, we must march. If the 

Holy Spirit is inspiring new attitudes and approaches, we surely want 
to be the first to know them, to love them and to use them. All the good 
things of creation must become meaningful realities in our minds and 
lives. For we are to bring Christ, incarnate in history and still living in 
the world, into the lives of today's men. 

Education in the Congregation is on the move. In the past we more 
than adequately met the challenge of that day, preparing effective 
preachers to meet the minds and move the hearts of their contemporaries. 
The mood and mentality of today's world is vastly different. Ours is the 
awesome challenge and responsibility of bringing Christ into the hearts 
and homes of our contemporaries today and tomorrow. A few days before 
his death, Pius XII wrote: "One does not become a perfect priest unless, 
in some way, one is a perfect man. . . . You may be sure that one can- 
not be an effective instrument of the Church unless he is equipped with 
a culture appropriate to the times." 

Our own personal attitudes and appreciations must be geared to that 
goal — to be an effective instrument of the Church. The intellectual, 
priestly, and apostolic formation of our young religious must enable them 
to be modern apostles as effective as the great Passionists of our own day 
have been. 

Holy Mother the Church has given us many directives toward achieving 
that goal. More will probably come from the Council and revised Canon 
Law. In addition to legal directives the Church has formulated guiding 
principles and strong statements of the ideal. Our own clear vision and 
stout courage must concretize these principles and achieve these ideals. 
Christian zeal urges us to take the initiative towards the realization of a 
renewed vigor in the Body of Christ. 

Our American provinces have already taken giant and courageous steps 
toward that end. We have a trained personnel completely competent in 
their various fields. As new areas open up we prepare men to help us 
in these matters also. At no small sacrifice, men and money have been 
poured into the educational endeavor. These efforts are not merely for 
the future generations of Passionist preachers, but they are also a help to 
the present laborers in the vineyard. 

This publication, Verbum Crucis, is another milestone in that continu- 
ing endeavor. Through its pages the hard and often hidden work of one 
group of Passionists is made even more fruitful for the rest of us. The 
collaboration in these pages and their contribution to the good of the 

Congregation is a marvelous manifestation of a true and great com- 
munity spirit. 

Through a studious reading and prayerful pondering of the material 
presented in this magazine, our lives and our work will be enriched. 
This is the struggle of which we spoke — the effort to digest and assimilate 
new insights and techniques, to adapt perennial truths to present con- 
ditions. The rewards are exhilarating. 

I am sincerely happy to be able to write for this issue of Verbum Crucis 
and to add my words of warm congratulations. I congratulate those 
whose vision conceived this periodical and whose courage brought it to 
print. I congratulate those whose years of dedicated study have made its 
matter so excellent and pertinent. But to me the most heartening aspect 
is the interest and zeal of those who have received the Verbum Crucis 
so enthusiastically. Such open-minded eagerness augers well for the 
progress of the Congregation and through her the Church, of whose life 
we live and whose body we are. 

— James Patrick White, CP 
Provincial, Holy Cross Province 

A cordial welcome to the Very 
Reverend Father Provincial, and to 
the Lectors of Holy Cross Province ! 


Our especial appreciation to 
Bishop Cuthbert for his contribution, written at the Eternal City, during the 
papal interregnum. 

Not a few monks have expressed the hope that, they can look to VC 
for guidance re new and worthwhile publications, adapted to the needs of 
missionaries and retreat masters. From the next issue onward, a sector 
of our annotated bibliography will be planned accordingly. 

Most of the contributors to Verbum Crucis are the Lectors of the North 
American Provinces. The students add up to a considerable percentage 


of our readers. Hence, it is timely to keynote the new scholastic year, 

An aureole is a special feature of a person's accidental beatitude. In 
particular, a Lector's aureole has the aspect of an appropriate reward, it 
is a divine recognition of the contribution made by the teacher to the 
Church Militant and, therefore, to the Church Triumphant. How does 
the Lector merit that reward? What entitles him to that divine recog- 
nition ? There must be an answer to the question — an answer that appeals 
to the Divine Teacher as an adequate reason for the recompense proph- 
esied by Daniel: "They that are learned shall shine as the brightness of 
the firmament: and they that instruct many unto justice, as stars for all 
eternity." (XII :3) The Divine Teacher Himself has assured us: "He 
that shall do and teach, he shall be called great in the kingdom of 
heaven." (Matt. V:19) 

We venture to formulate the answer to the question as follows. The 
Lector is a human instrument divinely attuned — an active member not 
only of the Ecclesia Discern, but also of the Ecclesia Docens. His position 
in the economy of the Teaching Church is auxiliary, subordinate, but 
notwithstanding that subordination, his contribution is professionally 
reliable, influential, invaluable. An endeavor to locate, within the struc- 
ture of the Church Militant, the proper niche of the Lector is not 
wishful thinking. Rather, it is an identifiable application of the provi- 
dential strategem so often referred to as divine-human instrumentality. 
It is not an attempt to inflate his importance. Rather, it is an endeavor 
to clarify and to emphasize the important vocation attested to by the 
Apostle: "And God hath indeed set some in the Church: first, apostles; 
secondly, prophets; thirdly, doctors." (1 Cor. XII:38) 

It is impossible to have a Church Ruling and a Church Sanctifying, 
without a Church Teaching. Why? Nil volitum ni praecognitum. Unless, 
and until we have convinced human intellects, we cannot persuade human 
hearts. Hence, to rule intelligently, to sanctify intelligently, we must 
first of all teach. 

From Baptism to Extreme Unction, the supernatural health of the 
Church Militant depends, in great measure, upon the training of our 
candidates for the priesthood. The ratio between their orthodoxy and 
the orthodoxy of the faithful at large is obvious. And the training of 
the Second Christ is entrusted, in depth and for many long years, to our 
Lectors. Hence, the Lector is delegated by and is answerable to the 

Ordinarius Personarum. The voice of the Lector simply must be a true 
echo of the Vox Ecclesiae Docentis. 

One of the best ways to characterize the lifework of a Lector is to 
refer to it as a case of divine-human instrumentality. An instrumental 
cause must have, inherent in itself, a fitness, a potential for the task in 
hand. Because of that fitness, the principal cause employs one instru- 
ment rather than another. For example, because of the juxtaposition of 
the blades and their sharpness, a shears is adapted for cutting. As an 
instrument, it is ideally suited — but only under the guidance of the hand, 
the eye, the mind of the tailor. Both causes, the principal and the instru- 
mental, rfloperate to produce the garment. 

Instrumental causality explains the efficacy of the sacramental system. 
God's own masterpiece of divine-human instrumentality, so enthused over 
by the Abbot Vonier in his Personality of Christ is the hypostatic union, 
whereby the Humanity of Christ became the conjoined, animated instru- 
ment of divinity. 

To the point: We find this teamwork of causal factors exemplified in 
the case of the Lectorate. To their own intellectual, instrumental exertion 
there is conjoined as a principal causal factor, the official guidance of 
that element of the Teaching Church which is graced by the infallibility of 
the Holy Spirit. As long as and to the extent that, the Lectorate is co- 
operative with that principal causal factor, it is supernaturally attuned 
as a human instrument of the Divine Teacher Himself. 

It is in order to add a few words as to the Lectors' realization of 
perspective. The Ecclesia Docens is related, as means to end, to the 
Ecclesia Sanctificans. So, too, the work and accomplishments of the Lec- 
tor. No one is more alertly aware than the Lector himself, as to the long 
range objective of his apostolate, or as to his constant need for super- 
natural help. Without help of that caliber, he would not be divinely 
attuned, as an instrumental cause he would be useless. 

The Lector is less concerned about IQ, than about a normal telepathy 
between his spirit, between the spirits of his students, and the Holy 
Spirit. He is intent predominantly upon the normal development of the 
graces of a lifetime — the graces of Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Orders. 
In harmony with the Successors to the Apostles, the intellectual auxiliaries 
of the Ecclesia Docens are intent upon the more influential presentation of 
the Word of God, the more devout celebration of the Eucharistic sacri- 
fice, the more fruitful reception of the sacraments. That unearthly objec- 

tive, and professional clerical knowledge as a means thereunto are the 

reasons for existence of the Passionist Lectorate. . , , ~ 

— AMcD 

. t The Primacy of the 

Passiology passion ^ ^ ^ 

of a Passionist 

Rome, June 29 — In the past few weeks, the entire world has knelt by 
the bedside of a dying Pontiff. It was during these days of excruciating 
suffering that, Pope John XXIII attained the climax of his personal 
participation in the mystery of Our Lord's Passion and Death. As he 
lay in agony, he offered himself up as a victim for the Church. This act 
was but the culmination of a whole life dedicated to Christ Crucified. 
For Pope John, the Passion was a contemporary reality, a personal experi- 
ence. On August 10, 1961, during retreat in preparation for his eightieth 
birthday, he wrote down this sentiment: "Of all the mysteries of the life 
of Jesus, the most adapted and the most familiar in the daily devotion of 
the Holy Father is 'pati et contemni pro Christo et cum Christo.' " Three 
days later, he added this maxim of perfection: "I must acknowledge my- 
self as called by God precisely for this — to live in complete tranquility 
with regard to everything which may befall not only me but also the 
Church, always working for her and suffering with Christ for her." 

For every Christian, the Passion must always be a contemporary reality 
in which he has a part. For the Passionist Religious, the mystery of the 
sufferings of Christ must ever be for him a continuous and vital personal 
experience, if he is to fulfill the lofty vocation to which he has been 
called. We shall consider in this paper some reasons why a Passionist 
must have a full acquaintance with, and a personal participation in the 
mystery of the Sacred Passion if, like the beloved and lamented Pope John, 
this mystery is to dominate his life. 

(1) The spirit of the Rule prompts it: 

The Passionist Religious takes upon himself by vow, the obligation 
of promoting "among the faithful a grateful remembrance of and devotion 
toward the Passion and Death of Our Lord, Jesus Christ." 

A thoughtful perusal of Chapter XVI of the Holy Rule, treating of the 
manner of fulfilling the Fourth Vow, must impress the reader with the 
emphasis Saint Paul of the Cross laid upon the serious study of the 
Passion. He wishes his sons to temper all their works with a knowledge 
of this mystery, and to apply its saving lessons to every circumstance of 
life. His conception of a Passionist missioner is one that can speak freely 
to any class of hearers upon the mystery of the Passion, and who is able 
to show therein the cure of their spiritual maladies, the solution of their 
spiritual difficulties. The efficient carrying out of this fond wish of our 
holy Founder demands, besides the spirit of prayer, the habit of reflection 
— a serious systematic study of the Sacred Passion in its manifold phases. 

Is it not reasonable to conclude, in view of the distinctive aim of our 
Congregation that, of two Passionist religious who in all else are on a par, 
the one who has delved deepest into the mystery of Christ's Passion, who 
is most conversant with its application to the conditions of life about him, 
will bring forth greater fruit to Christ than the other? Therefore, it 
should be the ambition of the Passionist student to steep himself, both 
heart and mind, in the incidents of the Savior's life. 

(2) The Congregation's position in the Church demands it: 

Not only are we prompted to an assiduous study of the Passion by the 
Holy Rule, but a realization of the specific place held by the Passionist 
Congregation in the Church will spur every Passionist to take the neces- 
sary means to fit himself to help his mother, the Congregation, to fulfill 
her divine mission. The formal determination to preach the Passion of 
Jesus Christ makes our Congregation a separate entity in the Church. 
It was because of this distinctive feature that, the young Congregation 
received the solemn approval of successive Pontiffs, and the same dis- 
tinctive feature claims today the respect of the hierarchy, the clergy, the 

Our Congregation claims to be, by divine appointment, the teacher par 
excellence of the Sacred Passion. Where are men to turn for instruction 
in the doctrines of the Cross, convincingly given, if not to the men 
trained for this work within the Congregation of the Passion? Conse- 
quently, the Passionist should be conversant with all that is of practical 
import in the drama of redemption, a mastery of which can be acquired 
only by dint of prayerful meditation, and by unremitting study of sources 
of information. 

The matter, if not the form of the Passionist's sermon is furnished 
by Our Lord Himself, in Saint Mark's gospel. (VIII:31-39) First comes 
the narration of the Savior's suffering unto death, then follows the prac- 
tical application of that story to the life of every human being, thus 
forcibly bringing to light the supreme value of the human soul, the 
absolute necessity for penance and self-denial, the fundamental Chris- 
tian maxim that one must tread in the footsteps of Christ. But to expound 
these truths in a manner worthy of their transcendent importance requires 
an intimate, comprehensive acquaintance with the entire subject of the 

(3) Our quest for true wisdom impels it: 

The attribute of wisdom spoken of by the inspired authors may be 
defined in scholastic form, after the teaching of Saint Thomas, as: "Amor 
ordinis, quo fit ut homo iinem suae naturae sciat, et per media apta 
assequatur." In the language of the Sapiential Books, true wisdom is 
something practical — an appreciation of one's condition as a creature, a 
vivid realization of the duties owed to the Creator as a consequence, the 
subordination of all other aims to the supreme ambition of attaining the 
purpose of one's existence. 

It was the primary purpose of the Apostle of the Gentiles to instruct 
the people of his day in the essential truths of Christian teaching, to give 
them a practical rule of life which they might safely follow in the midst 
of the world's corruptions, and thus succeed in attaining the end Of 
their creation — the salvation of their immortal souls. When Saint Paul 
writes of the Passion of Christ as the wisdom of God, he means that it 
is an objective standard, divinely given, which the Christian preacher 
must hold up to the gaze of men that, they may ever have before their 
minds an epitome of Christian teaching. To the natural man of Saint 
Paul's age, to such as lived by the flesh and whose philosophy of life was 
shaped by the wisdom of the world, the "word of the Cross," was utter 
folly. "To them that are called" — that is, to the j/z/wnatural man, "the 
word of the Cross" became the "wisdom of God," the safe road to 
"justice and sanctification and redemption." (1 Cor. 1:30) 

The avowed aim of Saint Paul of the Cross, the purpose which molded 
his entire life, the motive which prompted him to establish the Congre- 
gation of the Passion, the objective which he solemnly bequeathed to his 
sons as the chief concern of their active ministry is identical with the 

primary aim of Saint Paul the Apostle — to hold aloft to the whole world 
the standard of the Cross, to teach men the only true wisdom. 

Hence, it follows that the formal object of the Congregation of the 
Passion, its "ratio essendi" is, not to promote a mere devotion in the 
Church, but with emphasis to promulgate an essential element in the 
teaching of the New Dispensation. It is to make known to men Jesus 
Crucified, who calls Himself the stone which, though rejected by the 
builders, is become the head of the corner. For the Passionist, it is of 
supreme importance to fit himself for the preaching of the Passion of 
Christ, an accomplishment which can be attained only after severe 
apprenticeship in the school of intellectual discipline. 

In conclusion, we affirm that it is the duty of the Passionist, if he 
would initiate men into the friendship of Christ and make them devoted 
servants of the Master, to emphasize His sufferings and death. A son 
of the Passion who has striven manfully to carry out this high calling may 
look forward with confidence to an abundant share in the graces promised 
by our holy Founder, to all who endeavor to live up to the spirit of the 
Holy Rule. Moreover, we have the inspiration of Saint Peter's infallible 
avowal that, because he was a witness to the sufferings of Christ, he was 
to share in the Lord's glory. (1 Peter V:l) 

Finally, to preach Christ Crucified is to preach true wisdom. One who 
has dedicated his life to this noble work may, indeed, look forward to 
the reward promised to all who have embraced wisdom. "They that ex- 
plain wisdom shall have life everlasting." (Eccles. XXIV: 31) And, we 
who preach Christ Crucified "speak the wisdom of God in a mystery." 
(1 Cor. 11:7) 


"We will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry of 
the word." (Acts VI: 4) 

"Leadership is practically impossible for a person who lacks the ability 
to express his ideas." 

{Christopher News Notes, Feb., 1963) 

Dogmatic Reflections 

Theology on the Mass 

Sacramental theology is stressing today the personal encounter between 
man and God in the sacred gesture and sacred word. Under the aegis of 
such men as Schillebeeckx, Durrwell, Jungmann, and others we are being 
reminded that our sacraments are not things but deeds. They are the 
unique acts of Christ and the Church — involving, implanting each of us 
in the distinctness of his own personality, in the flow of sacred history 
as it stretches towards the parousia. 

Such an approach should have obvious relevance for our apostolate of 
preaching, for our attitude towards the care of souls generally. We would 
like to sketch here some ideas on the Mass. We will try to keep these 
considerations in a larger context and relate them to concepts with which 
we are quite familiar. 

St. Thomas affords us a sweeping perspective that proves, upon exam- 
ination, to be quite biblical. His exitus a Deo-reditus ad Deum theme 
finds its inspiration in the first chapters of Genesis coupled with that 
paradigm of salvation, the Exodus. Every creature experiences deep within 
itself this ontological need: to return to its Creator in accord with the 
distinct principles of its nature. In the inspirited creature which is man, 
this return must be in accord with its unique nature. It will require the 
actuation and expression of intelligence and will. 

Now, if the need for a return to the Creator, in terms of worshipful 
acknowledgment and submission is inscribed in man's very being, con- 
sidered as God's handiwork, it is all the more obvious and necessary in 
the inspirited creature who is also and simultaneously a son of God by 
adoption. In the face of this unparalleled gift, the only adequate response 
is the imitation of the perfection of the ad Patrem — in Spiritu orientation 
of the only-begotten Son. 

This Godward orientation demanded by the very principles of creature- 
liness, this ad Patrem — in Spiritu tendency instilled into man's spirit by 
the graciousness of adoption into the bosom of Trinitarian life — both of 
these were stifled and frustrated by the first man who ever enjoyed them. 
Not only did he negate this orientation and this tendency and bring them 


to nought, but in the very same deliberate act he reorientated the vital 
tendency of his being to himself as some sort of "creator" and some sort 
of "father." He wanted to become "like God" in a manner that was 
contrary to the innate principles of his natural and supernatural being. 

He was not only the first man and an individual man. He was also the 
fount and source of the entire race of spiritual creatures and adopted 
children living on earth. Thus constituted head of the race by God, what 
Adam did was done for all. 

Man, the inspirited creature living on earth, the adopted son of God, 
had not respected and seconded the inherent pattern of his natural and 
supernatural being. Not only did he fail to "return" to his Creator and 
Father, but he positively went off in another direction. God the Creator 
and Father did something further in this impasse. He willed to right this 
wrong. This wrong orientation and tendency would be corrected, and the 
true orientation and tendency would be reinstated. The prodigal would 
not only cease to go away toward a "creator" and "father" of his own 
making, but he would begin to come toward the Creator and Father of 
God's making. 

This "reorientation" was perfectly accomplished and thoroughly im- 
plemented by Jesus Christ, natural Son of God and natural Son of Man, 
enriched with supernatural being and activity. The accomplishment of 
this intellectual and volitional tendency, that gathers up the totality of the 
being of the inspirited creature in his return to God is, the commitment 
of self implicit in devotio, obedientia, caritas. This is an interior adherence, 
a thought-out yearning and willing for perfect union with man's Creator 
and Father. It is a deliberate choice welling up from the inmost recesses 
of the personality, a vital choice of GOD, without regard for what this 
may entail for SELF. 

The most perfect visible expression of this commitment will occur, 
accordingly, in that act which is so strong that it can continue to endure 
despite the very dissolution of self. In such an act the purest love is 

Mankind receives from its first Head a pattern of human response that 
it imitates in the personal activity of individuals. Mankind also receives, 
according to the divine plan, from its second Head, a pattern of human 
response that it is meant to imitate in the personal activity of individuals. 

The response of the first Head was an orientation to self away from 
God, Creator and Father. The response of the second Head was an 


orientation to God, Creator and Father, regardless of self. The first re- 
sponse is called sin and brings death. The second response is called virtue 
(the full dynamic activity of natural and supernatural powers of man) 
and brings life. 

When this all-embracing virtuous response that is life-bringing is an 
expression of the total man — i.e., when it is externally shown forth, we 
call it SACRIFICE. 

Our second Head, Jesus Christ, accomplished the perfect act of sacrifice 
at the culmination of His earthly life when He tended to His Father with 
the absolute fulness of His being. This elan vital of God the Son-made- 
Man was perfectly acceptable and completely accepted by His Father. The 
acceptance, like the offering, was fulfilled in a thoroughly human manner 
— i.e., it was visible and external, open to the comprehension of the whole 
man in Christ and in Christians. The Father glorified the Sacred Humanity 
of His Son and willed that He be presented to the race in this glorified 

What Christ did, we are given power to do. What Christ did, we also 
must do. God the Father did something for us, in order that we might 
do something for Him. He gave Himself to us and made us His people; 
we must give ourselves to Him and make Him our God. This pact, this 
covenant, was made with us eternally (on earth and in heaven) in our 
Head, Christ Jesus. But each of us must make this his own. By a gift 
He must give us the power to do it and then we must actually do it. 

Hence, we are to "do this in memory" of Christ. We are to do the 
covenant, to make as full a commitment of self as Christ did, in desire and 
in external symbol at the Supper, in actual fact on Calvary. 

The oblation of Calvary was made once and for all. The oblation of 
Calvary involving the totality of the God-Man, Christ Jesus, was a definite 
existential state that occurred on a precise day in the earthly history of 
mankind. As such, it began, endured and ended and is unrepeatable. That 
Christ after the Resurrection retains the marks of His wounds is not the 
same as saying that the oblation of Calvary continues. His interior spiritual 
attitude continues, no doubt, in His glorified state — but existentially this 
attitude of the heavenly Christ is not in every respect the same as that 
which occurred at the culmination of the life of the earthly Christ. 

God could have willed that we simply imitate the complete self-giving 
of His Son. We could call to memory, call to mind what His attitudes 
were and we could have them, as well as we could, in the circumstances of 


our lives. We could even do this exteriorly, in some symbolic way, showing 
forth His death in an appropriate external way, as well as in the attitudes 
of our mind. We could use the exterior words and rites to evoke vivid 
recollections of His sacrificial dispositions on Calvary — and thus by im- 
mersing ourselves soul and body in this memory, form lasting sacrificial 
attitudes in ourselves, attitudes which would have greater probability of 
being lived out in the varied circumstances of life. 

But our Father provided more. He would give us not only the vivid 
memories. He would give us not only the everlasting intercession of the 
immolated Lamb standing before the throne of God. He would give us 
not only the vivifying presence of the Spirit of God molding us unto a 
perfect likeness of the Son. He would give us not only the true Body and 
Blood, Soul and Divinity of the glorified Christ to nourish this sacrificial 
attitude. But He would give us the very sacrifice itself — not now in that 
existential state which was a moment of history bound down to space and 
time, but in its quasi-essential state as an eternal moment, eternally existing 
after the manner of God's own eternity — free, therefore, from the limita- 
tions of space and time, but plunged nevertheless into space and time in 
the daily reenactment of the Eucharistic mystery. This mode of existence is 
what we call the sacramental mode of existence. 

The purpose of this unique instance of unparalleled divine activity is 
to make our personal act of sacrifice perfectly one with the personal act 
of sacrifice of Christ Jesus Himself. Each one of us, personally and 
individually, but also socially and corporately, is empowered to offer to 
the Father the very same sacrifice of the only-begotten Son as our own 
sacrifice. In this eternal, trans-temporal moment of the Mass, Christ Jesus, 
in His once-for-all sacrifice on Calvary offers me to His Father with Him. 
He associates and makes one with His own sacrificial attitude, the attitudes 
and dispositions of my mind and will and entire being. 

Christ Jesus offers me, but He also and especially offers us, i.e., that 
portion of the people of God assembled here in this moment of historical 
time. From here His offering, His sacrificial oblation reaches out further. 
It embraces all the people of God, the whole Mystical Body, living any- 
where upon earth today, in whatever degree of closeness to Him the 
individual members may have. It reaches out beyond the present world, to 
embrace the entirety of the Mystical Body, the whole Church: triumphant 
and suffering, as well as militant. 

Thus the whole Christ, Head and members, is swept along in the 


Paschal mystery, the Passion-Resurrection — caught up in the progressive 
passage from mortality to immortality, freed ever more profoundly and 
widely from the slavery of self-seeking into the Christ-centered liberty of 
the sons of the Father in the Spirit. 

—Barry Rankin, CP, STD 

Select Bibliography 

Cooke, Bernard, S.J., "Eucharist as Covenant Sacrifice" TS I960, p. 1, S. 
Durrwell, F. X., CSS.R., In the Redeeming Christ, pp. 1-15 ; 54-63. 
Jungmann, J. A., S.J., "Eucharistic Piety" Worship 35 (1961) 410-424. 
Schillebeeckx, E. H., O.P., "The Sacraments: an Encounter with God" TD 8 
(I960) 117-121. 

Moral Renewal in 

Theology Moral Theology 

The cross currents of thought manifested by the Fathers of Vatican II 
crystallized a profound aggiornamento that has been going on for some 
time. The desire for renewal and adaptation envisioned by Pope John 
XXIII is one of the most characteristic features of the intellectual life of 
the Church today. This is particularly true of the positive sciences where 
so much fruitful work has been done and is being done in the field of 
scripture, patrology, and liturgy. It should come as no surprise, then, to 
find a similar movement in the field of theological investigation. Nowhere 
is this more apparent or needed than in the field of moral theology. 
However, since this new light has not yet successfully infiltrated the 
"manual theology of the seminary" it might be helpful to take a look 
at the effort toward renewal in moral theology. 

There is general agreement among theologians that the Church requires 
a major renewal of her moral theology. The intellectual currents behind 
this convergence of opinion are multiple. The direction which must 
be followed is disputable. But it would seem that a reexamination of 
traditional moral theology (traditional since the decline of the middle 
ages) is imperative, if we are to avoid the unhappy consequence of the 


division between dogmatic and moral theology which has been described 
by Karl Rahner, S.J., as follows: "The consequence of this division, which 
may be avoidable but in fact generally is not avoided, is well known. 
Dogmatic theology tends to become an esoteric doctrine, the significance 
of which for the achievement of the Christian life is barely adverted to. 
Moral theology is always in danger of becoming a peculiar mixture of 
philosophical ethics, natural law, a positivism based on canon law, and 
casuistry: in such a mixture the theology in 'moral theology' is only a 
distant memory." Cf., Karl Rahner, S.J., Theological Investigations, tr, 
C Ernst. (Baltimore: Helicon Press, 1961) I, 16. 

The efforts toward renewal in moral theology go back as far as the 
beginning of the nineteenth century. However, it was not until the early 
part of this century that the movement began to take any general form. 
The present efforts sharing a common direction have been founded on a 
variety of bases. For the sake of convenience, these might be reduced to 
three: 1) a reappraisal in the light of the biblical revival; 2) a proposal 
for revision of certain tracts as a result of development of modern psycho- 
logical studies; 3) a rephrasing of moral teaching rising from two philo- 
sophical trends — namely, a) increased interest in the work of Saint 
Thomas; b) the growing stress in our day on a personalist philosophy. 

These various trends are reflected in the writings of many modern 
authors anxious to see a renewal in moral theology. This is not to say 
that the inspiration of a particular work can be assigned exclusively to 
one or other of these causes. On the contrary, concern for the personalist 
import in moral theology will generally be linked to the biblical mode of 
thought which can be called existential. Emphasis on "the first and greatest 
commandment" will frequently be associated with thomistic teaching of 
the role of charity in relation to the other virtues. Finally the influence 
of personalist philosophy has, in practice, been very closely related to the 
influence of modern psychological studies. 

The biblical revival has resulted in attempts to formulate a biblical 
moral theology which will order the main elements of New Testament 
teaching into an articulated structure for present needs. These attempts 
are still in their early stages. But there is one contribution which is of 
paramount importance for an adequate understanding of "Christian 
morality," and this is the relationship of the Old Law to the New Law. 
Because of over-emphasis on philosophical and psychological concepts of 
freedom in manual theology, the actual "newness" of the New Law is 


sometimes obscured. Just as recent writings on the Redemption have en- 
larged the concept of Redemption, by liberating it from the narrow con- 
fines of meritorious causality, and making it a true, efficacious cause of 
salvation so, too, new emphasis on the role of the Holy Spirit in the life 
of the Christian has added not a new, but a deeper appreciation of Chris- 
tian morality, precisely as Christian. 

It should be obvious to all that such a capsule treatment of the so-called 
"new trends" in moral theology can hardly be expected to do justice to 
the movement itself. But since it is a counterpart of that desire for renewal 
and adaptation which played such an important role in the Second Vatican 
Council, it would seem imperative that any well informed priest should 
take cognizance of it. Inasmuch as these ideas have not yet found their 
way into the moral theology of the manuals used in the seminary, a 
reading of the following works might be helpful to those who may not 
have the time or opportunity to read all that is coming off the presses 
today. Cf. Philip Murnion, "The Renewal of Moral Theology — Review 
and Prospect," in The Dunwoodie Review, Jan. 1963. Also, cc. 4, 5, 6 of 
Contemporary Moral Theology, by Fathers J. Ford, S.J., and G. Kelley, 
S.J., The Newman Press, Westminster, Md. And especially, the article of 
Stanislaus Lyonnet, S.J., entitled: "Saint Paul: Liberty and Law," in the 
fourth volume of The Bridge, edited by Rev. J. Oesterreicher, Pantheon 
Books, pp. 228-251. 

— Bertin Farrell, CP, STD 

"VC is a credit to the Province, well worth the hard work that must 
have gone into it. With the sources of desirable reading so clearly spelled 
out, there should be a run on our libraries. VC may even inspire an in- 
ternal school of postgraduate studies." (E) 

"Some felt VC wasn't oriented practically enough — i.e., to 'the man 
on the platform.' But, majority very pleased." (E) 


The Vocabulary Sacred 

of the Redemption Scripture 

The understanding of the New Testament theology of the redemption 
has been advanced in recent years by the work of Stanislaus Lyonnet, SJ. 
Of particular interest has been his study of the vocabulary which the New 
Testament writers used to describe the nature of the redemptive work of 
Christ. Father Lyonnet argues that the source of this terminology was not, 
primarily, the ordinary speech current at the time the New Testament was 
written, but rather the Greek version of the Old Testament which was, 
for the sacred writers, their sole theology textbook. Analyzing certain 
key words and phrases of the New Testament in their original Old 
Testament context, Lyonnet has thrown new light on many of our classic 
redemption texts. 

In several places in the New Testament, for example, the redemptive 
work of Christ is referred to as a "buying" or a "purchasing" (cf. our 
English word "redemption," a "buying back"), and the Savior's blood 
is called a "price" that was paid (cf. Acts 20:28; I Cor. 6:20; 7:22-24; 
I Pet. 1:18; 2:9). This phraseology has led to confusing and contra- 
dictory answers to the questions, from whom was the buying done; to 
whom was the price paid. But Lyonnet has shown, by tracing the words 
used to their Old Testament contexts, that the literal ideas of any buying 
or paying of a price are completely excluded. The word that we translate 
as "buying" is used in the Old Testament to describe God's liberation of 
His people from Egypt (to the Hebrew mind, the "land of sin"), and His 
acquisition of His people as His own special possession, bound to Him 
irrevocably by the covenant, or contract, of Sinai. 

The word "price" in these texts is a generic word meaning any instru- 
ment of liberation. The means of our liberation is said to be Christ's 
blood, because blood was the means used to bind a covenant. On Sinai, 
Moses sprinkled sacrificial blood on the altar (which represented God) 
and on the people, signifying the union that was henceforth to exist be- 
tween God and His people. This, incidentally, is what Christ meant when 
he said, "This is my blood of the new covenant." (Mk. 14:24). The New 
Testament writers used this imagery to dramatize that what was sym- 


bolized and foreshadowed in the Old Testament was accomplished in 
reality in the New. Christ's death freed man from sin more effectively 
than God had freed Israel from Egypt, and the blood of Christ made man 
God's special possession far more intimately than did the blood of Sinai. 
In neither the Old Testament nor the New, however, was there any 
"buying" in the strict sense, nor did God pay a price for what His love 
took to itself. 

Similar research has clarified the meaning of such terms as "propitia- 
tion" and "expiation" which, in our English Bibles, usually translate the 
same Greek word (cf. Rom. 3:25; I Jn. 2:2; Heb. 2:17). This word 
does not have the connotation of "appeasing an angry God," or "suffering 
the penalty of sin" as the English words do. Basically, in its Old Testa- 
ment context, the word means "to cleanse, to purify." The meaning, then, 
is that Christ's redemption cleansed man of his sin. 

Especially graphic is St. Paul's statement that God set forth Christ "as 
a propitiation by his blood" (Rom. 3:25). What St. Paul is referring to 
here is not some abstract notion, but a very concrete object: the "pro- 
pitiatory" or gold platform that stood over the Ark of the Covenant in 
the desert and in the ancient Temple. This platform was considered the 
dwelling of God on earth, the meeting place of God and man, the place 
where God communicated with men (cf. Ex. 25:18-20; Num. 7:89; 
Lev. 16:13). Once a year, on the Day of Atonement, the High Priest 
entered the Holy of Holies and poured sacrificial blood on this platform. 
By this action, the sins of the people were thought to be cleansed. 

St. Paul is saying, therefore, that Christ crucified is now the true propi- 
tiatory, the true dwelling place of God among men, the place where God 
and man meet most intimately and God most fully communicates with 
men. No longer shrouded by veils and the smoke of incense, this true 
propitiatory is now "set forth" publicly, before the eyes of the whole 
world. No longer covered with the symbolic sacrificial blood to effect a 
symbolic cleansing of sin, the new propitiatory has been covered by the 
new High Priest with the only blood that can really cleanse the souls of 
men: the blood of Christ's sacrifice. 

These are only brief indications of what the painstaking research of 
Lyonnet has brought to light. Further study of his work would greatly 
repay the efforts of any Passionist. Unfortunately, only a fraction of his 
writings have as yet been translated into English. These include: 


"St. Paul and a Mystical Redemption," Theology Digest 8 (I960) 

pp. 83-89. 
"Redemptive Value of the Resurrection" ibid. pp. 89-94. 
"Scriptural Meaning of Expiation" ibid. 10 (1962) pp. 227-232. 

More complete expositions of his thought are: 

Vocabularium Redemptions (Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome). 
"Soteriologie paulinienne," Introduction a la Bible, II ed. A. Robert 
and A. Feuillet (Desclee, Tournai) pp. 840-919. 

A great deal of Lyonnet's thought has been incorporated into the excellent 
book by Philippe de la Trinite, What Is Redemption? (Hawthorne, New 

— Aelred Lacomara, CP, STL, SSL 

Modern Controversy Church 

over Scholasticism History 

Darms, G., "Scholastisches Denken und 'modernes Weltbild' " Frei- 
burger Zeitschrift fur Philosophie und Theologie 9 (1962) pp. 402-408. 

Echoes of a new controversy over Scholasticism have already been heard 
within the Second Vatican Council. 

Attacks on Scholastic Philosophy and Theology are neither something 
new nor startling. The present attacks come, primarily, not from non- 
Catholic sources but from a Catholic avant-garde. Their contention is that 
Scholasticism is outdated. 

Back in 1950, Pope Pius XII had observed in his encyclical Humani 
Generis that some, mistakenly, were speaking of Scholastic Philosophy as 
an obsolete relic. What the Roman Pontiff said at the time, in defense of 
Scholastic Philosophy and Theology, produced little salutary effect. In 
1959, the Catholic writer Ignatius Lepp, in his work Splinter and Beam 
{Splitter und Balken) referred to the encyclical Humani Generis as an 
"unfortunate brochure." In I960, Professor Hans Kung, in an article 
appearing in the journal published by the theological faculty of Lucerne, 


issued his call for a new "autochthonic theology" for the missions. In 1962, 
Professor Josef V. Kopp, a firm supporter of Teilhard de Chardin, in an 
article appearing in Ctvitas, spoke out in open opposition to Scholasticism. 
Recently, a defense of Scholastic Philosophy and Theology appeared in 
the Freiburg Periodical for Philosophy and Theology. The author of the 
article, Gion Darms, makes the following points. 

(1) It is obvious that modern ideas, terms, categories have their own 
proper value. But the question arises: Is the proclamation of Revelation 
bound up, essentially, with a modern viewpoint? The answer is related 
to another question: What is the essence of the Christian belief? To this we 
reply: The Triune God has offered mankind a supernatural participation in 
the life of the Trinity through the Incarnation and Redemptive work of 
Jesus Christ, the God-Man. As St. Thomas Aquinas remarked in his Com- 
pendium of Theology (1:2): "All knowledge imparted by faith turns 
about two points, the divinity of the Trinity and the Humanity of Christ." 
Our eternal salvation stands or falls with the mystery of Jesus Christ. Our 
salvation does not depend, at least essentially, on a modern world viewpoint, 
modern terms, modern scientific assumptions. What man needs today is 
not new categories, but what he needed yesterday: a supernatural conversio 
ad Deum. If one were to join the truths of revelation to a modern view- 
point, someone, sooner or later, will question these truths from the 
standpoint of a new viewpoint. 

(2) Not considering the risks involved in adapting the truths of revela- 
tion to a modern viewpoint, Scholastic Philosophy, as an instrument, has 
its own intrinsic worth. It speaks in terms of reality. It seeks to express 
objective truth in a prudent, enduring manner. It seeks to safeguard the 
validity of human knowledge, metaphysical principles, certain and un- 
changeable truth. We may, as Pope Pius XII stated, "clothe our philos- 
ophy in a more convenient and richer dress, make it more vigorous with 
a more effective terminology, divest it of certain scholastic aids found less 
useful, prudently enrich it with the fruits of progress of the human mind. 
But never may we overthrow it, or contaminate it with false principles, or 
regard it as a great, but obsolete relic. For truth and its philosophic 
expression cannot change from day to day, least of all where there is 
question of self-evident principles of the human mind, or of those proposi- 
tions which are supported by the wisdom of the ages and by divine 
revelation. Whatever new truth the sincere human mind is able to find, 
certainly cannot be opposed to truth already acquired, since God, the 


highest Truth, has created and guides the human intellect, not that it may 
daily oppose new truths to rightly established ones, but rather that, having 
eliminated errors which may have crept in, it may build truth upon truth 
in the same order and structure that exist in reality, the source of truth." 
{Humani Generis, no. 30) 

Catholic Theology uses Scholastic terms to express the meaning of 
Christian revelation. It uses these terms because they refer to objective 
reality and are apt terms, capable of being understood by the generality 
of men. Some critics, for example, have objected to the Church's use of the 
terms substance and accident in reference to the Sacrament of the Eu- 
charist. Substance and accident are Scholastic philosophical terms and 
must be understood according to their proper meaning. Yet they are 
appropriate terms used to explain the difference between stones and bread, 
water and wine. They are prudent terms used to explain reality. They 
explain supernatural reality in the Sacrament of the Eucharist. They are 
more apt to explain the mystery of the Eucharist to the generality of 
mankind than terms borrowed from modern atomic physics. 

The conclusion is obvious. The worth of Scholasticism, since it speaks 

in terms of reality and objective truth, extends beyond any set period of 

time, or any one nation. It accepts responsibility for the whole of reality. 

It will receive what is new within its system when it is certain that what 

is new is also true. XT c ^,_. ^^.^ 

— Neil Sharkey, CP, STD 

Papal Blessing, Canon 

Sede Vacante Law 

Pope Pius XII died in October, 1958. Pope John XXIII died in June, 
1963. During these two periods when the See of Peter was vacant, Pas- 
sionists were preaching missions, retreats and novenas. Priests were called 
upon to administer the last rites to the dying. 

The question naturally arose: "Can I give the Papal Blessing when 
there is no Pope?" While we prayerfully hope for a long reign for 
Paul VI, the question could again become practical in our time. 


The answer, with some small area of discussion and distinction, is a 
clear "Yes." 

We might list three sources for the power to give the Papal Blessing. 

(1) General Law. In en. 468 no. 2, the Code empowers and commands 
priests who assist the dying to impart the Apostolic Blessing. Cn. 
914 grants local ordinaries the faculty to give the Papal Blessing 
several times during the year. 

(2) General Privilege. Many religious institutions, clerical associations, 
missionary ordinaries and others have permanent privileges to 
impart the Papal Blessing. Thus we have the privilege of granting 
it after missions, retreats and other similar preaching. Also we may 
give this blessing on April 28th and December 8th. 

(3) Occasional Faculty. For certain special occasions bishops and priests 
sometimes obtain the faculty to impart the Papal Blessing. Euchar- 
istic congresses, anniversaries of dioceses, religious celebrations and 
other public or notable solemnities are instances when this faculty 
is given. 

The power to impart the Papal Blessing is to be distinguished from a 
direct grant of this same blessing. The colorful parchments we often see 
are not granting the faculty to impart the Papal Blessing. The parchment 
is a rescript directly granting the blessing. 

When the power to impart the Papal Blessing has been obtained in one 
of the first two ways (by law or general privilege) there is no difficulty. 
This power certainly continues during the period when the See of Peter 
is vacant. Several canons of the Code make this abundantly clear. 

Canon 61 states: "A rescript of the Holy See ... is not invalidated 
by the vacancy of the Holy See . . . unless ..." The "nisi" clause 
which contains the exception does not apply to the two cases we are 

Canon 73 reads: "Privileges do not lapse with the expiration of the 
authority of the grantor, unless they were granted with the clause 
ad beneplacitum nostrum, or some other equivalent one." 

Canon 207 no. 1, lists the ways in which delegated power ceases. 
After stating these various ways, the canon concludes: "it (delegated 
power) does not expire with the expiration of the person who made 
the delegation, except in the two cases mentioned in canon 61." 

The faculty granted for a single special occasion is somewhat more 


involved. If the rescript itself directly grants the blessing, there is no 
problem. The blessing is granted on the occasion, even though the Pope 
is dead. The only area where there can be some doubt is when a cleric 
receives a rescript giving him the faculty to impart the Papal Blessing 
on the special occasion. Such a faculty would cease only if the parties 
who were to receive the blessing were named individually in the rescript. 
Such would be the case if a bishop received a rescript "granting to Your 
Excellency the faculty to impart the Papal Blessing to Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur Jones on the occasion of their marriage." But a faculty to bless 
"all present" or "all members" would not be invalidated by the death of 
the Pontiff. Even in the somewhat unusual case where the parties are 
named, if some preparations have been made (e.g., an announcement that 
the faculty has been received) before the death of the Pope, then the 
rescript remains valid. (O'Neill, Papal Rescripts of Favor (Washington, 
1930) p. 199.) 

This doctrine that the faculty to impart the Papal Blessing remains after 
the death of the Pope should cause no wonder. We accept without ques- 
tion the fact that the various departments of the Holy See continue to 
function. Yet their power is simply a share in papal jurisdiction. Ordi- 
naries of mission territories, Religious Superiors and others continue to 
rule in virtue of Papal authority. We use our other faculties and privileges, 
which are a delegation of the powers of the Pope. 

It might be worth noting, in conclusion, that the faculty of imparting 
the Apostolic Indulgences does not cease during the vacancy of the Holy 
See. (Mahoney, Priests' Problems (London, 1958) p. 187.) We can 
continue to bless religious articles and attach the Apostolic Indulgences to 
them during the interregnum. 

Despite a diligent search through books and indices, I have not been 
able to find any author who explicitly applied this common doctrine to the 
matter of the Papal Blessing. I would be grateful for any such references. 

—Paul M. Boyle, CP, STL, JCL 

"As turning the logs will make a dull fire burn, so change of studies 
dull brain." 

— H. W. Longfellow 


How Important is 

Catholic Education? 

Although the legal and moral issues involved in segregation have stolen 
the headlines as the most urgent domestic problem, our country faces 
another mounting crisis — in the area of education. The post-war "baby- 
boom" has placed a great strain on the country's facilities and personnel 
at the elementary and secondary school level. While this challenge has 
been met in a rather satisfactory manner, these post-war babies will begin 
to seek admission to our already overcrowded colleges and universities in 
another year or two. To give some idea of the magnitude of the problem, 
by the early 1970's, almost twice as many young Americans will seek 
admission to higher education as were in college in I960! And when 
these young people begin to marry and start their own families, we will 
see another great wave of young children seeking to find a seat in our 
elementary schools, about 10 years from now. While giving due credit 
to the fine efforts of our vocational recruiters, it is also important to 
remember that this "baby-boom" has a strategic part to play in filling our 
Passionist Prep Schools to near capacity. 

If, as seems quite possible at the present time, the Catholic parents who 
send their children to parochial schools can look forward to no allevia- 
tion of their financial burden, will more and more of them find it impos- 
sible to pay the rising costs of Catholic education? Of course, the 
immediate reaction of many priests might be: "No sacrifice is too great 
for the blessings of a Catholic education!" 

But, if I might be allowed the privilege of assuming the role of "devil's 
advocate," I would like to ask how much factual information do we really 
have, regarding the importance or necessity of Catholic education, in 
inculcating religious and moral values? Of course, good old "common 
sense" would seem to tell us that the millions of dollars and the self- 
sacrificing lives of countless teaching priests and religious must have an 
appreciable effect on the millions of children and teen-agers and young 
adults who receive a Catholic education. But what if our "common sense" 
knowledge were to prove incorrect? 

The point at issue here is not the intellectual caliber of Catholic educa- 
tion. What about the religious and moral formation which our young 


people receive in Catholic schools? Are they better Catholics than their 
co-religionists in the public schools ? How many Catholics become nominal 
or fallen away Catholics because they did not have a Catholic education? 

Our questions far exceed the clear and certain answers that can be 
provided by social science at the present time. But some of the more 
salient facts could be of considerable value to Passionist priests and 

Despite the appearances to the contrary, almost fifty per cent of adult 
Catholics have never had any Catholic school training. This certainly 
gives support to our Fathers who insist upon the importance of teaching 
the fundamental religious truths during missions and lay retreats. For 
many Catholics, their Catholic training has been limited to grammar 
school, since sixty-five to seventy per cent have never attended a Catholic 
high school. 

In general, almost all sociological studies show that the graduates of 
Catholic schools are better Catholics than graduates of public schools. The 
criteria applied include Church attendance, reception of the sacraments, 
and adherence to the Church's teaching on the permanence of marriage 
and family planning. Doesn't this seem to clinch the case for the im- 
portance of the Catholic schools? Unfortunately, no. 

Yes, we do know that as a group, Catholics who attended parochial 
school are better Catholics, but we do not know whether and to what 
extent their Catholic schooling was responsible ! Isn't it possible that what 
we attribute to the influence of the school might really be due to a much 
more fundamental influence — the family? 

There is undoubtedly a selective factor involved in determining which 
Catholic children attend Catholic rather than public schools. In other 
words, the Catholic schools generally will have the children of parents 
who are more conscientious in their practice of the Faith. The ethnic 
factor is also important here. As Lenski has shown in his study of Detroit, 
and as other national studies have confirmed, the Irish and Germans are 
much more likely to send their children to Catholic schools than are the 
Slavs and the Italians. 

For my doctoral thesis, I have studied 1,800 Catholic students who 
attended five Catholic and three non-Catholic colleges on the West Coast. 
These students were given questionnaires as freshmen, then as sophomores, 
and finally as seniors. I also had hour-long interviews with over a hundred 
of these young Catholics, who were most frank and direct in discussing 


what impact Catholic or secular college education had made on their 
religious and moral values. 

There is a very great difference in the religious atmosphere of their 
homes, particularly in the religious practice of the mothers. Naturally, the 
vast majority of those who attend the Catholic colleges come from Catholic 
high schools, while the reverse is true for those at the State colleges. Over 
95 % of those at the Catholic colleges attended Mass at least weekly during 
high school, while only about 70% of the Catholics at the State colleges 
attended Mass weekly. Rather surprisingly, the secular college education 
did not seem to have an appreciable effect on the number of Catholics 
who attended weekly Mass. While there was a loss of 15-20 per cent who 
slipped below weekly attendance, there was a gain of about 10-15 per 
cent who began to attend Sunday Mass while going to the secular colleges. 

The negative influences on the secular campuses seem to affect the 
young women more than the men, while the same holds true for the 
positive influences on the Catholic campuses. The students seem to be 
far more influenced by the values and ideas of their peer group, than by 
what they hear from the professors. This is particularly the case if the 
students live on campus in a dorm, sorority, fraternity, or apartment. 

Many of the young men at the Catholic colleges resent the heavy 
emphasis placed on the study of philosophy and theology, since they do 
not see how this helps them get ahead in the business world. Whether 
they are attending a Catholic or State college doesn't seem to make a great 
deal of difference in regard to their attitude toward sex and drink; in 
other words, most of the Catholic fellows try to get as much of both as 
they can. As one of the fellows from a Catholic college remarked to me: 
"During the week they keep us like monks, so on the week ends we try 
to have fun." 

The girls at the Catholic colleges have a noticeably superior moral code 
to that of their peers on the State campuses. However, the greatest con- 
trast between the two groups of Catholic girls is in their attitude toward 
the practice of birth control. 

Respect for the priesthood seems to be rather high among the students, 
whether they attend Catholic or State colleges. With comparatively few 
exceptions, most think that priests are awake to the problems of modern 
America, although some did express the hope that "the Church would 
change her stance on divorce and birth control, since she has changed 
her teachings in other matters." One of the most important contacts that 


the Newman Clubs have is through the Sunday sermons, which are very 
well received. The students are rather universally critical of the Sunday 
sermons they hear at their parishes, but they realize that these sermons 
cannot be directed explicitly to their needs and problems. 

Certainly none of these studies is in any way definitive. Possibly the 
positive impact of Catholic education will someday be clearly confirmed. 
But at the present time, one cannot help wondering if, perhaps, the 
Catholic Church might not make more efficient use of the religious train- 
ing and apostolic zeal of the tens of thousands of priests and religious 
who are teaching subjects that could just as well be handled by lay people, 
or in the public schools. The Catholic Church will never surrender the 
education of its youth, but perhaps it may change its methods. 


The Religious Factor, Gerhard Lenski, Doubleday, New York 
The Parochial School, Joseph Fichter, SJ, Notre Dame Press 
Americans View Their Mental Health, Basic Books, New York 

— Thomas Anthony Rogalski, CP, PhD 

From the 

In preparation for the centennial 
observance of the canonization of 
Saint Paul of the Cross, in 1967, 
the latest General Chapter called Celiail Hill 

for a critical biography of our holy 

Father Enrico Zoffoli of Presen- 
tation Province was appointed to 
undertake this task. His plan com- 
prises six volumes. The first volume, a critical biography as such, running 
to 1615 pages, is now off press. Succeeding volumes will treat of Saint 
Paul of the Cross as: The Man; The Saint; The Master of the Spirit; 
The Missionary; The Founder. The second volume will be available in 
the not distant future. 

Father Enrico has authored a biography of Saint Gemma, as well as a 
treatise on Passionist Spirituality. He is professor of metaphysics at The 
Lateran University. 


Very successfully, on June 10, Father Victor Hoagland defended his 
doctoral thesis, at the Gregorian University. His dissertation is entitled: 
The Death of Christ in the Roman Creed. 

A doctoral thesis, entitled: The Gradual Revelation of the Word of the 
Cross in the Gospel Narrative was defended very ably, at Propaganda 
University, by Father Cyril Clarke of the Province of Saint Patrick. 

—Theodore Foley, CP, STD 

Kilmarnock, Scotland — During the latter part of June, at our retreat 
house at Codham, Kilmarnock, at the invitation of Bishop Joseph McGee 
of Galloway, Scotland, Father Barnabas Ahern conducted a series of lec- 
tures for the clergy. Also in attendance were a dozen or more Protestant 
ministers of the Kirk. The dialog is reported to have been an over- 
whelming success. 

* * * 

As of October 1, Father Dominic Papa will be relieved of his duties 
with the Papal Secretariate of State in connection with the Second Council 
of the Vatican, and will function as private secretary to Father General. 
In this new assignment, Father Dominic will succeed Father Timothy 
Fitzgerald, who will begin an English-speaking apostolate. Not only in 
Rome, but also in other sectors of Italy, there is an increasing demand for 
a representative spokesman who can fulfill the apostolate in our own 
vernacular. Rome, especially, is becoming more and more cosmopolitan. 
Father Timothy will be in demand for retreatants, prospective converts; 
also as receptionist to benefactors — including the many friends of Cardinal 
Spellman who visit His Eminence's titular church. 

Fathers Neil Sharkey and Fintan Lombard call our attention to the 
resume of the First Session of Vatican II (36 General Congregations) 
published in The Pope Speaks (Vol. 8, n. 3). This resume is based on the 
reporting of Osservatore Romano which, allegedly, is somewhat slanted 
along conservative lines. Some consider the reporting of Xavier Rynne 
more reliable. Reviewers observe that the text of Letters from Vatican 
City which appeared originally in The New Yorker has been somewhat 
revised for republication by Farrar, Straus. On the eve of the Second 
Session of the Council, it is strategic to "recap" the minutes of the First. 


Also recommendable: The Letter of John XXIII, addressed to all the 
Fathers of the Council, appraising the accomplishments of the First 
Session, and directive of preparations for the Second. {The Catholic Mind, 
June '63; p. 50). 

Recently published: Pope, Council, & World, by Robert Kaiser (Mac- 
millan). Kaiser was Time & Life correspondent for Vatican II. 

By way of eloquent indictment of Rynne as a Council sniper, Msgr. 
Rudolph Bandas of St. Paul, Minn., directs attention to the conciliar 
report of Msgr. Tucek, head of NC News Service, Rome, featured in 
our diocesan papers, March 15 — April 1. (Letter, The Tablet of Brooklyn, 

— AMcD 

Obligation of the Quaestiones 

Martyrology in Choir Disputatae 

Since November, 1959 our Province, following the new horarium 
approved 'W experimentum only," has removed the reading of the 
Martyrology from Prime, to be read in English in the refectory at noon, 
except on 1st Class Feasts and the Vigil of Christmas. This is stated 
in the Provincial Newsletter for November, 1959. In the same Newsletter, 
in a section entitled "Interesting Notes from Rome Re Horarium," we 
read: "The allocation of the Martyrology from the choir to the refectory 
met with warm approval. So much so that we might follow suit here. One 
Consultor remarked that nobody pays any attention in the choir, and he 
was of the persuasion that if it was taken into the refectory the monks 
might listen." 

I submit the following to the consideration of the brethren in the hope 
of getting information on the quo jure of this practice. 

(1) The first rubric of the Rubricae Martyrologii Romani requires its 
recitation praeceptive in Choir: "Lectio Martyrologii, quae prae- 
ceptive quidem fit in Choro et laudabiliter extra Chorum, agitur 


quotidie ad Primam ante versum Pretiosa, tribus exceptis diebus 
ante Pascham, in quibus omittitur." The Breviary in the Ordinarium 
states: ". . . in Choro legitur Marty rologium quod laudabiliter fit 
etiam extra Chorum." 

The Martyrology and the Breviary are approved liturgical books. 
Canon 2 tells us that all liturgical laws retain their force unless 
expressly corrected in the Code. 

The New Rubrics presuppose it. We are permitted to sit during the 
Martyrology, unless another posture is prescribed (266e; 268c). 
The reference here is to the recitation of the Office in choir or in 
common (261). 

(2) The Martyrology forms part of the second half of Prime known 
as the Officium Capituli. It provides spiritual motivation for the 
day. "It is for each Christian a gallery of ancestors and a kind of 
archives of titles of nobility. We are of the lineage of the Saints 
and we are to walk in their footsteps, saying: quod isti et istae, 
cur non ego? To obtain this grace we address ourselves to the 
intercession of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints with Sancta 
Maria et omnes Sancti; we invoke God with a fervent, three-fold 
Deus in adjutorium" (C. Willi, CSSR, Le Breviaire Explique 
(Paris, 1922) Tome I, 270). 

Father John P. McCormick, SS, writes: "In the light of the com- 
mon opinion that the omission of a part of the Office less notable 
than a Little Hour does not exceed venial sin, it would seem that 
the omission of the Martyrology, assuredly a very small part of 
the whole Office, would not constitute grave sin" ("Obligation of 
the Martyrology," American Ecclesiastical Review 146 (February, 
1962) 137). 

(3) Reading the Martyrology in the refectory does not satisfy this 
obligation, for it has no connection with the Office and does not 
conform to the liturgical language, which is still Latin. 

Salvo meliori judicio, I think the Martyrology should be restored to its 
proper place — Prime. 

I suggest it be removed from the refectory. We were taught to avoid 
in refectory reading anything that might be disgusting or offensive to 
delicate stomachs. Such material is frequent in the Martyrology. The fact 


that it is the vitals of a saint being torn out does not change the situation. 
Here it may be well to hide behind the obscurity of the Latin. 
Sub lite. 

—Kevin McCloskey, CP, MA, STL, SSL 

(1) SRC Decree no. 32, to Diocese of Avila; Nov. 1592 

"Ad 4. In Prima post Benedicamus statim legatur Martyrologium, 
et Pretiosa cum sequentibus: quibus omnibus expletis, Missa 
celebratur, deinde Capitulum habeatur; ad quod interesse negli- 
gentes aliqua proposita mulcta compellantur." 

(2) Monastic Custom 

As is apparent from the very format of the Office of Prime, it is 
made up of two parts: (1) the hymn, psalms and oration; and 
(2) the Martyrology and collected prayers appropriate to begin- 
ning the day's work. 

The older Orders have always separated these two parts, celebrating 
the second half of Prime in the chapter house or room . . . 
Martyrology, reading of Rule, talk by Abbot, chapter of faults, 
daily assignments, etc. 

By analogy, some religious institutes move the Martyrology from 
the Office of Prime to refectory reading, just as older Orders 
moved the latter part of Prime to the chapter house. 

Such an analogy would seem to be valid in our case, due to the 
overwhelming lack of precise information on these points: 

(a) The Martyrology is NOT an integral or essential part of 
Prime ; 

(b) The rubric "in Choro" refers only to Orders of solemn Vows; 

(c) The morality of omitting the Martyrology as opposed to the 
laudability of reciting it outside of Choir. 


'If a man's education is finished, he is finished." 

— E. A. Filene 



(1) Pope Paul VI could express a preference as to his successor in the 
papacy. As Vicar of Christ, could he also appoint that successor? 
Would the College of Cardinals be obliged to accept the appointee, 
de jure? If, de facto, the College refused to do so, would the 
succession of the appointee be legitimate? 

(2) Apropos of our Rules and Constitutions (XXXVIII/330, 331), 
what is popularly understood when a person plans to offer Holy 
Communion for another? Why is it theologically impossible to x do 
so? To what very limited extent, in what very limited sense is this 
kind of suffrage feasible? 

(3) In our North American provinces, is there an official pattern to 
which we should conform in the making of sandals? This inquiry 
refers particularly to the toe- strap. Now for some years, a narrow 
toe-strap (Franciscan style) has become commonplace. Also in 
vogue, the placement of the strap close to the base of the toes, 
rather than forward. Whether on the mission platform or elsewhere, 
the wider, more conservative toe-strap of yesteryear seems preferable. 




Guest Editorial 1 

Editorial . 3 

Passiology 6 

Dogmatic Theology 10 

Moral Theology 14 

Sacred Scripture 17 

Church History 19 

Canon Law 21 

Sociology 24 

From the Celian Hill 27 

Quaestiones Disputatae 29 

"// is the glory of the Catholic Church that, 
it can produce not only saints, but also 
great thinkers," 

— Arnold Lunn 

(Now I See) 

"Errors, like straws, upon the surface flow, 
He who would search for pearls must dive below." 

— Dryden 

(All for Love) 

". . . The word of the cross . . . is ... to us ... the power of God/' 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

ledmm (Erurifi 

Vol. I October, A.D. 1963 No. 4 

%t rtwm (Eniria 

Vol. I October, A.D. 1963 No. 4 

A Quarterly Review of Clerical Literature 
Published by the Passionist Fathers 
Province of Saint Paul of the Cross. 

Cum Superiorum permissu 

Ad instar manuscript! 

For private circulation only 

Opinions expressed by contributors do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the editor. 


86-45 178 Street 

Jamaica 32, N. Y. 

Telephone: AXtel 7-0044 

Cable Address: Veecee New York 

"We, by force of this Brief, and 
by Our apostolic authority, grant the 
faculty that, the Venerable Servant Editorial 

of God, DOMINIC of the Mother 

of God, for the future be given the 

name of Blessed, and the body and relics of the same be proposed for the 
public veneration of the faithful, though not, however, in solemn fashion. 
And, moreover, We permit that, for the future, the images of the same 
Blessed be decorated with rays." _ paul yi (AAS ^ p 342) 

Echoing that papal decree, we are privileged to salute Blessed Dominic 
as the second of our beatified Lectors. Who will be the third? In our 
monastery churches, we have some unoccupied niches. 

To our Western Brethren of Holy Cross Province, congratulations upon 
their acceptance of a new foreign mission, and felicitations for their apos- 
tolic success in South Korea! 

"Ad multos annos!" (Father Provincial's guest editorial: Jan. '63) Come 
January, '64, Verbum Crucis will be one year old. To mark that advance 
toward longevity, we plan to sharpen pencils and wits, and — in ink — to 
toast our faithful contributors. 

By the time this issue of V C reaches the Brethren sojourning in the 

Old World, Advent will be nearing its climax. Hence, we now extend to 

our columnists and readers, our holyday and holiday greetings for Christ- 

mastide and the New Year of Our Lord. Also, festive greetings to our 

senior and veteran colleague, The Passionist, as well as to the new pictorial 

quarterly, The Passionist Orbit. . _ _ _ 

1 J — AMcD 

Passionist "Missions" in Prelatures Nullius, by Damian Towey, CP, 
JCD: abridgment of doctoral dissertation (Pontifical University of Propa- 
ganda). $2.00 per copy: apply to author. 

New Horizons, by Barnabas Ahern, CP, STL, SSD. "A choice collection 
of essays on such scriptural themes as the Exodus, the Church in the 
Bible, the sufferings and resurrection of Christ — by the most widely re- 
spected American Bible scholar." $4.50. Fides Publishers, Inc., Notre 

Dame, Ind. 


The Passion and 

gy Passion Preaching 

Among other reasons, God planned the sufferings and death of Our 
Lord as a hortatory formula. The Passion was to be a dramatic spectacle, 
exciting men to a godly life. 

In using the Passion for the same purpose, Christian preaching can treat 
it in no better context than that in which God placed it. 

Let us notice this context. 

God used the Passion not as a unique formula. It was one among many. 
The whole history and doctrine of Christ makes up the complete and 
adequate evangelical formula. The whole history and doctrine of Christ is, 
consequently, the adequate and necessary content of Christian preaching. 
No Christian preacher is entitled to omit any area of it. 

Neither did God use the Passion as a naked formula. Without the 
environment of other Christian doctrines, its dynamism is notably reduced. 
So that effective preaching of the Passion calls for the preaching of many 
things besides the Passion. 

To what extent should we supplement our Passion preaching with other 
doctrinal material if we are to copy God's formula and make the best use 
of Passion motivation? 

St. Thomas provides us with principles for solving this problem. In 
answering the query as to whether God should have used some other pro- 
gram of redemption rather than the Passion, he notes five reasons which 
God reveals in the New Testament scriptures for His choice of this pro- 
gram. (S.T. P III, Q 46, A 3) 

Three of them provide motives for Christian behavior. They are of a 
practical or appetitive nature, intended to stimulate action. The other two 
are contemplative in character, revealing certain features of the redemptive 
plan, but without assigning any strong motivation for action. 

The three which reveal God's use of the Passion as a motive for godly 
conduct are of special interest to the Passion preacher. They suggest some 
pertinent preaching directives. 

First: By the Passion, God sought to stimulate our love for Him by 
demonstrating dramatically His love for us. 

Here God is using the Passion as an instrument, a means. It is not an 
end in itself. The end is to move men to love God — to do God's will. 

Obviously, if the end of all apostolic enterprise is to stir up the love 
of God, then every legitimate means should be used for this purpose. In 
cases where some other method than Passion preaching would prove more 
efficient, that other method should be used. 

God, Himself, used other than Passion dynamics to demonstrate His 
love. For instance, the incarnation, the proverty of His birth, the simplicity 
and humility of His life. 

The Christian preacher should use as flexible a technique. God knows 
best how to use drama for His own purposes. The preacher can have no 
better model than God. 

Secondly: In the Passion, God gave us an example of the virtues we 
must practice in this life. 

Here again, the object is to stimulate us to the asceticism which is required 
for the love of God. 

The dynamic seems to be applied in this way: As if God were to say: 
"I do not need asceticism. You do. But, lest you think of Me as an autocrat 
and resent Me as being more fortunate than you and foreign to you, I 
will participate in your asceticism. I will outdo your asceticism. I 
will endure supreme discomfort just to make discomfort less distasteful 
to you." 

The Passion is the great exemplification of God's willingness to go 
before us, sharing our suffering with us and thereby encouraging us in 
our trials. But it is possible that other episodes in the life of Our Lord 
might more closely exemplify His participation in a shared experience. 

For instance, the contingencies of ordinarily family life would probably 
be better instanced in the life of the Holy Family than in the Passion. 
Other periods and incidents of Our Lord's life might better exemplify 
God's participation in common social encounters. 

In all these instances, God did the things which we wayfarers must do. 
It was not necessary for Him. It was supererogation. But, since He did not 
limit His life of example to the time of the Passion and the experiences 
of the Passion, neither should the Christian preacher who takes his cue 
from God. 

Thirdly: By the Passion, God underscored our great worth which is 
destroyed by sin. 

Here, too, the object is to stimulate us to the aceticism which must be 
practiced in loving God. 

The motivation apparently runs thus: In the state of grace, we are so 

wonderful that God would and did go to these awesome lengths to restore 
us to the life of grace. We would be foolish to throw away our dignity 
by sin. 

Here again we may note that while the Passion is the supreme demon- 
stration of God's estimate of our value, it is not the only one. God's objec- 
tive is not merely to offer the spectacle of God enduring hardship. Rather 
it is to wean man from affection for sin by offering dramatic proof of 
God's high evaluation of the dignity of sinlessness and the life of grace. 

This means that the full Gospel message to this effect would include 
every evidence that God gave for this evaluation. Notably, His incar- 
nation, humility, asceticism, etc. 

God used all this field of motivation. The preacher of the Gospel should 
follow the example of God in this matter. He should use whatever seg- 
ment of Gospel content appeals to him as most precisely suited to the 
demands of the occasion. 

Evidently, much basic knowledge of the Christian faith must exist as a 
precondition if these motivations are to have their full value. And the 
preaching of these basic truths would seem to be an essential element of 
Passion preaching. 

There is little dynamism in the statement that God was spit upon and 
punched by a rowdy if the hearer merely thinks of the victim as a man 
suffering these indignities. He must know something of the nature and 
attributes of God. And the more he knows about God, the more the dra- 
matic incongruity of the event will be magnified as a motivation for 

He must have a clear idea of the nature of sin if he is to be impressed 
with the dimensions of the service which redemption did for him. 

To have an adequate idea of the enormity of sin, he must have a previous 
profound understanding of the nature of the supernatural life which was 
and is lost by sin, and which is recovered by redemption. 

He must know of the relationship of God to the human race, particularly 
in the hypostatic union, if he is to understand the mechanism of redemp- 
tion and, if he is to escape thinking of God as a tyrant who stood off 
vindictively and insisted on taking out on man the measure of His wrath, 
a kind of usurer-God interested only in exacting His due. 

He must know the nature and function of the virtues and Christian 
ascetism. He must be able to see these as channels through which the 
program of holiness, stimulated by the Passion motivations, must be di- 

rected. Otherwise, his good intentions will end in dreamy, unimplemented 
desires. Or asceticism, being misunderstood, will appear sadistic. 

The complete and perfect Christian preacher is a preacher of the Passion. 
But, if he is to use the Passion as an evangelical instrument, he must use 
it as God did. He must use it in its precise evangelical context. He must 
not use it as an exclusive motivation. God did not do that. He must not 
use it in isolation. Used thus, it lacks the periphery of related ideas which 
are needed to focus its dynamism. 

The more the whole Gospel is preached and understood, the more the 
Passion will have its effect as an incentive to holiness. There is a built-in 
harmony and efficiency and proportion in the complete content of reve- 
lation. Any overemphasis or disequilibrium is harmful. Momentarily it 
may serve as an apologetic or polemic stopgap. God may providentially use 
such contrivances when they are the result of human ignorance or honest 
mistake. But eventually He causes this temporary over-balance to be cor- 
rected. Correction always means the preaching of the whole Gospel — 
which is the real Gospel. 

That, too, would seem to be real Passion preaching. 

— Damian Reid, CP 

The contemporary scripture re- 
vival raises many questions. Much 
of this perplexity can be reduced 

to a very just inquiry. Granting the Fundamental 

impressive literary and historical 

arguments for the new interpreta- TheoloSJV 

tions, is there any implication that, 
the Church has been in error, or at 
least in ignorance for many centu- 

ries ? What is the force of ancient tradition in these matters of faith ? 

Modern biblical studies are not challenging, much less changing any 
traditional doctrines, taught for centuries by the Church's magisterium. 
In determining the literal sense of a particular passage of scripture, how- 
ever, the student is proceeding more cautiously and scientifically than was 
customary or even possible, one or two hundred years ago. The "age of 
enlightenment and of science" has produced this mentality. 

Pope Pius XII pointed out that each age makes its own contribution to 
the sacred sciences. He therefore advised: "Let those who cultivate biblical 
studies turn their attention with all due diligence toward . . . those dis- 
coveries, whether in the domain of archaeology or in ancient history or 
literature, which serve to make better known the mentality of the ancient 
writers, as well as their manner and art of reasoning, narrating and writ- 
ing." (Rome and the Study of Scripture [ed. 6; St. Meinrad, Ind.: Grail, 
1958] 99) Only since 1850 and especially since 1900 have these scientific 
aids become available ; and only in the last two decades has their help been 
fully harnessed to New Testament interpretation. 

As a result, however, of these investigations, we must distinguish be- 
tween: 1) the revealed doctrine defined or taught by the Magisterium; 
2) the impossibility of any scriptural text ever contradicting this doctrine; 
and 3) the question, how clearly individual texts proclaim this doctrine. 
Scripture students, for instance, never doubt the doctrine of Jesus' virginal 
conception, but they are reopening the question whether or not this re- 
vealed doctrine is taught in Is 7:14. This and many other doctrines have 
been defined, but in only a few instances has the Church also declared the 
definite scriptural passage upon which the definition depends. 

Pius XII gave classic expression to this viewpoint when he wrote in the 
Divino Affiante Spiritw. "In the immense matter contained in the Sacred 
Books . . . there are but few texts whose sense has been defined by the 
authority of the Church, nor are those more numerous about which the 
teaching of the Holy Fathers is unanimous." (ibid. 47) 

Very often the Church arrives at her official creed through the analogy 
of faith, i.e., through the harmonious combination of various texts, under- 
stood against the background of centuries of teaching, worship and belief. 
Scripture studies seek to isolate the special contribution of each individual 
text and thereby to understand the traditional doctrine more exactly and to 
apply its riches more zealously. 

A further observation is worth pondering. The case of Galileo in the 
sixteenth century and the problem of evolution in the early twentieth cen- 
tury warn us against any quick, unscholarly use of the term "tradition." 
There is always a danger of using this sacrosanct word to cover up igno- 
rance, sloth, or both ! One of the most serious lapses in the last two centuries 
may have been an inadvertence to or ignorance of the Bible. Inexact or 
partial viewpoints, false ideas and prejudiced emphases can corrode the 

most sacred teaching. There will always be need of more deeply and more 
vigorously investigating what is accepted even de fide. 

An example more up to date than Galileo or evolution may be advanced. 
Exactly what is the traditional doctrine in the infancy gospel of St. Mat- 
thew (ch 1-2) ? Limitations of space prevent a complete examination of 
every detail, so we will focus attention upon the Magi. Msgr. Myles Bourke, 
of Dunwoodie Seminary, raises many questions from the area of midrashic 
writing and rabbinical stories current in New Testament times. (See Catho- 
lic Biblical Quarterly 22 [I960] 160-175) Our own questions come from 
patristic tradition, where we discover such a wide divergence that it is 
impossible, in our opinion, to speak of a single, dogmatic tradition. 

As to their character, Saints Justin, Augustine, and Jerome, as well as 
Origen, considered the Magi wicked men, impelled by the demons to seek 
out the Savior and not for the holiest of reasons. During the times of the 
Crusades, however, when popular enthusiasm "discovered" the tombs of 
many biblical prophets and saints and identified even conflicting places, 
the bodies of the Magi were taken from Constantinople to Milan and 
from there to Cologne for solemn veneration. 

Although "tradition" has settled upon the number three, the most ancient 
tradition of Syria and Armenia speaks of twelve. The representations in 
the cemetery of Sts. Peter and Marcellus picture two Magi, while the ceme- 
tery of St. Domitilla has four of them. All kinds of suggestions are given 
regarding their names. Their place of origin varies from Persia (Clement 
and Cyril of Alexandria; Diodorus) to Babylonia (Maximus and Theo- 
dotus) to Arabia (Justin, Tertullian and Epiphanius). Venerable Bede 
started the practice of referring to them as European (white), Asian 
(brown) and African (black). 

Beneath this wide divergence can anything certain be established? Care- 
ful study of tradition points up what scriptural scholarship is now saying 
about St. Matthew's infancy gospel. Some historical event involving the 
gentiles' worship of Jesus did take place, but St. Matthew and the early 
Fathers are so interested in the theological aspects of the event, as to allow 
the geographical and chronological details to slip far into the background. 
St. Matthew develops the full impact of this episode upon world salvation 
by weaving into his narrative references to Num 24:17; Is 60:3; Ps 71:10 
and other Old Testament passages. The Fathers proceeded to make the inci- 
dent relevant to their own day by an elaborate use of allegory and symbol. 
We conclude by saying that twentieth century Christians expect not only 

scripture teachers but also gospel preachers to present the episode "scien- 
tifically," with conscious attention to the exact historical details, to the 
literary forms of writing, and thereby to reach the theological import. 
Through this methodology, not only will a pastoral need be met but a 
great theological gain reaped. 

— Carroll Stuhlmueller, CP, STL, SSL 


Dictionnaire de la Bible (Vigouroux) IV, 543-52. 

Dictionnaire d'Archeologie Chretienne et de Liturgie (Cabrol-Leclercq) 

X,l, 980-1067. 
Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible (van den Born-Hartman) 1416-7. 


^, \ Anti-Fertility Pills 

Theology J 

Recently, a Catholic gynecologist from Louisville addressed our theo- 
logians on the anti-fertility pill. I would like to pass on to the readers of 
Verbum Crucis the substance of his talk. His purpose was to relate his 
experience with the pill to the practice of rhythm. He began by indicating 
that, there are three ways of taking the anti-fertility pill. He illustrated 
these ways within the framework of a 28-day menstrual cycle, i.e., a perfect 
"monthly." This is not a completely arbitrary choice of cycle; physiologists 
incline toward the 28-day cycle as an optimum for the woman. Within 
such a cycle, the doctor considered: 

(1) The daily ingestion of the pill. This inhibits ovulation, thereby 
constituting a mutilation. Only the principle of totality can justify mutila- 
tion ; this principle allows a part of the body to be sacrificed for the good 
of the whole person. Guided by this principle, the woman taking the pill 
can directly intend the mutilation, i.e., suppression of ovulation, as a means 
to the good of the entire body. Such a good might be the correction of a 
menstrual disorder. Of course, this daily taking of the pill also entails a 
sterilizing effect, i.e., conception is rendered impossible through this sup- 
pression of ovulation. However, this can yet be licit, if this sterilization 


remain merely indirect, that is, if the conditions for the indirect voluntary 
come into play. 

(2) The twenty-day ingestion of the pill. By this second method the 
woman commences taking the pill on the 5 th day of her cycle. The first 
day of the cycle is the first day on which she bleeds. She continues the pill 
for 20 days, i.e., until the 25th day, exclusively. The pill is withdrawn on 
the 25th day; bleeding subsequently follows. The doctor stresses that this 
is merely bleeding, and not menstruation, for by menstruation doctors 
commonly understand bleeding that follows on ovulation ; but no ovulation 
occurs on this 20-day cycle. As in the previous method, ovulation is sup- 
pressed. However, in his opinion, there is no principle, such as that of 
totality, to justify this mutilation, or to render the sterilization that results 
a merely indirect voluntary. He considers this method completely illicit, 
because sterilizing directly. 

(3) The te«-day ingestion of the pill. By this method the woman begins 
the pill on the 15th day of her cycle, continuing it for the next 10 days, 
until the 25 th day, exclusively. When the pill is withdrawn on the 25 th 
day, true menstruation begins, because ovulation is not inhibited in this 
10-day method. This is a cardinal point to note. There is no mutilation 
of function here. Rather, ovulation occurs, though at some point previous 
to the 15th day of the cycle, probably the 13th or 14th day of the cycle. 
If this 10-day cycle of pill intake be faithfully followed month after month, 
a regularization of menstrual cycle occurs, so that ovulation always occurs 
on some one of the days immediately preceding the 15 th day of the cycle. 
Here is where the an ti- fertility pill takes on pertinence to the practice of 
rhythm. For rhythm depends upon the clear distinction between sterile and 
fertile days. The great desideratum in the practice of rhythm, from a medi- 
cal viewpoint, is the accurate determination of the sterile and fertile periods. 
The pill now offers medical certitude, according to the doctor, of such a 
determination. When taken on a 10-day basis, as here described, it accu- 
rately determines both the sterile days, for those wishing to practice rhythm, 
and the fertile days, for those wishing a pregnancy. For the pill sets within 
a rigid framework that period of natural sterility, intended by nature, but 
never quite regular enough to offer satisfying guarantees. 

The liceity of this 10-day method is safeguarded in the case of those 
licitly practicing rhythm. It involves no mutilation and, consequently, no 
sterilization whatsoever. It merely regularizes. Admittedly, some moralists 
have hesitated to sanction the perpetual use of the pill, on this 10-day basis, 

where no notable irregularity previously characterized the cycle of the 
woman. However, enough moralists agree there is nothing wrong for a 
woman already enjoying a normal cycle to seek yet greater regularity 
through the taking of the pill. 

By way of indicating in detail the sterile and fertile days regularized by 
the ten-day method, the doctor says that the sterile days are the 18th to 
the 28th day. (This 28th day is excluded as a sterile day. Actually, it is 
the first day of the next cycle.) The fertile days are the 1st to the 18th day 
(i.e., exclusive of the 18th day). Thus, those practicing rhythm may have 
intercourse on the ten sterile days in every month. But they will observe 
continence on the remaining days, i.e., the fertile days. The reason why 
marital relations cannot safely extend beyond the 28th day is not because 
the woman's sterility has ceased, but because the life-span of the sperm 
(potentially 7 days) constitutes a possibility of pregnancy. If the couple 
have intercourse beyond the 28th day, for instance, on the 3rd or 4th day 
of the cycle, pregnancy might occur. For if ovulation comes a little earlier 
than usual, i.e., on the 10th or 11th day, instead of the 13th or 14th, sperm 
— deposited on the 3rd or 4th day — might live 7 days, and impregnate 
an egg released in an early ovulation. 

For much the same reason, intercourse should begin only on the 18th 
day, not earlier, i.e., not on the 15th day, when the pill is first taken, 
because an ovum may possibly live as late as the 17th day. With a possible 
life span of 3 days, an ovum, released in an ovulation occurring on the 
14th day, may be alive on the 17th day, and susceptible of impregnation. 
For these reasons, the "safe" period of the rhythm method is restricted to 
the period between the 18th and 28th day of the cycle. 

These are but a few of many observations to be made about the use of 
the anti-fertility pill. While much promise for good lies in the proper use 
of it, a word of warning can be added about possible long-term side effects 
of the pill, especially when it is taken over long periods of time, so as to 
suppress ovulation. However, many of these suspicions have already been 
medically discredited. As no other medical achievement has done till now, 
the anti- fertility pill comes closest to fulfilling the desire of Pope Pius XII, 
that medical science would eventually provide the married couple with "a 
sufficiently sure basis" for the practice of periodic continence. 

— Sebastian MacDonald, CP, STD 


The Theology 


of Preaching 

Since the end of World War II, and especially during the last decade, 
European theologians concerned with the biblical and liturgical movements, 
have been focusing their attention on the role of preaching in the divine 
economy of salvation. It is generally conceded that, the atmosphere of con- 
troversy in which our theology of the Christian ministry developed, during 
the post-reformation period, has led to a neglect or downgrading of the 
ministry of the word, on the part of theologians. Engaged in defending 
the Catholic teaching on the sacrament of Holy Orders, on the sacrificial 
nature of the Mass and on the ex op ere operato efficacy of the sacraments, 
post-reformation theology insisted almost exclusively on the role of the 
priest as instrument of Christ's eucharistic sacrifice, and dispenser of the 
sacraments. The ministry of the word was, in practice, relegated to a quite 
secondary position. This scarcely does justice to the Pauline concept of the 
Christian ministry. The Apostle insisted that he was sent, not to baptize, 
but to preach Christ Crucified, the power and the wisdom of God. 

The Bible does not give a theology on preaching, but it does contain a 
teaching on the mystery of God's word, which must be the source and 
basis of any theological speculation on the role of preaching in the Chris- 
tian ministry. The word of God, which is a metaphor for God's creative 
and salvific will, becomes present in Israel in the Torah (the Law of the 
Covenant) and in the preaching and oracles of the prophets. This divine 
word incarnated and expressed in men's words is both a power and a 
revelation. Just as God's word {Fiat!) brought into being creatures which 
manifest His goodness and power (Rom l:19f.)> so a ^ so the word ad- 
dressed to Israel in the Torah and in the prophetic preaching, reveals the 
gracious kindness and faithfulness of the Lord and accomplishes His sav- 
ing will. When a prophet proclaimed: "Hear the word of the Lord!" 
he was more than a teacher giving an instruction, he was more than a 
reformer calling to repentance. He was heralding the divine presence resid- 
ing in the word he utters, and irresistibly accomplishing what it announces. 
"Things of the past I foretold long ago, they went forth from my mouth, 
I let you hear of them; then suddenly I took action and they came to be." 
(Is 48:3) "For just as from the heavens the rain and snow came down 


and do not return there till they have watered the earth, making it fertile 
and fruitful, giving seed to him who sows and bread to him who eats, so 
shall my word be that goes forth from my mouth; it shall not return to 
me void, but shall do my will, achieving the end for which I sent it." 
(Is 55:10f.) 

The Fourth Gospel brings the biblical thinking on the mystery of God's 
word to its climax. "The Word was made flesh and dwelt among us." (Jn 
1:14) The divine Word by which the universe was created, which revealed 
God's gracious goodness and truth to Israel in the Law, which spoke dy- 
namically through the prophets for mankind's salvation — this Word of 
God took human flesh in Jesus Christ! Jesus not only fulfills the promises 
of God's saving word; He is the Word of God, full of grace and truth, 
in whom God becomes present in this world, revealing Himself and acting 
powerfully to save mankind. Jesus speaks and the demons fly terrified from 
the possessed; Jesus speaks and the sick are restored to health, the dead 
rise and men's sins are forgiven them. 

Christ, the exalted Lord and Savior, is present and active in the world 
today in His Church, which is His Body. Theology has always stressed the 
inner dynamism and efficacy of the word of Christ in the Sacraments of 
the Church. "This is my body!" "I baptize thee!" These words of Christ 
spoken through the mouth of His minister effect what they signify. The 
dynamic word of Christ is also present in the Church's preaching. "Our 
preaching of the good news," Paul tells the Thessalonians, "did not come 
to you as mere words, but with power and the Holy Spirit, and with full 
conviction [plerophoria polle]." (I Thes 1:5) The conviction and sin- 
cerity of the Apostle's speech and the faith of those who surrender them- 
selves to Christ, on hearing him, manifest the inner dynamism and power 
of the apostolic preaching. St. Paul insists that the Christian's commitment 
to Christ in faith is due, not to the preacher's eloquence or persuasive 
rhetoric, but to the divine power present and active in the Christian preach- 
ing. "My message and my preaching had none of the persuasive force of 
wise reasoning, but the conviction which comes from the power of the 
Spirit, in order that your faith might rest not on the words of men, but 
on the power of God." (1 Cor 2:4f.) 

It is interesting to note the New Testament's emphasis on the place of 
preaching in the apostolic ministry. A priest fulfills essentially the priestly 
ministry by celebrating holy Mass, but if he does not preach the good news 
of salvation in Jesus and the Church, he fails to measure up to the N.T. 


concept of the apostolic ministry. The N. T. insists that preaching is an 
essential element of the Christian ministry. In fact it speaks almost exclu- 
sively of the preaching activity of the apostles. Our Blessed Lord described 
His own mission as that of prophet or preacher, applying to Himself the 
words with which the prophet described his mission to afflicted Israel: 
"The spirit of the Lord is upon me . . . He has sent me to bring glad 
tidings to the lowly, to heal the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the 
captives." (Is 61:1-3; Lk 4:16-21) The Risen Lord sent the Holy Spirit 
upon the Apostles precisely to enable them to witness to Himself. (Act 
1:8) This witnessing consisted principally, as Acts 2:14-36 shows, in the 
apostolic preaching. 

In view of this biblical doctrine on the mystery of the word and on the 
essential role of preaching in the divine economy of salvation, one can 
understand why some theologians are dissatisfied with the common descrip- 
tion of preaching as an external actual grace, and with the customary 
explanation of its efficacy as the occasion of actual graces. May there not 
be in the Protestant expression "the sacrament of the word" — although their 
concept of sacrament is confused and imprecise — a hint of the direction 
Catholic theology should follow, if it is to do justice to the biblical teach- 
ing on the dynamism of the divine word, and the function of preaching 
in the ministry of the Church? 

The Bible also offers some insights on the content, and even on the 
method, of Christian preaching. But I must leave that for another article — 
if the editor's patience can be stretched that far! 

(One of the editor's favorite antiphons is: In patientia vestra: 
hence, the following suffix.) 

The Ecumenical Council is expected to take cognizance of the renewed 
theological interest in the ministry of the word, and in the mystery of the 
divine word enshrined in the Scriptures. The New York Times recently 
reported a statement of Cardinal Ritter on the need of a revaluation and 
reform of preaching in the Church. He pointed out the intimate bond 
uniting preaching with the Eucharistic sacrifice, and foresaw the Council 
commanding a preaching based on the liturgical Scripture readings on 
every holyday and Sunday. Among the "Vota" presented to the Council 
by the Pontifical Biblical Institute, is a petition for a doctrinal declaration 
on the "efficacy of the word of God." Here is the text of the petition: 
"In votis est ut melius evolvatur doctrina de efficacitate verbi Dei. Haec 


doctrina in Sacra Scriptura saepius invenitur, in traditione Ecclesiae usque 
ad Concilium Tridentinum frequens erat, et ultimis tantum saeculis, ratione 
controversiae contra Protestantes, apud complures catholicos quasi oblivioni 
mandata est, et in scholis theologicis plerumque neglecta. Recentissime, 
tamen, frequenter de hoc agitur. Auctores Novi Testamenti banc doctrinam 
saepius affirmant." There follow some pertinent texts, e.g.: Hb 4:12; 
I Thes 2:13; Jam 1:21. t{ Similiter dicit Sacra Liturgia: e Per evangelic a dicta 
deleantur nostra delictaJ " The petition concludes: "Proinde optatur, ut 
declaretur a Concilio tribuendam esse efficacitatem salutarem et sanctifi- 
cantem non tantum sacramentis, sed analoge etiam verbo Dei, quod cum 
fide suscipitur; et hoc, non solum quando verbum Dei fidelibus praedicatur, 
sed etiam quandocumque legitime adhibetur in Ecclesia, in usu sive publico 
she privato (v.g., in pia lectione vel meditatione Librorum Sacrorum)." 
The Biblical Institute is concerned with the efficacy of the inspired Word 
of God. But this doctrine is closely related to the teaching on the efficacy 
of preaching. Like the inspired word, preaching in the Church also belongs 
to the sphere of the mystery of the divine word. 

—Richard Kugelman, CP, STL, SSL 


the Communio 

Protestations, prostrations and petitions seem to be the staple fare 
served up to feed the piety of the faithful in the so-called "devotions 
after Communion." While we do not intend to scorn these prayers, yet 
it would be a mistake to neglect the "word that proceedeth from the 
mouth of God" (Matt. :4:6), which is intended to be the principal 
nourishment for the life of man. Authentic Christian piety would miss 
much if it refused the strong meat of the Word of God that is taken 
from the Gospel and served to the soul in the Communion verse as part 
of the Eucharistic banquet. The mystery of God's plan of salvation is 
not a thing of the past. It is contemporary. And the Word of God an- 
nounced in the Gospel of the Mass "abides." It is especially the Com- 
munion verse that will help us to understand the "today aspect" of God's 
saving activity, making it contemporary and for us. 


It was the tragedy of the Jews that, having the Word of God revealing 
Himself in Sacred Scripture, they refused the Word of God when He 
revealed Himself in the Flesh. But it has often been the mistake of 
Catholics that, because they have the Word made Flesh in the Sacrament, 
they tend to neglect the Word Who would speak to them in the Scrip- 
tures. For a fully developed and informed Christian life we must be 
prepared to receive the Redeeming Christ as He comes to us in every 
Mass in two ways — "per Verbum, et per Sacramentum." 

In the first part of Mass — the Liturgy of the Word, the presence of 
the saving Word is proclaimed in the reading of Sacred Scripture. We 
must be prepared to receive and "ponder" (as Mary did), in prayer and 
the "meditation song." (And why must we persist in calling this response 
the "Gradual," when the gradus, the step to the ambo is no longer found in 
our churches?) Then, in the second part of Mass, the Word of God is 
realized through the power of the Sacrament. Although it may be an 
over-simplification, we can say that the Word is made Flesh at every Mass, 
and dwells with us "full of grace and truth" (Jn.:l:l4): truth for the 
mind with the Word revealing Himself in the scripture reading, and grace 
for the will, with the Word communicating Himself in the Sacrament. 

Grace does not work in the soul in an impersonal way, like a radium 
treatment. The patient receiving the treatment may be completely un- 
conscious and still get the full benefit of the radium. But when the 
Redeeming Christ works for the salvation of an intelligent creature, He 
would have us understand what He is doing for us. (Cf. Charles Davis: 
Theology for Today, Sheed and Ward, 1962; chap, iv "The Theology of 
Preaching"). He addresses our mind through His Word; at the same 
time He works in our will through His grace. 

So the first part of Mass, often (and ineptly) called "Mass of the 
Catechumens," is certainly not to be regarded as some sort of literary 
prelude to the offering of the Sacrifice. Rather, the liturgy of the Word is 
God visiting His people by the presence of His saving truth. Then, what 
is proclaimed in the Word is effected in the Sacrament. So we might say 
that the proclamation of the Word is not only what God will say to us, 
but it is also the proclamation of what God will do for us in that day's 
Eucharistic union. 

This is why Gospel and Communion verse are so closely united. In fact, 
in some of the early sacramentaries, the Communio was regularly taken from 
the Gospel that had just been read in that day's Mass. In any case, the 


Communion verse very often presents the best key for unlocking the 
treasure contained in the scripture readings of the Mass text. By way of 
illustration we might look at a few examples, taken here and there 
throughout the Church year. 

The Gospel from the Mass of the First Sunday after Easter contains the 
incident of the doubting Thomas. His faith is completely restored by the 
"felt experience" of putting his fingers into the marks of the wounds of 
the Risen Savior. It is the same Christ speaking to us at the moment of 
our sacramental encounter, and who tells us "put your hand here and 
know the place of the nails; be not faithless, but believing." The setting 
of this dramatic scene is not Jerusalem, year 29; it is hodie, America, 
1963. Because in each case it is the same Risen Christ; today the Gospel 
"comes true"; it takes on existential significance for us. And what other 
response could we make, but that adoring act of Faith: "My Lord and 
my God!" 

The Liturgy of the Word on the Second Sunday after Easter reveals 
Christ as the Good Shepherd. In the Liturgy of the Eucharist our Good 
Shepherd offers himself for his sheep. And in the Communion verse, the 
Good Shepherd speaks to us: "I know mine, and mine know me." Christ's 
presence in the Eucharist gives flesh, as it were, to His words in the 
Gospel. We can never disjoin the one from the other — Verbum et 
Sacramentum. Together they constitute the most valuable treasure the 
Church has. Together they give us the whole Christ. 

For the feast of Corpus Christi, we have a text taken from the Epistle: 
"As often as you eat the bread and drink the cup, you will proclaim the 
death of the Lord until He comes." At Communion these words are 
realized in fact. In eating the Bread, we are receiving the Risen Christ, the 
Lord marked with the five wounds of His sacrifice. By our obedient faith, 
by our union with this Victim of the Cross, we proclaim His death — not 
only "until He comes" in majesty, but as He comes today in mystery. 

Going on to the 14th Sunday after Pentecost, we listen in obedient faith 
as the Liturgy of the Word proclaims Christ's exhortation to "seek first the 
kingdom of heaven, and all these things will be given to you as well." 
In the Communion verse we are reminded that this promise is fulfilled, 
for in receiving Christ we are actually being given "all things" the Lord 
has promised. 

In the 15th Sunday after Pentecost, the Gospel relates the miracle of 
our Lord restoring life to the son of the widow of Nairn. The Communion 


verse shows Christ continuing that merciful work of restoring life for 
us today. For it is the same Christ who speaks to us today: "the Bread 
that I shall give is my flesh for the life of the world." 

One final example — from the 23rd Sunday after Pentecost. The Gospel 
shows the power of faith ; the lesson is taught, not by word, but by deeds. 
The faith of the worried father who "believed the word of Jesus" found 
its reward. Our Lord raised his girl to restored health. And the faith of 
the afflicted woman who believed she would be cured, if she could touch 
only the hem of the garment of the Wonder-worker of Nazareth, found 
its justification when she felt new vitality flowing through her entire 
system. Then if our faith has that implicit trust of the worried father, 
and our approach to Christ has that confidence of the afflicted woman, 
when we touch Christ in Communion, we shall find His promise coming 
true in our lives: "Therefore I say to you, whatsoever thing you ask for 
in prayer, believing, you shall receive." {Communio) 

Even in the case of those Masses where the Communio is not a direct 
quotation from the day's Gospel, we can often find that the short psalm verse 
which is given will present a clue as to how the scripture reading is to 
be interpreted in the light of the Eucharistic action. 

It is vitally important that we see in the scripture readings of Mass 
(Epistle and Gospel) more than edifying examples that are offered for 
private reflection. When these readings are set within the context of the 
Eucharistic action they pick up new meaning. They contain not only what 
the Word of God will say to us, but also what the Word coming in 
Communion will do for us in that day's Mass. For an existential com- 
mentary on the Scripture reading of the day's Mass — watch the Communio. 

Related Readings 

Martimort, Jounel . . . The Liturgy and the Word of God, Collegeville, The 

Liturgical Press, 1959 
Louis Bouyer, Liturgy and the Religious Life, St. Louis, Pio Decimo Press (30 page 

Charles Davis: Theology for Today, Sheed & Ward, 1962 
Odo Casel: The Mystery of Christian Worship, Newman Press, 1962 
Proceedings, North American Liturgical Week, Notre Dame, 1959 — article: "The 

Gateway of Scripture" by Jerome Stowell, CP 

— Jerome Stowell, CP, MA 



1. Cornides, A. "Other Horizons: 

the German Scene," Worship, 

. 1962, No. 2: 78-86.— 

JVLlSSlOIX The present liturgical renewal 

has caused a growing awareness of 
the importance of preaching and of 
# t the fact that the sermon is an inte- 
JVLaXerial gral part of the Mass, the service 
of the Word of God. As a conse- 
quence of this, and by request, rep- 
resentative German spokesmen have 
presented the following wishes concerning sermons preached to them: 

(1) Set aside sufficient time for a careful preparation of your sermon; 
its lack cannot be hidden from the laity. 

(2) Please have the kindness to stop after fifteen minutes; to keep on 
talking after that length of time is useless. 

(3) Do not speak to us in such an erudite manner, making use of Latin 
and foreign terminology and abstract terms; we retain only that 
which leaves a concrete impression. 

(4) Do not speak in an obsolete language which you alone are still 
familiar with, but on the other hand do not attempt to use modern 
lingo. Speak in the concise, clear, unpoetical and unsentimental 
language of today. If you make references to our professional 
world, please see to it that your statements are correct. 

(5) Put aside all high-sounding pathos; we are always afraid it may 
be hollow. 

(6) See to it that your sermon has a clear outline and can be easily 
remembered; otherwise we have forgotten it before we reach the 
church door. 

(7) Do not pretend that you yourself have already attained the fulness 
of Christian sanctity. We are more ready to believe those who con- 
cede that they themselves are also seeking, suffering and failing. 
Show sympathetic understanding for the difficult everyday life of 
lay Christians in our present world. 


(8) Give us the nourishing bread of God's Word. He who is hungry 
— and perhaps we are more so than former generations — does not 
demand candy, but solid food. 

(9) Give us a convincing view of God's greatness and a large vision 
of His sal vine mysteries. 

(10) Please presuppose as little as possible, lest your sermon remain 
beyond our understanding. 

(11) Let faith shed its light on our daily lives and our profession. We 
are hurt if, on your lips, "vocation" is synonymous only with 
vocation to the priesthood and religious life. 

(12) Correct without hesitation whatever has to be corrected in us, but 
do not scold or insult us from the pulpit. Otherwise you will achieve 
only the further hardening of those at fault, provoke the malicious 
joy of the pharisees and add to the sorrow of the innocent. We 
know that we are not always what we are supposed to be (and 
this is probably true of you, too, seeing that you are human beings 
also), but we do not want to be yelled at! We want to feel that in 
spite of our sins we are being taken seriously in our dignity as 
baptized Christians. 

(13) Make us feel occasionally that we belong to a universal Church. 

(14) Do not knock us down, but give us courage. Give us a little help, 
consolation, approval and hope. Help us to feel happiness because 
God exists and because of His mighty works of salvation. 

2. Stanley, D. "The Fonts of Preaching," Worship, 1963, No. 3: 164- 

The principal objective of the preacher should be to permit the Good 
News of Revelation to be heard today. The preacher cannot afford to 
settle for the fringe benefits of moralistic application. The strictures of 
the so-called practical application to modern life should not fetter the 
Word of God. The preacher must respect the reaction of Christian faith 
on the part of his hearers. He must be aware, as the prophets foretold (Is 
54. 13; Jer 31. 33-4) and Jesus Himself insisted, that "they shall all be 
taught of God" (Jn. 6. 45). He cannot afford to forget St. Paul's trenchant 
remark — which might be understood as a criticism of preaching — "the 
letter kills; it is the Spirit who gives life" (2 Cor. 3. 6). 


3. The Way. A quarterly review of Christian spirituality published by 
the English Jesuits (31 Farm St., London, W. 1). The October 
issue is on "The Father Almighty." It develops the Advent theme 
of the power of God. 

Recent Books: 

1. Davis, C. Theology for Today (1962), Sheed and Ward, New York. 
This book contains essays covering almost every section of theology. 
The themes chosen explain the trends in modern theology. The 
Christian life is presented as a personal encounter with the three 
divine Persons as they proceed from each other in the interior divine 

2. Hitz, P. To Preach the Gospel (1963), Sheed and Ward. This is 
the latest and best book on the theology of preaching written in 
English. It is addressed primarily to priests who give missions. 
The Church communicates to us God's revelation attested to in sacred 
scripture. It is in sacred scripture that the priest will find the biblical 
and theological basis for his apostolate, the inspired source of his 
prayer and preaching. 

This work appeared in France in 1954, reminding us that, in this 
country, we lag behind the best theological thought. Present thought 
on preaching coming out of Europe can be found in the following 
periodicals: Lumen Vitae, La Maison-Dieu, Evangeliser, Lumiere et Vie, 
Bible et Vie chretienne. 

—Neil Sharkey, CP, STD 

Now in its second printing: Religious Vows in the Life of the Church, 
by Cronan Regan, CP, STD. Copies available from author, at $2.50. For 
review, cf. VC: 1-2. 

"The first requirement of reform is a more diligent study and a more 
extensive proclamation of the Word of God." (Paul VI) 

"Nothing would be done at all, if a man waited until he could do it 
so well that, no one could find fault with it." — Cardinal Newman 





It is very difficult to draw the line 
and exclude any worthwhile writ- 
ings from a survey of materials per- 
tinent to the apostolate of the retreat 
master. The retreat audience is apt 
to be quite specialized, often being 
grouped by age, sex, professional 
interests, economic and political con- 
ditioning, educational background, 

etc. Consequently the sociological 

and psychological studies on the 
contemporary American, and the 

professional publications on the problems of the various states of life are 
germane to the retreat master's need to know his audience. The retreat 
preacher communicates the Christian message in a framework of confer- 
ences that are more fluid than that usually associated with a mission. The 
growing library of works on kerygmatic preaching and catechetics offers 
many insights of a biblical, doctrinal and liturgical nature that could increase 
the forcefulness of this message. The college theology texts prepared by 
Dominicans, Jesuits, and the most recent series from Catholic University's 
Department of Religious Education provide doctrinal sources in English 
that are somewhat pre-digested, and more readily adapted for use in sermon 
preparation than seminary texts usually are. There is not an issue of Review 
for Religious, S pons a Regis, Doctrine and Life, Spiritual Life, Cross and 
Crown, Way, etc., but that provides ore for refining by the particular 
preacher's insight. Obviously, then, any selection of listings for this page 
must appear somewhat arbitrary. 

General Works 

G. Salet, SJ, The Wonders of Our Faith. Westminster: Newman, 1961. 
Pp. 187. $3.50. 

Warm, imaginative and profound essays on central Christian truths. 
Written non-technically for the intelligent layman. Especially perti- 
nent: Incarnation (ch. 2), Passion (ch. 4), Mass and Calvary (ch. 5), 
Mother of God (ch. 8). 

F. X. Durwell, CSsR, /;/ the Redeeming Christ. New York: Sheed and 
Ward, 1963. Pp. xi-292. $5.00. 


A practical and Christo-centric series of articles on the spiritual life- 
in-Christ. A look at the table of contents should indicate this book's 
utility to a retreat master seeking to freshen his material. 

J. Newman, The Christian in Society. Baltimore: Helicon, 1963. Pp. 
208. $4.50. 

A clear and practical theology of the lay apostolate. Should supplement 
the above books which do not treat the reality and consequences of 
Baptism and Confirmation. 

Young Peoples' Retreats 

Father William, OCD, Manual for Retreat Masters. Milwaukee: Bruce, 
I960. Pp. 94. $1.50. 

Favorably reviewed as "a book for all interested in making or helping 
student retreats." 

N. G. Werling, OCarm, Retreat Projects for Teenagers. Chicago: Car- 
melite Books, 1962. Pp. 144. Price: ? 

Designed as a workbook to provide spiritual reading, meditation and 
self-examination for the high school retreatant. Can be a useful source 
book for one preparing retreat conferences for youngsters. 

Religious Retreats 

T. M. Dubay, SM, Sisters' Retreats. Westminster: Newman, 1963. Pp. 
xviii-226. $4.50. 

Based on a questionnaire circulated among hundreds of sisters, the 
book offers frank and balanced indications of what the sisters want in 
a retreat. Most of the first section appeared as articles in Review for 
Religious in 1956-1958. Excellent self-examination and guide for all 
working with religious women. 

Donum Dei. Publication of the Canadian Religious Conference (324 
Laurier Avenue East; Ottawa 2, Canada). 

Seven issues have appeared since 1959. Each issue a monograph with 
first-rate papers and extensive summaries of workshop discussions, 
that give the major superiors' assessment of their problems and their 
assets. Very useful on vows, adaptation, apostolate. 

Religious Life in the Modern World. University of Notre Dame Press 
paperbacks. Pp. 160/169/232. $1.95 each. 


Selections from Proceedings of Sisters' Institute of Spirituality, 1953- 
1955 and grouped around single themes. These three focus on adap- 
tion, novitiate, vows and perfection. The first article in the third 
volume is splendid. 

L. J. Card. Suenens, The Nun in the World. Westminster: Newman, 
1963. Pp. viii-175. Paper, $1.95; Cloth, $3.50. 

J. J. Evoy, SJ and V. F. Christoph, SJ, Personality Development in the 
Religious Life. New York: Sheed & Ward, 1963. Pp. viii-247. $3.95. 
These two books are being widely read. The first is stirring a great 
deal of comment in the journals, as well as in private. It seems appro- 
priate for the sisters' retreat master to be familiar with their message. 

A. J. Mehr, OSC, "Community Exercises in Religious Life," Review for 
Religious, 21 (1962) pp. 301-347. 

A profound essay on the theology and practice of religious life, treat- 
ing such themes as basic social principles, and community creativity 
and worship. Available in reprint. 

— Cronan Regan, CP, STD 


Do read: "Heart and Head: Catechisms with a Modern Accent," by 
Bishop Carter of London, Ontario, who quotes "the justly renowned Bar- 
nabas M. Ahem, CP, speaking to a group of bishops during the first session 
of the Council. . . ." {America 7-13-63) 

For retreat notes by John XXIII, indicative of his attitude toward 
devotion to the Sacred Passion, read Emmanuel (Oct. '63). 

Saint Vincent Strambi's Guide to Sacred Eloquence, newly edited by 
Pius A. Leabel, CP, Sacred Eloquence Lector Emeritus, Holy Cross Prov- 
ince. (The Mary Shop, 1435 Attica Drive, St. Louis 37, Mo. Paperback, 
$1.25 per copy; 10% discount on 10 copies.) "Every priest and seminarian 
who can acquire a copy of this little volume will be grateful to Father 
Pius, of Sierra Madre. Of especial interest to the reader will be Chapter 
XI, 'Scripture in Preaching,' revised in the light of recent papal pronounce- 
ments. This part of the work has been done by Carroll Stuhlmueller, CP, 
well known scripture scholar." {Los Angeles Tidings) 


"Once the truth is established by careful investigation, it becomes the 
task of rhetoric to energize it, to state it so clearly and cogently and appeal- 
ingly that, it will be accepted and loved and acted upon. . . ." (St. Vincent, 
CP) Homiletics is not rhetoric, but rhetoric certainly prepares for and 
facilitates homiletics. 

The Spoken Arts Forum: 

During the August convention, at Denver, The Catholic Homiletic Soci- 
ety invited professors of homiletics in major and minor seminaries to 
participate in its new Seminarian Associates Program. The Spoken Arts 
Forum is a speaking-preaching club which can be established in any major 
or minor seminary, in accordance with the constitution and by-laws of 
The Catholic Homiletic Society. 

The purpose of the Forum is twofold: 1) it provides seminarians an 
opportunity to gain practice and confidence in public speaking, through 
informally organized speaking situations; 2) it encourages in the members 
a fuller realization of the role of preaching in the life of the Church, 
through aptly selected homiletic and pre-homiletic projects. The Forum is 
an extra-curricular activity, conducted by the students themselves, under 
the guidance of a faculty moderator. Teachers interested in this new ven- 
ture should apply to The Rev. John Burke, OP, St. Stephen's Priory, Dover, 

— AMcD 

Vatican II and the Press: 

October 8 — Cardinal Suenens, 

Archbishop of Malines-Brussells: 

From the Reflections on the Schema De 

Cell an Hill An air of optimism at the current 

session, not discernible in 1962. 
Because of interim study, the Fa- 
thers of the Council are better pre- 
pared; the pace is faster; progress more gratifying. 

His Eminence prefers a treatment of the Populus Dei theme before that 
on the hierarchy. His reason is ecumenical, indicative that the Church is 


not a clerical monopoly. Baptism, through which we are incorporated into 
Christ, is the same for Pope, Bishops, Priests, and Laity. The hierarchy, 
as such, will not exist in the Church Triumphant. 

To be stressed very strongly — the missionary aspect of the Church. The 
whole Church must be involved in bringing the gospel to every creature. 
Every baptized person has a duty to evangelize. This missionary aspect 
should be included in the definition of the Christian life. Thus: We are 
created to know God and to make Him known ; we are created to love God 
and to make Him loved; we are created to serve God and to make Him 

The "collegiality of the bishops" should be considered sub et cum Petro. 
Some are stressing the sub; others, the cum. We need to emphasize both. 
This spirit of collegiality was the most important grace of the First Session. 

October 12 — Archbishop Heenan of Westminster: Re the vernacular 
in the Liturgy. Here and now, a most urgent question is the extent of 
authority of the national episcopal conferences. May they impose their de- 
cisions on reluctant bishops? His Excellency expressed a hope for unifi- 
cation between English and Irish Liturgical Conferences, to obviate con- 
fusion among the Irish immigrants in England. 

The Archbishop sees no essential conflict between the ecumenical move- 
ment and the apostolate of conversion. Ecumenism is a dialogue, for the 
purpose of exchanging ideas, to learn what another man thinks. Ecumenism 
is not related to conversion directly. 

Beatification Miracles'. 

On October 5, 1963, Pope Paul VI, addressing the Congregation of 
Rites, declared solemnly that, two miracles had been wrought through the 
intercession of Venerable Dominic, CP. A summary account of the mira- 
cles is featured in the Decretum super Miraculis. 

(1) Conf rater Damasus of the Holy Rosary (Nicholas Trani) of Taran- 
to, Italy; age, 17; health, robust. Shortly after profession, stricken with 
bursitis of the knee and synovitis; pain, excruciating; patient bedridden; 
medical attempts at alleviation, futile. Upon application of image of Ven. 
Dominic, patient cured. Facts attested by witnesses; a miracle acknowl- 
edged by physicians. Year, 1890. 

(2) Hector Chianura, also of Taranto; age, 38; workman and father 
of a family. In 1954, stricken with sudden and acute chest pain. Based 
on x-ray examination, diagnosis: Pneumothorax (gas in the pleural cavity) 


of tubercular origin. Within 10 days, patient considered hopeless and in 
imminent danger of death. On second day of a novena to Ven. Dominic, 
a sudden and complete cure, acknowledged by specialists to be beyond all 
natural powers. 

Beatification Day: 

Sunday, October 27, 1963. Saint Peter's Patriarchal Basilica 

10:00 a.m. Reading of the Brief of Beatification 
Solemn Te Deum 
Pontifical High Mass 
Celebrant: Cardinal Marella, Archpriest of Saint Peter's 

4:30 p.m. Veneration of the relics of the new Beatus, by Pope Paul VI 
Pontifical Benediction, by Archbishop Cardinale, Apostolic 
Delegate to Great Britain 

Solemn Triduum: Basilica of Saints John and Paul October 28 — 30 
October 28: 

7:00 a.m. Holy Mass: Celebrant, Archbishop of Catania, Guido Luigi 
Bentivoglio, S. O. Cist. 

6:00 p.m. Pontifical High Mass, by Cardinal Larraona, C.M.F. 
Sermon, by Bishop Gasbarri, Auxiliary of Velletri 
Mass In honorem S. Papae Pii X, Pontifical Sistine Choir 

October 29: 

7:00 a.m. Holy Mass: Celebrant, Most Reverend Father General, C. P. 

6:00 p.m. Pontifical High Mass, by Cardinal Cento 

Sermon, by Archbishop Hallinan, of Atlanta, Georgia 

Mass ]ubilaei, Pontifical Sistine Choir 

October 30: 

7:00 a.m. Holy Mass: Celebrant, Bishop Himmer, of Tournai 

6:00 p.m. Pontifical High Mass: Celebrant, Archbishop Heenan, of 
Sermon, by The Very Rev. Alfred Wilson, C P. 
Mass IV Basilicalis, Pontifical Sistine Choir 
Solemn Te Deum 

— Theodore Foley, CP, STD 


Father Timothy Fitzgerald, CP, has been appointed Professor of 
Homiletics at the North American College. 

As the socius of Bishop Swanstrom, Father Fabian Flynn, CP, attended 

the first half of the Second Session of Vatican II. . . . _^ 

— AMcD 

Divine Office in Vernacular? 

At a clerical conference, Bernard 

Haring, CSsR, stated that if a priest 

did not understand the Divine Office 

in Latin, he could read it in his QuaeStlOlieS 

vernacular, until he became familiar 

with its meaning, and that while UlSpiltatae 

doing so, he would satisfy his obli- 

gation. At the conference, a senior 

Bishop of this country was quoted 

as having expressed regret that this opinion had not been current 55 years 

ago — when he was ordained. Is it safe to follow Haring's opinion? 

Father Haring's opinion in this matter may be summed up as follows: 
the Church's rules on the breviary are not to be considered merely as regu- 
lating a man's external acts, as some canonists taught. When the Church 
makes laws about prayer, her very nature compels her to be concerned 
about educating her children to pray "in spirit and in truth," which pre- 
sumes attentive and devout praying. She gives the priest the breviary in 
order to teach him to pray after the manner of the saints of the Old and 
New Testament, even as Christ did — to impress upon him his obligation 
to be first and foremost, a pray-er. The end of the law therefore is to make 
the priest a pray-er; any other purpose is unthinkable. 

Father Haring: "In the case of a priest for whom the daily recitation 
of the Latin breviary in its entirety is a source of frustration and an occa- 
sion for his gradual unlearning of the art of praying, should he persevere 
unconditionally in his obedience to the [letter of the] law, or should he 
not rather, urged thereto by the virtue of epikeia, temporarily try praying 
his office in his mother tongue, until he has really become familiar with 
it?" {Worship, vol. 37: 5 [1963], p. 283) 


The manner in which Haring poses the question indicates his preference 
for an affirmative answer. Since the end of the law is not being achieved — 
the priest is in fact, not praying — Haring argues it is not only licit, but 
virtuous for him to pray his breviary in the vernacular. He defends this 
use of epikeia by the priest, on the grounds that the legislator, in his equity 
and wisdom, has no desire to include certain extraordinary instances in his 
general norms, nor does he expect that his law as conceived, has foreseen 
all possible cases and circumstances. (Haring, Law of Christ, vol. I, p. 281) 
The use of epikeia by the subject presumes the existence of the virtue of 
epikeia in the legislator — and with an appeal to St. Thomas, Haring con- 
cludes: "Epikeia is preferable to that legalistic righteousness which stops 
at the mere observance of the words." (Il-IIae, q. 120, a. 2, ad 2) 

Now, it will be asserted that Latin is the language prescribed for the 
fulfillment of the obligation. Certainly the law is clear in this matter. 
(SRC, 3 June 1904; canons 2 and 135) Furthermore the objection will 
be, and has been, raised that the Latin breviary is the official prayer of the 
Church — that it is efficacious even though the one reciting it does not 
understand much or any of what he says. Certainly it is true that one can 
pray even though he does not understand what he is saying, as St. Thomas 
teaches (Il-IIae, q. 83, a. 13). But in such a case, he is praying in spite 
of what he is saying. And whether the concentration required for prayer 
of this sort over a period of time would be psychologically tolerable is a 
moot point. However, in no sense can a soulless recitation of the breviary 
be called "praying" — for this would be tantamount to making the Divine 
Office a kind of Catholic prayer- wheel. 

Ergo, if a priest cannot pray his Latin breviary, I think Haring' s solution 
to the problem has intrinsic probability and is safe to follow in practice, 
with this proviso: that his private recitation of the office in the vernacular 
be temporary — i.e., until he can pray in Latin {not until he understands 
the Latin perfectly), and that he make some concomitant effort to under- 
stand the Latin by means of supplementary study, the use of a dictionary, 
commentary on the psalms, etc. 

Mass in Motel Room? 

Fathers A and B are perpetual members of the Missionary Union of the 
Clergy. As such, they have the privilege of the portable altar during vaca- 
tion time. Vacationing in the north country, they live in a motel. To get 
to a church for daily Mass would be a real difficulty. In order not to be 


deprived of daily Mass, are they justified in using the portable altar? 

Canon 822, § 3 says that, the privilege of the portable altar is to be 
understood in such a sense that, it bestows the faculty of celebrating Mass 
on a consecrated altar stone anywhere except at sea, provided the place 
chosen is decent and respectable: "honesto tamen ac decenti loco." In 1949, 
the Sacred Congregation of the Sacraments issued an Instruction on the 
privilege of the portable altar which spelled out in detail what was meant 
by a "locus congruus et decens seu opportunus et honestus." An appro- 
priate place (locus congruus) is one which provides enough space to offer 
Mass safely and conveniently without danger of profanation or spilling the 
Precious Blood; a decent place (locus decens) refers to the quality of the 
place, i.e., it demands that Mass be not celebrated in a bedroom where 
someone usually sleeps, or in any other place unbefitting the dignity of so 
great a sacrifice." (S.C.Sac., 1 Oct. 1949; A.A.S., 41 [1949], pp. 503- 
504) Let us presume that the motel room is appropriate in that it is spacious 
enough. With regard to the quality of the place, however, it seems that 
no matter how you slice it, motel rooms are bedrooms "in quibus aliquis 
dormire solet." And while undoubtedly the decor of many motel rooms is 
far more beautiful (perhaps even more liturgical!) than some oratories, 
the law could not be more explicit. Therefore it seems to me that where 
celebrating Mass under such circumstances is simply a matter of conveni- 
ence and not of necessity (even though the desire to celebrate the Holy 
Sacrifice is most admirable), the answer to the query must be a categorical 

— Damian Towey, CP, JCD 

Sandal Toe-straps: 

In our North American provinces, is there an official pattern to which 
we should conform in the making of sandals? (VC I: 3; p. 32) 

During Visitation at St. Paul, Kansas, 1956, Father General stated that, 
he did not know of any regulation or custom as to the width or placement 
of the toe-strap. He did state, however, that the strap should not be any 
wider than 21^ inches, lest the toes be completely covered and the sandal 
become, in effect, a shoe. At the time, Father General gave his approval of 
a standard strap width of 1% inches — wider, if necessary — but not exceed- 
ing 2y 4 . This information is found in the manual, The Art of Making 
Passionist Sandals, issued by Holy Cross Province. 

According to the Klingbeil Shoe Laboratory, Jamaica, N. Y., (major 


center in the East for orthopedic shoes and sandals, and principal supplier 
of orthopedic footwear to the Veterans' Administration), the toe-strap 
should straddle the joint where the metatarsus joins the toes, so that the 
foot will have proper support. The toe-strap should also be to the rear of 
the toes, to allow for ventilation, and to obviate ingrown nails, blisters, 
cuticle abrasions, etc. 

— Crispin McGinn, CP 
Why This Question? 

Many sets of human toes fail to qualify as an answer to an artist's prayer ; 
amateur podiatry can worsen the picture; dinginess can be the finishing 
touch. Hence, our July observation: "Whether on the mission platform 
or elsewhere, the wider, more conservative toe- strap of yesteryear seems 

— AMcD 

Problems inherent in Liturgical Vernacular: 

It is a strange Providence that presented the writer with a request for 
some "educated surmises" concerning difficulties in saying public Masses 
in English. Personal feeling or talent apart, the possible problems and some 
solutions might come along these lines: 

(I) Attitudinal Difficulties. 
(A) On the part of Priests: 

"Some priests have come to have an over- exaggerated sense of 
the difficulties involved in putting the program into effect. It takes work 
and perseverance on the part of some one priest in the parish, but the fact 
that it has been done, shows that it can be done. . . 

"It is more probable that, some pastors have given up too easily, or are 
reluctant to put into effect congregational participation because of the 
reaction or lack of reaction from the laity. We are dealing with regulations 
of the Archdiocese, authorized by the Archbishop as a fulfillment of the 
will of the Church. Therefore, pastors should not let themselves be dictated 
to or influenced by the laity in this matter. Rather, it is a matter of educat- 
ing them through Sunday instructions and other available means, in the 
true meaning of Christ's Sacrifice and their part in it. For some, the old is 
always good, and the new is always to be shunned. 

"Priests should not be discouraged at seeming apathy or poor response. 
No matter how poorly the dialogue Mass is done or the High Mass is 


sung, it is an improvement over centuries of mere observation and silence 
on the part of the people." 

— Letter from Chancery Office, 

Archdiocese of Hartford, October 14, 1963 

(B) On the part of the Laity. 

Nothing is to be gained by trying to force participation on each 
and every soul. Many of the faithful have learned to unite their hearts with 
Christ the Victim at Mass through private prayer, devotions, the Rosary, 
etc. "Friendly persuasion," and instructions or sermons made in a charitable 
manner should do it. If not, leave the poor folk alone. There are many 
ways of participating in the Mass and not all of them are vocal. In general, 
the young and the middle-aged will respond wholeheartedly if participation 
is presented in the proper way. 

(II) Mechanical or Practical Difficulties. 
(A) The preparation: 

No one likes to find himself caught in a mass demonstration, 
where he is expected to participate and yet cannot, because he does not 
know the "why" or the "how." It is essential, therefore, that there be 
indoctrination, if the faithful are to participate happily in the liturgy. 
These procedures may help: 

(1) Four or five instructions — in the place of Sunday sermons — 
devoted to the practice and the history of the different word- 
formulae of the Mass liturgy. 

(2) A concomitant "blitz" of the same kind of word-practice and 
instruction at the meeting of various parish organizations and 
with the school or catechism class children. 

(3) An easy-to-read and durable card or folder of the responses 
for the Ordinary of the Mass. This should be left in good 
quantity in the pews or racks for use at all Masses. (The 
National Episcopal Conferences, diocesan committees or the 
individual pastors will have to choose the format. Otherwise 
the different wording of separate Missals will create havoc.) 

(4) An unobtrusive reader or prayer-leader. If a priest cannot 
fulfill this role (and it will help much if he does), a clear- 
voiced and well-practiced layman will do. 


(5) Practice, practice — before actually incorporating the partici- 
pation at Mass. 

(B) The actual Masses: 

(1) Microphones are essential for any large church — good micro- 
phones and well placed amplifiers. If the altar is a great dis- 
tance from the bottom step, another microphone is needed for 
the prayers at the foot of the altar. Two microphones on the 

(2) Good, clear enunciation on the part of the celebrant. 

(3) A response leader or group (another microphone). If the 
people are still a bit shy even after previous practice, it might 
be wise to "plant" responders throughout the church. Members 
of the parish organizations can spread out in groups of two's 
or three's at each Mass. 

(4) If there is a parking problem in the church area and the 
Communions are many, then the Mass schedule should be 
adjusted accordingly — e.g., 10:15 and 11:30 a.m. If the dia- 
loguing has been well rehearsed, there should be no great 
delay on that account. 

(5) We have been speaking only of the Ordinary of the Mass. 
Group recitation of the proper parts would depend on the 
organized use of some one translation or Missal-leaflet. Group- 
singing for High Masses would follow the same basic princi- 
ples outlined above. 

Final Thoughts: 

We think of Pope John XXIII celebrating a low Mass in the largest 
church in the world and — thanks to perfect microphone placement — hav- 
ing perfect dialogue in the Mass prayers between himself and the thousands 
present. We think of the same good Pastor singing a High Mass and, 
after intoning the Gloria, going on to splinter the liturgical laws by saying: 
"All together now!" And sing the thousands did! 

Participation — in Latin or in English — doesn't distract people if they 
are participating. 




"The Mediator of God and men, the Man Christ Jesus" 

" © Five thousand nine hundred and nine years after the CREATION 
of the WORLD © when in the beginning GOD made heaven and earth 
S Two thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven years after the DELUGE 
© Two thousand and fifteen years after the birth of ABRAHAM & one 
thousand five hundred and ten years after the exitus of MOSES and the 
people of ISRAEL from EGYPT © one thousand thirty-two years after 
the annointing of DAVID as KING © In the sixty-fifth week according 
to DANIEL the PROPHET * In the one hundred and ninety-fourth 
OLYMPIAD © Seven hundred and fifty-two years after the founding of 
the CITY of ROME * And the forty-second year of OCTAVIUS 
AUGUSTUS * When the whole world was at peace & In the sixth age 
of the world © JESUS CHRIST the ETERNAL GOD and SON of the 
ETERNAL FATHER * Desiring to consecrate the world by HIS most 
holy coming Was conceived by the HOLY GHOST 8B And nine months 
after HIS conception Having become MAN HE was born of the VIRGIN 

— Roman Martyrology 
Vigil of the Nativity 



Editorial 1 

Passiology 2 

f Fundamental 5 

Moral 8 

homiletics 11 

Liturgy 14 

f Mission Source Material . . . . 18 
Annotated I 

Bibliography 1 „ c u .. 

[ Retreat Source Material . . . . 21 

From the Celian Hill 24 

Quaestiones Disputatae . .27 

'We need more writers conversant with the contempo- 
rary scene who, at the same time, are able to see life 
sub specie aeternitatis, particularly in the light of the 
wisdom of the cross." 

— The Passionist Heritage 

". . . The word of the cross . . .is . . .to us . . . the power of God." 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

Unburn (Eruris 

Vol. II January, A.D. 1964 No. 1 

Unburn (farta 

Vol. II January, A.D. 1964 

A Quarterly Review of Clerical Literature 
Published by the Passionist Fathers 
Province of Saint Paul of the Cross. 

Cum Superiorum permissu 

Ad instar manuscripti 

For private circulation only 

Opinions expressed by contributors do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the editor. 


86-45 178 Street 

Jamaica 32, N. Y. 

Telephone: AXtel 7-0044 

Cable Address: Veecee New York 

In Memoriam 

In the liturgical spirit of the Church, as exemplified in the Divine 
Office, it is fitting that we recommend to our readers a prayerful 
remembrance of our first Roman Catholic President 


Requiescat in pace 

In ink — and in a spirit of indeli- 
ble appreciation — we hereby toast 

the Eastern and Western contribut- Editorial 

ing editors of Verbum Cruets who, 
during the past twelvemonth, have 

made Verbum Cruets what it is. Judging by the bouquets received — and 
allowing for a few brickbats — the overall reaction has been very favorable. 
That V C has been so well received — all thanks to our co-editors! 

As we enter upon a second volume, it seems timely to conduct a poll 
among our readers. Please be so kind as to respond, at your early conveni- 
ence, to the following questions: (1) What do you not like — and why? 
(2) What do you like — and why? We would prefer bravely signed replies, 
but anonymous comments also, from bashful souls, will be considered. 

— AMcD 

"The Lectors are thrilled with Verbum Cruets, ... it fills a real lacuna 
for us. You are doing a service to us all, not merely for your own province. 
Please send 30 copies." —Philip, CP, Provincial 

Ministeracres, England 

"Verbum Crucis will fill a real need. Many of us are but vaguely aware 
of present trends. Ignorance can lead us into a false position and cause 
considerable harm to our apostolate. V C is just the sort of reminder we 
need -" —Charles, CP, Provincial 

Marrickville, Australia 

^ . t Perennial Appeal 

Passiology of the Crols 

A diocesan priest expressed the opinion, a few years ago, that a congre- 
gation such as ours would not receive papal approval if its foundation 
were attempted at this stage of the Church's history. His reason was that 
the Church appears to be deemphasizing particular devotions and that, 
therefore, there would be no place for a religious institute that existed 
to promote a special devotion. His statement was obviously based on a 
misconception of the present theological and liturgical stress on the im- 
portance of keeping doctrines in their proper context. 

The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, adopted by the bishops of the 
Second Vatican Council, and immediately promulgated by Pope Paul VI, 
is far from ruling out particular devotions. Anyway, it is most misleading 
to speak about the Passion of our Lord as though it were primarily a 
matter of devotion. We are dealing here with a central doctrine of the 
Catholic Faith. 

It is indeed providential that theologians and liturgists have, in recent 
years, succeeded in showing the vast importance of studying and contem- 
plating different doctrines in their proper frame of reference. The failure 
in former days of so many members of the Church to see the Passion and 
the Resurrection of Christ as integral parts of one mystery is now happily 
being corrected. The liturgical constitution calls it the "paschal mystery." 
After calling for a fresh understanding of the place of "the Lord's day, 
or Sunday," in the liturgical scheme, the constitution continues: "For on 
this day Christ's faithful should come together into one place so that, by 
hearing the word of God and taking part in the eucharist, they may call 
to mind the passion, the resurrection, and the glorification of the Lord 
Jesus, and may thank God who 'has begotten them again, through the 
resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, unto a living hope.' " (I Pet. 
1:3) 106 

Does this mean, as the priest quoted above evidently thought, that we 
Passionists will have to stop preaching the Passion as a separate theme? 
If this were so, to use a reductio ad absurdum, Pope John XXIII would 

have been guilty of a lamentable mistake, in the very first paragraph of 
the brief in which he approved and confirmed the revision of our Rules 
and Constitutions. Ratifying our traditional accentuation of the Passion, 
Pope John wrote: "St. Paul of the Cross, illustrious follower of Jesus 
suffering, founded, with providential wisdom, the Congregation of the 
Discalced Clerics of the Most Holy Cross and Passion of our Lord Jesus 
Christ that, they might meditate on the life-giving sufferings of Christ 
the Savior and, recalling their memory, persuade men to wash away their 
sins and follow virtue, as also to lead unbelievers to the truth divinely 
revealed to us. Binding them by a special vow, he obliged them to promote 
that devotion by which all our Redeemer suffered for men should be 
remembered in a special way." 

Nobody in the history of the Church has written on Christ's resur- 
rection with more substance and verve than St. Paul. Yet, notice his in- 
sistence on highlighting the cross in his preaching. He told the Corinthians 
that he had purposely avoided preaching "with an orator's cleverness, for 
so the cross of Christ might be robbed of its force, . . . but what we 
preach is Christ crucified, . . . Christ the power of God, Christ the wis- 
dom of God." (I Cor. 1:17, 23-24) It is remarkable that St. Paul returned 
to this question of preaching the cross at the beginning of the next chapter 
of the same epistle, where he says: "So it was, brethren, that when I came 
to you and preached Christ's message to you, I did so without any high 
pretensions to eloquence or to philosophy. I had no thought of bringing 
you any other knowledge than that of Jesus Christ, and of Him crucified." 
(I Cor. 2:1-2) 

When Cardinal Newman cast the eagle eye of his giant intellect over 
the whole field of Christian doctrine, he came to the conclusion that God 
had assigned a unique place to the doctrine of the cross. "The great and 
awful doctrine of the Cross of Christ," he wrote, "may fitly be called, in 
the language of figures, the heart of religion. The heart may be considered 
the seat of life; it is the principle of motion, heat, and activity; from it, the 
blood goes to and fro to the extreme parts of the body. It sustains the 
man in his powers and faculties; it enables the brain to think; and 
when it is touched man dies. And in like manner, the doctrine of Christ's 
atoning sacrifice is the vital principle on which the Christian lives, and 

without which Christianity is not. Without it no other doctrine is held 
profitably." (Cross of Christ, Measure of the World.) 

There are other organs besides the heart in our physical bodies, but 
no other organ is as important as the heart. All the other organs depend 
on it. All other organs draw their life from it. And so it is with the body 
of doctrine. There are many and varied doctrines, and none of them can 
be forgotten if we wish to have balance in our faith, and in the practice 
of it. The doctrine of Christ's sacrifice on the Cross itself is meaningless 
apart from such doctrines as those of original sin, the incarnation, sancti- 
fying grace, the immortality of the soul. But all these doctrines revolve 
around that of the Passion and Cross of our Lord, as is indicated by the 
introit of the Mass of the Thursday of the Lord's Supper: "But it behooves 
us to glory in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ: in whom is our salvation, 
life, and resurrection: by whom we are saved and delivered." (Cfr. Gal. 

If our preaching as Passionists ever becomes indistinguishable from 
that of other preachers, we will have ceased to have a reason for existence 
as a separate religious institute. If people do not savor the doctrine of 
the cross in our sermons, we have no right to the name of Passionists. 
There may be applied here a trenchant Latin phrase which Blessed Dominic 
quoted, in another context, to the General of the Congregation: "aut sint 
ut sunt aut non sint," "let them be themselves or nothing." 

It would be as absurd to say that we should have no specialists in doc- 
trine in the Church, as it would be to say that we should have no specialists 
in the medical field. The Church has recognized the need for specialists 
in general by her practice of awarding doctoral degrees in theology, canon 
law, and sacred scripture. In a somewhat different way, she has recognized 
the importance of specialization in religious orders. If we accept the analogy 
of Cardinal Newman, and there is no reason why we should not, we Pas- 
sionists may be likened among religious orders and congregations with 
heart specialists among physicians. 

The people who sit before our mission platforms and retreat tables are 
in great spiritual need. Many of them are spiritually sick. We have the 
cure for every conceivable spiritual problem or ailment in the cross. This 
is no exaggeration. 

If we are willing to get away from the attitude that the few traditional 
sermons on the Passion are all we need, we will see what a vast field of 
application opens before us. There is far more to the philosophy of the 
cross than developing the idea that the agony of our Lord in the garden 
shows the malice of sin in general, or that the sourging indicates the 
degradation of sins of impurity in particular, or that the crowning with 
thorns brings out the evil of pride. 

It is our duty to show that economic and social problems also, perhaps 
surprisingly, find solutions in the doctrine of the cross. We have an obli- 
gation to demonstrate that peace, whether personal, national, or universal, 
definitely flows from the doctrine of the cross. 

We should stop thinking of our fourth vow in terms merely of devotion, 
and start thinking of it in terms of doctrine. Doctrine requires study and 
contemplation to be understood and passed on to the faithful. In the end 
it all depends on how deeply we love Him who suffered His passion 
through love of us. "For the love of God is very ingenious and is proved 
not so much by words as by the deeds and example of the lovers." Rules: 

— Bertrand Weaver, CP 

Theologians ™ 

We have been reading in our refectory, recently, a good number of 
books by modern theologians. Reactions have been mixed — to say the least. 
A common objection one hears frequently concerns their language and 
their method. Often missing in the theological language of the moderns 
is the familiar terminology of the scholastics. Instead, biblical terms abound. 
An example of this is Father Paul Hitz's book, To Preach the Gospel, 
which centers around such scriptural concepts as the kerygma, the parousia, 
the paschal mystery. 

Missing, too, in many of the moderns are the exact definitions and clear- 

cut method that played so much a part in the scholastic manuals of the 
last generation. Rather, theologians like Karl Rahner seem to delight in 
complexity and creating problems, instead of emphasizing definitions and 
arriving at clear answers. 

Another objection, more implicit than voiced, concerns the subjects these 
theologians treat. It was all right when theologians stuck to the intricacies 
of the Trinity and the Incarnation, but to see them tackling the problem 
of preaching and other pastoral works is a new thing. 

A great deal of this difference in modern theologians, their work, and 
their method can be traced to their theological formation. Two factors may 
be said to have an especially marked influence on their approach to theol- 
ogy: (1) Modern historical methods and, (2) Pastoral considerations. 

Modern Historical Methods in Theology. 

Fr. Y. Congar, OP, wrote, some thirty years ago, in an article on theology 
in the Dictionnaire de Theologie Catholique that, "one of the jobs of con- 
temporary theology is to assume, without derogating from its unity and 
the laws of its work, the tools of the auxiliary sciences, and in particular 
the documentary and positive techniques of exegesis, archaeology, epigra- 
phy, history of dogmas and institutions, science of religions, psychology, 
etc. There is still much to be done in this regard. . . ." In many ways, 
we are witnessing the active incorporation of these disciplines in the work 
of the modern theologian. He reads the Scriptures with all the techniques 
furnished by modern studies on the forms of the biblical writings, modern 
linguistics, cultural history, archaeology, etc. He is increasingly aware of 
the historical factors influencing the Church's realization and formulation 
of the revelation she has received from her Lord. He takes account of these 
historical factors, whether they appear in New Testament times, in the age 
of the Fathers, or in the theology of the scholastics and the theologians 
of fifty years ago. In new historical dimensions, the traditional sources of 
Catholic doctrine, which the modern theologian — like his predecessors — 
is bound to investigate, have gained a new richness and a new complexity. 

Something of this richness and this complexity is evident in all the 
writings of the better modern theologians. It is reflected in their deep 
scriptural probing, in their thorough reexamination of traditional positions 

and theories, in their hesitancy to draw conclusions from their sources 
until they have been as completely investigated as possible. 

Besides leading to a certain complexity in modern theology, the fuller 
adaptation of historical methods has led to two possible excesses among 
some modern theologians: first, some of them tend to become historians 
of theology rather than theologians; and secondly, some show a distaste 
for speculative theology. Both excesses are closely connected. Whether 
from an over- fascination for history, or for philosophical or pastoral rea- 
sons, they have abandoned the process of judging, intellectualizing, univer- 
salizing, that is part of the job of theology. 

Pastoral Considerations: 

A second factor influencing many modern theologians is the pastoral 
needs of the Church. Perhaps this factor is evident more in continental 
Europe, where the Church has experienced deeply her alienation from the 
masses, and the collapse of her influence on modern man. The need to 
rebuild and regain is urgently felt, and the theologian has been drawn into 
the practical problems of catechetics, preaching, liturgy, the role of the 
laity, etc. The dynamics of the Church, her mission and her institutions 
have become his concern. The bulk of his writings today seem to be taken 
up with these problems. 

This swing to practicality in theology has raised a few eyebrows on our 
side of the Atlantic, where the theologian has never been considered quite 
practical and where age and experience counts for all. We perhaps forget 
that the precise role the theologian is asked to fulfill in the pastoral mission 
of the Church does not rest on his personal pastoral experience at all. 
Rather he is asked to search out the experience of the Church, of which 
he now has an unrivalled knowledge, due to new historical methods and 
studies, and to formulate the great laws of her nature and activity. Some- 
times he may falter in his task. Yet often he uncovers an authentic pattern 
of pastoral action which is valid for any age or culture. His emphasis on 
the liturgy in the pastoral mission of the Church is certainly an example 
of this. The strangeness we attach to his ideas may be due, not to his lack 
of practical experience, but to our total involvement in the temporal pat- 
terns of action of our own age. 

The formation of the modern theologian, then, has been influenced by 
these two factors. He is influenced by modern historical methods which 
explain something of his complexity and richness. He is aware of the 
pastoral needs of the Church, which explain his incursions into pastoral 
fields. Both of these factors set him off from his theological predecessors, 
and they are conditioning his present contribution to the Church. 

—Victor Hoagland, CP, STD 

Sacred Chronology 

Scripture of the Passion 

Students of the Passion narratives in the Gospels have always been aware 
of an apparent contradiction between the Synoptists on the one hand and 
St. John on the other. In the Synoptists, Jesus ate the Passover meal with 
his Apostles on Thursday evening. In St. John, the leaders of the Jews 
refused to enter the Pretorium of Pilate on Friday morning lest they be 
defiled and so unable to eat the Passover, indicating that the time had not 
yet come for this. 

Another difficulty in the Passion narratives is the time element. The 
Gospels indicate that only about fifteen hours elapsed between the arrest 
of Jesus and His death on the cross. Could all the events of His Passion 
have been crowded into such a short period of time? 

Considerable light on both these difficulties is shed in the book, La Date 
de la Cene, by A. Jaubert. (Paris, Gabalda, 1957) Reactions to the author's 
thesis have been varied, some accepting, others rejecting it. Its particular 
merit in any case is that it gives detailed factual evidence that at the time 
of Jesus some Jewish groups followed a calendar different from others. 

Basing her study in large measure, although not exclusively, on the 
apocryphal book of Jubilees, as well as on some of Qumran documents, 
the author shows that at the beginning of the first century A.D., there 

were certainly two liturgical calendars among the Jews. According to one, 
the official calendar, known to us in later rabbinical Judaism, the feasts 
were determined by the days of the lunar month. In the other, or Jubilees- 
Qumran calendar, the feasts always fell on a fixed day of the week. Traces 
of this calendar are found in early Christianity, especially in the Didascalia 
Apostolorum, in St. Epiphanius, and in Victorin. 

In the Jubilees-Qumran calendar there are 364 days in the year. The 
364 days are divisible by 7, and are divided into 91 -day quarters, also 
divisible by 7, and into 4 trimesters of months of 30 days each, with one 
day intercalated each trimester. In this arrangement, the feasts would fall 
on the same day of the week year after year. The Passover always fell on 

We do not have space for a full explanation of this calendar nor of the 
value of the author's proofs that it was probably used by Jesus and His 
Apostles in the celebration of the Last Supper. We would refer those inter- 
ested to the book itself and to two fairly detailed reviews — one by Pere 
Benoit, OP, of the ficole Biblique (Revue Biblique, Oct. 1958, p. 590) 
and another by Msgr. Patrick W. Skehan of Catholic University {The 
Catholic Biblical Quarterly, April 1958, p. 192). 

The subject is of great interest to Passionists, because if Christ and His 
Apostles followed this calendar, then we must accept a very different tim- 
ing for the events of the Passion. Here is the reconstruction of the Passion 
proposed by the author. 

Tuesday of Holy Week 

Preparation for the Passover. 

Evening (the beginning of Wednesday at sundown), 

The Last Supper. 

Jesus arrested and led to Annas. Interrogation 

before Annas. Denials of Peter. 

Jesus is led to Caiphas. 


Meeting of the Sanhedrin. 

Jesus appears before the Sanhedrin. 

The witnesses. 

Adjuration by the High Priest. 

The improperia. 

The night in prison (at Caiphas palace?) 


Reunion of the Sanhedrin and its verdict. 

Jesus is led to Pilate. 

Accusations to the Procurator. 

Pilate questions Jesus. 

Pilate sends Jesus to Herod who sends Him 

back to Pilate. 

The High Priests persuade the people. 

Night spent in the Roman prison. 


High Priests reassemble at the Pretorium 

of Pilate. 

Second session before Pilate. 

Crowning with thorns. 

Pilate's doubts and hesitations. 

Condemnation and scourging. 

Way of the Cross. 


One of the distinct values of Jaubert's book is its clear proof that at 
the time of Christ there were two liturgical calendars in use. The apparent 
discrepancy between the Synoptists and St. John is probably based on this 
fact. The weakness of the author's thesis is that she can provide no direct 
evidence that Christ actually used the Jubilees-Qumran calendar. Some 
early Christians commemorated the Last Supper on Tuesday night but on 
this point the evidence is not very convincing, especially in view of the 
fact that St. Epiphanius was dependent on the Didascalia and cannot be 
accounted an independent witness. 

The subject is complicated and interesting. More study is needed before 
definite conclusions can be reached on Mile. Jaubert's work as well as on 


proposals made by other recent authors regarding the order of events in 
the Passion. It would be gratifying to see Passionist contributions to the 
scientific study of the Passion along these lines. 

— Ralph Gorman, CP 
Ecole Biblique, Jerusalem 

The following article consists of 

some observations on the background ^ r ~ n "L 

of the Communist slogan — religion 

is the opium of the people. The History 

object is to show the climate of 

thought immediately before and during the lifetime of Karl Marx that 
furnished him with the pretext to trumpet his accusation that religion is 
the enemy of the poor. 

It is generally true that the Papacy and the Catholic hierarchy of Europe 
were supporters of the established order in the first half of the 19th cen- 
tury. And the established order meant a situation in which the nobility 
and the propertied classes jealously guarded their privileges and posses- 
sions, with the government run largely by and for themselves. That the 
Church should support the legitimacy of the established order is under- 
standable, when one considers the persecutions, the secularizations of her 
property she suffered at the hands of the French Revolution and Napoleon. 
And so "the Catholic Poles were told that they must remain quietly obedi- 
ent to their autocratic and foreign sovereign, the Tsar, although he was 
denying the necessary liberties of their faith. The Catholic Belgians were 
told to obey the Calvinist King of Holland, although he was doing the 
same. The Catholic Irish were told that they must not mind having their 
episcopal nominations vetoed by a Protestant King in London. The French 
liberal Catholics were silenced, and told to obey their Most Christian King, 
who in fact was an agnostic." (1) A fortiori, rulers who were Catholic 
knew they could depend on the Church's support. 

Now, to Karl Marx and his followers religion was seen primarily in 


the context of the economic situation of the day. When religion defended 
and called for obedience to a government run for a privileged minority, 
it was the ally of the oppression of the poor by the rich. Religion, the 
Marxists contended, was the opium of the people for the following three 
reasons: (a) it teaches the rich their rights, thereby strengthening the rich 
in their determination to exploit the poor; (b) it teaches the poor their 
duties to the ruling class, thereby aiding in their being exploited by the 
rich; (c) religion is, by its very nature, passive and destructive of any 
activity on man's part which would tend towards his economic better- 
ment. (2) 

But Marx's attitude toward religion was shaped by more than the open 
alliance between throne and altar. It was also shaped by the climate of 
thought in which he moved. For the upper classes, these capitalists whom 
Marx so often excoriated were, in their own fashion, as convinced as Marx 
that religion was the opium of the people, and Marx could not have been 
oblivious of that fact. He simply used an attitude toward religion current 
among the upper classes and employed it for his own purposes. 

The Church's teaching on the nature of religious poverty and detach- 
ment had been subject to distortion and caricature, at least a hundred years 
before the time of Marx. The thinkers and writers of the 18th century 
Enlightenment seem to be the first who brought into prominence the idea 
that religion is the opium of the people — in substance, if not in so many 
words. Particularly in France the Church underwent a barrage of attacks 
from the "philosophes," whose ultimate aim was to free the elite from the 
bondage of authority. But this deliverance would extend to the enlightened 
alone. Voltaire wasted no sympathy on democratic aspirations, as is evi- 
denced by words to Frederick the Great: "Your Majesty will do the human 
race an eternal service in extirpating this infamous superstition (i.e., 
Chrsitianity) , I do not say among the rabble, who are not worthy of being 
enlightened and who are apt for every yoke; I say among the well-bred, 
among those who wish to think." (3) Voltaire coined the famous saying 
about the necessity of religion: "If God didn't exist, He would have to 
be invented." But in his mind this assertion was valid for the masses alone. 
As he stated: "The populace is a ferocious beast that has to be held in 
leash by fear of the gibbet and of hell. ... A society of a few wise epi- 


cureans has subsisted and will continue to subsist. But a great society of 
brutish, ignorant, poor and self-seeking men, like ninety percent of the 
human race, cannot subsist without laws and without God." (4) In the 
minds of Voltaire and his kind, any wise government would keep the insti- 
tution of religion firmly in hand as a necessary means of keeping "the 
rabble" in leash. In Diderot's famous Plan for a University, drawn up for 
Catherine the Great, humanity is divided into two classes: the privileged 
class to whom the pleasures of life — especially of the senses — were re- 
served, and the rest of humanity. These last were to be held in social con- 
ditions advantageous for the privileged class by means of religion and by 
the ministry of a clergy which would itself be kept in hand by a 'philo- 
sophic' state. (5) 

The wide chasm between classes was attacked by the French Revolution 
under the banner of 'equality.' Whatever the ideas derived from the Revo- 
lution that were adopted by Napoleon he soon jettisoned that of 'equality,' 
reintroduced a hierarchical society, with himself at the pinnacle of the 
pyramid as Emperor. The usefulness of religion in such a situation was 
not overlooked. As Napoleon expressed himself on his views of religion: 
"I do not see in religion the mystery of the Incarnation, but the mystery 
of social order. It relegates to heaven an idea of equality which prevents 
the rich from being massacred by the poor." (6) The implementation of 
these views was the Concordat of 1801 between Napoleon and Pius VII. 
Napoleon meant to govern, and religion alone assured a society capable 
of being governed. "The godless man," commented Napoleon, "I have 
watched him at work since 1793. One does not govern such a man, one 
shoots him. I have had enough of his breed." (7) But Napoleon had to 
reckon with opposition from among his followers. To win them over to 
his point of view, he asked a group of them in conversation, the year 
before the agreement over the Concordat: "How can there be any order 
in the state without religion? Society cannot exist without inequalities of 
fortune and the inequality of fortune is not able to be maintained without 
religion." As a practical example of what he meant, he continued: "When 
a man dies of hunger alongside another who is glutting himself, it is 
impossible to explain to him this difference, if there is not present an 
authority who can say to the dying man: 'God has willed it so; it is neces- 


sary that there be both poor and rich in the world, but afterwards in eter- 
nity the sharing shall be otherwise. . . .' " (8) 

Napoleon was vanquished. The Bourbons returned, to be ousted in 
1830, and finally the Second Republic was proclaimed in 1848. But 
through it all, among the upper classes the idea prevailed that, religion 
was a prop for the privileged position of the upper classes. As Ozanam 
said in 1851: ". . . there is no Voltairean afflicted with an income of a 
few thousand pounds, who would not like to see everyone go to Mass 
provided, of course, that he not set foot there himself." (9) From the 
opposite side of the picture, Joseph Ernest Renan declared: "Few people 
have the right of not believing in Christianity . . . The beast might hurl 
himself on the elite." (10) 

The claim of religion that through her "the poor have the gospel 
preached to them" (Mt. 11:5) had, in the eyes of Marx, a concealed and 
malicious partisan motive. And such a religion he rejected. Of course what 
he rejected was a caricature, not the real Church. 

A caricature is not an unvarnished lie. If so, it could easily be exposed 
and refuted. A caricature is based on a truth, but blown up out of all 
proportion to its place in reality. In the caricature of religion by Marx 
and many of his opponents as well, the truth distorted is the 'usefulness' 
of religion. The existence of the Church was justified in the eyes of 
Voltaireans because it was useful for preserving their class privileges. 
Such a 'usefulness' stigmatized it in Marxist thought as one of the prin- 
cipal enemies of the classless society. Such a caricature of the 'usefulness' 
of Catholicism is perhaps not so widespread now as formerly. Apparently 
it has never been widespread in America. 

But other caricatures of the Church along similar lines are still with us. 
Today the Church's existence is justified only for other kinds of 'useful- 
ness.' Her sacraments — particularly Penance — serve as useful handmaids 
toward mental health. Her hospitals, orphanages and charitable institutions 
are useful instruments of social welfare. And as Father Weigel writes: 
"Americans in general think religion is a good thing, and the main reason 
seems to be that it helps citizens to be better citizens ... it is urging us 
to a good thing for a bad reason." (11) Such caricatures may be expected 
as the Church, to the best of her ability, tries establishing in the minds 


of men her true identity and nature, her God-given mission, despite the 
distorting emphasis on one or other aspect of her life, by friend or foe. 

1. Hales, E. E. Y., Revolution and Papacy, Eyre & Spottiswoode, I960, pp. 278- 

2. McFadden, C. J., The Philosophy of Communism, Benziger, 1939, p. 125. 

3. Cragg, G. R., The Church and the Age of Reason, Penguin, I960, p. 241. 

4. Pichon, C, The Vatican and its Role in World Affairs, Dutton, 1950, p. 115. 

5. Pichon, op. cit., p. 115. 

6. Pichon, op. cit., p. 116. 

7. Bruun, G., Europe and the French Imperium, Harper, 1938, p. 229. 

8. Walsh, H. H., The Concordat of 1801, Columbia U., 1933, p. 37. 

9. Pichon, op. cit., p. 114. 

10. Pichon, op. cit., p. 116. 

11. Weigel, G., Faith and Understanding in America, Macmillan, 1959, pp. 47, 

— Myron Gohmann, CP, HEL 

An unwarranted discrediting of 
the past, the setting up strawmen 
to be ingloriously laid low, has HottllletlCS 

alienated some otherwise well-dis- 

posed missionaries from the cur- 

rently proposed preaching reform. Some of the would-be reformers try to 
prove too much and do it intemperately. It is not mere obscurantism that 
keeps dedicated missionaries from docilely scrapping their sermons, when 
some theorist pontificates that "there is no longer place for preaching ter- 
rifying sermons which, under the guise of shock tactics, pile up details 
of horror and claim an advance knowledge of the judgments of God; 
sermons of vengeance that make furious attacks on an audience that is 
voluntarily present and obliged to remain mute ; polemical sermons against 
the Church's enemies, which generally apply only to people that are not 
there; theological sermons that use notions and technical terms above the 
heads of the congregation; moralizing sermons which recount only duties 
to be performed and sins to be avoided, and keep returning with painful 
insistence to sexual problems ; grandiloquent sermons made up of oratorical 
posturing, sentimental eloquence, romantic literature and military phrase- 


ology, and which belong altogether to a different age. In the world of 
today this unreal quality of sacred eloquence seems to be one of the chief 
dangers to preachers." (1) 

Paul Hitz, CSsR, shows unusual sensitiveness to our justifiable pride in 
the missionary heritage when he disclaims, "... this is not a condemnation 
of our great predecessors. They had to work within the historic, cultural 
and sociological framework of their time. They proclaimed the Christian 
message in their own way, in their own world, which was a legitimate, and 
indeed necessary, thing to do. Other situations will require the stressing 
of other aspects of that same revealed mystery, as the Holy Ghost will 
guide us to see them. The best missionaries are, of necessity, men of their 
place and time, as we are of ours. The missioners of the past few centuries 
lived in the Church of their time. It is up to us to live and preach in the 
Church of the twentieth century." (2) 

People are better educated today. Education changes tastes. Our hearers 
are more critical and more discerning than were their parents and grand- 
parents. The general public is more restless today. We are living in an 
exciting world. So much is happening so rapidly that mental concentration 
is almost impossible. People are moved more by moods and impressions 
than by logical argument. They don't think things through. Modern man 
is too sophisticated to be impressed with oratorical fireworks. He laughs 
when the medicine man emotes. 

But teachers, psychiatrists, counsellors were never more in demand. 
People are avid for advice. They are hungering for truth ". . . no 
age before ours has shown itself as needful of, or even ... as susceptible 
to the pastoral assistance of good and zealous priests." (3) 

Apart from the assets and the liabilities — or, if you prefer, challenges 
— in the preaching situation, there remains the divine commission to preach. 
Christ gave the commission and St. Paul spelled it out: "I charge thee 
before God and Jesus Christ . . . preach the Word: be instant in season, 
out of season: reprove, entreat, rebuke in all patience and doctrine." (4) 

We seem to be about to enter a golden age of the preaching apostolate. 
We have reason to expect a reawakening of popular interest in parish 
missions which will once again fill our churches to capacity. Scriptural 
and theological development, ecumenism and release from the confining 


demands of counter-reformation should give new vibrancy to our preach- 
ing. "It is up to us to live and preach in the Church of the twentieth 
century." (ut supra) 

We are faced with a problem — how to preach missions in 1964? The 
answer isn't easy. And no one man seems to have all the answers. The 
scholars have provided the theory. The missionaries must discover how to 
make the theory work. And this is what counts. "The men who act stand 
nearer to the mass of men than do the men who write, and it is at their 
hands that new thought gets its translation into . . . the language of deeds. 
. . . the men who write love proportion, the men who act must strike out 
practical lines of action." (5) 

In response to a request for some thoughts on homiletics for Verbum 
Cruets, the following is diffidently offered. It is a digest of the teaching 
of reputable modern authorities and of conclusions reached by some experi- 
enced missionaries of the Province. 

First, as to sermon form. Is any radical change indicated? All seem to 
agree that today's audience is impatient with the leisurely approach to the 
discussion of the theme. Brevity in the introduction is imperative. Beyond 
this, no change is possible. The sermon form is not an arbitrary creation 
of rhetoricians. Technicians did not draw up, a priori, a set of rules to 
which the preacher must conform. The sermon form is the product of a 
strictly scientific analysis of what has proved, in all recorded interchange 
of ideas through three thousand years, to be the essence of persuasive 
speech. Human nature does not change. The human soul, intellect and 
will, works in a pattern. And whether it be the child trying to get per- 
mission from a reluctant parent to postpone homework, the President 
seeking the approval of Congress for a Civil Rights bill, or the preacher 
who aims at persuading his hearers to begin the living that will be a fitting 
preparation for death, there is a fixed and unalterable form — disposing 
the hearer to listen to the message, discussing it to inform the mind, 
preparatory to moving the will, the procedure clinched by the appeal for 
action. We can't improve on this. We can't change it. It is human nature. 
"The form which has come down to us Passionists is a fine product of 
basic psychology. It corresponds to normal, human, mental and emotional 
processes." (6) 


Secondly, sermon content: Without doubt, mission preaching will have 
a "new look" by reason of content. It will be more Christo-centric, more 
positive, more inspirational. Our mission preaching has three elements — 
instruction, preaching the sufferings of Christ, and moral sermons. 

Of instruction, Pope John said: "The very best way to point up the 
sacred character of the pastoral ministry is through a brilliant, solid, fasci- 
nating catechesis." And he called "the teaching of sacred doctrine the first 
characteristic of the pastoral" commission. (7) The scripture scholars 
assure us that contrary to extravagant advance notices, catechetical instruc- 
tion in the Decalogue is still very much in order. The motivation offered 
should be truly Christian, the point made that "keeping the command- 
ments" is the minimum in loving God, but the Commandments must be 
kept. If men won't keep them as friends of God, they must as creatures. 

Preaching of the Passion is in no way downgraded in the suggested 
preaching reform. But the Passion should be put in better context. The 
Liturgy offers a perfect formula for Passionist preaching of the Passion — 
kerygmatic and inspirational, yet devoutly dwelling on the details of His 
sufferings and death. "Ego sum vestra redemptio. Manus meae, quae vos 
jecerunt, clavis confixae sunt; propter vos flagellis caesus sum; spirits 
coronatus sum; aquam petii pendens, et acetum porrexerunt ; in escam 
meam fel dederunt, et in latis lanceam. Mortuus et sepultus resurrexi, 
vobiscum sum, et vivo in aeternum." (8) 

The eternal truths must be preached. It would be presumptuous for an 
individual to attempt on his own a comprehensive formula for this part 
of the mission message. But, in broad outline, the program seems to call 
for urging a "holding fast" to the salvation Christ gives us rather than a 
"striving" for salvation. 

Finally, as to the manner of our preaching. Most missionaries will 
wholeheartedly endorse the recommendation that we go before the people 
as heralds come with a flourish of trumpets to announce the "good news." 
The announcer of good news is enthusiastic. His face lights up, his eyes 
sparkle, there is a lilt to his voice. The teller of indifferent news speaks 
matter-of-factly, without emotional expression. There would be something 
incongruous in proclaiming that we are the children of God; that sin is 
still-born, atoned for before it was committed; that death no longer means 


what it once did ; that we have died in Christ and are risen with Him — 
with no more emotion or enthusiasm than we display in announcing that 
religious articles will be blessed after the instruction. The kerygma should 
be preached kerygmatically. It would seem that the first requisite for the 
herald of the "good news" is personal enthusiasm, an eagerness to share 
his gladness with others, that he be another Jeremias, who said of the 
Word of God: "It is in my heart like a burning fire, shut up in my bones. 
I was worn out holding it in." (9) 

1. Nouvelle Revue Theologique. 

2. To Preach the Gospel, Paul Hitz, CSsR. 

3. Paul VI— To Clergy of Rome. 

4. II Timothy, iv, 2. 

5. President Woodrow Wilson. 

6. We Preach Christ Crucified, Fidelis Rice, CP. 

7. Pope John XXIII, Lateran Address. 

8. Feast of Five Wounds, Magnificat Antiphon. 
9- Jeremias, vi, 11. 

— Thomas Sullivan, CP 

Services *" 

The events of God's saving love are narrated for us in Revelation. The 
scriptures are not a collection of ancient anecdotes, edifying but sterile. 
They are the words of God forming the covenant with His people. God 
speaks to us through the scriptures. He teaches men and calls for a 
response to His voice. This dialogue with God is transforming. When God 
speaks, man is compelled to reply. If man is silent, it bespeaks contempt 
and eventually leads to his rejection. When man responds, the experience 
is vital and penetrating. "For the word of God is living and efficient and 
keener than a two-edged sword, and extending even to the division of 
soul and spirit, of joints also and marrow. . . ." (Heb. 4:12) 

This "formation through dialogue" is the significance of the scripture 


readings in the Fore-Mass. The reading of the scriptures in the Mass is 
modeled on the synagogue service in the time of Our Lord. This service 
consisted of two readings from the scriptures. The first, from the Law; 
the second, from the Prophets. After the readings one of the congregation 
gave an exposition of the texts, (cf. Lk. 4:l6rT) A lengthy prayer of 
petition for the needs of the people ended the service. The development 
of the readings, the addition of the recitation of psalms and the singing 
of hymns after each reading, constitutes the development and history of 
the Mass of the Catechumens of the Roman Rite. An example of this 
development can be seen in a rather pure state in the restoration of the 
Good Friday Liturgy. 

In the early Palestinian church, the Eucharistic celebration was separate 
from the prayer service which took place in the synagogue. The Eucharist 
was celebrated privately in the homes of the Christians. Very early the two 
services were joined — the scripture readings being the preparation for the 
Eucharistic celebration. On the eve of the greater feasts, as Sts. Ambrose, 
Augustine and Jerome witness, the faithful would gather to prepare for 
the Eucharistic celebration of the following day — usually celebrated in the 
early hours of the next day. These vigil services consisted of readings from 
scripture — psalms and hymns, as well as homilies. Since the night was long, 
the number of readings was extended beyond the usual number in the 
Fore-Mass. A relic of these longer scripture readings may be found in the 
Ember Day Masses. 

Bible devotions, then, are not new. Rather, they are a return to a very 
ancient tradition. Their present popularity is due to the prominence of 
biblical theology, a desire for vernacular participation, and an interest in 
the scriptures on the part of the laity, and an increasing weariness with 
the repetitious formalism of many contemporary novena devotions, holy 
hours, etc. Such biblical devotions were approved in the decrees of the 
Roman Synod (I960, #559) and specifically encouraged in the "Consti- 
tution on the Liturgy" of Vatican II (#34, 4). 

There are many uses for bible devotion in the Passionist Apostolate. 
They are especially useful during retreats to the clergy, religious, and laity. 
They make an excellent format for a holy hour. Parishes will find almost 
limitless possibilities during Advent, Lent, Ash Wednesday, blessing of 


throats, parish society meetings, altar boy meetings and investitures. Already 
they have been used with enthusiastic response at Confraternity of the 
Passion meetings, vocation meetings and inquiry classes. 

Since bible devotions are paraliturgical services, there are no specific 
"rubrics" for conducting them. At present there is no need to seek per- 
mission for these services, any more than for any other public devotion, 
though it is within the competence of the local Ordinary to regulate such 
devotions. These services are flexible and admit of variety. This enhances 
their usefulness. It is important that the devotion be conducted with a 
solemnity fitting those who handle the word of God. The readings should 
be well prepared, the homily a short exposition on the scripture text. 

If the congregation is not familiar with the bible service it is well to 
explain it for a few minutes before the service starts. A particular theme 
should be chosen for the service and suitable texts selected. The congre- 
gation's responses should be appropriate and, if need be, mimeographed 
and handed out to the people. 

The general order used in these devotions is as follows: 

1. The Procession 

(a) Solemn entrance with the scriptures 

(b) Incensing of the scriptures 

2. The Reading(s) — generally 3, centered around a particular theme 

(a) Old Testament Reading 

— People's response (prayer, psalm, or hymn) 

(b) From the Epistles or Apocalypse 
— People's Response 

(c) From the Gospels 

— Homily by celebrant (the homily may follow each reading or 

be used after the 3rd 
— People's response and final prayer summing up the service 

by the celebrant. 

3. Action — some "action" which translates the meaning of the message 
into symbolic expression: investiture, renewal of baptismal vows, 
renewal of marriage vows, Benediction, etc. 

Material for biblical devotions abounds, though the priest will generally 


find it more satisfactory to draw up his own program. Two very good 
collections that may be recommended are: Reading the Word of God, 
Lawrence Dannemiller, SS, Helicon Press ($4.50) which contains 150 
outlines of biblical services, and Scripture Services by John Gallen, SJ, 
Liturgical Press, (45 £) which has 15 biblical devotions arranged for 
congregational use. This latter is about the size of an issue of The Catholic 
Digest and would be practical to get for groups such as a confraternity, 
vocations, etc. Additional reading on bible services can be found in 
Worship (1961-62); "Bible Holy Hour," Jerome Stowell, CP, p. 35; 
"Christmas Bible Devotions," Lawrence Dannemiller, p. 38; "Bible Devo- 
tions, Principles and Sample," Joseph Connolly, p. 115; "Bible Devotions 
for Lent," J. Connolly, p. 182. December, 1963, issue of The Bible Today 
carries another article by Dannemiller, entitled: "Bible Devotions," p. 596. 

— Xavier Hayes, CP 

(Graduate School of Liturgy, 
Notre Dame University) 

For the young priest, keen and 
PhlloSOphicals competent in theological studies, 

one fact soon becomes painfully 

evident — our world is secular. The 

architects of our age are not Schee- 
ben, Rahner, and Tillich, but James, Freud, and Dewey. The trend toward 
the completely secular continues until, in some areas of social life, it has 
the force of law. Hence it is that the priest, anxious to understand the 
world in which he lives, concerned with engaging the academic currents 
of our time, will have increasing recourse to the history of modern 
philosophy. Here are five suggestions for such a priest — five books which 
will refresh his memory in the field of modern philosophy. 

(1) I. M. Bochenski's Contemporary European Philosophy. 1 For the 
busy priest interested in tracing the main streams of modern European 
philosophy, there is no single volume more practical than the paperback 
edition of Bochenski's Philosophie der Gegenwart. Father Bochenski is a 
Polish Dominican who has been a member of the faculty of the University 


of Fribourg, Switzerland, and has lectured extensively. In this general 
guide, the author apologizes for "painful amputations" necessary in 
schematizing, but the result is a clear, readable account of modern French, 
English, and German philosophy from the point of view of "a realist and 
spiritual metaphysic." 

The real advantage of this work: Bochenski never loses the main trail in 
the thickets of philosophical technicality. In this regard, the forty-page 
introduction is alone worth the price of purchase. Here is a general 
summary, an aerial view of European philosophy at the opening of the 
twentieth century, a time of great philosophical energy, diffused in sepa- 
rate and specialized channels. In the body of the work, we are given out- 
lines of modern philosophies of matter, of the idea, of life, of essence, of 
existence, and of being. There is an appendix on mathematical logic, the 
special competence of Bochenski. Unfortunately, the sixty pages of in- 
valuable bibliography contain no work published after 1950. 

(2) For coverage of the entire field, Thonnard's History of Philosophy 2 
should be the vademecum, the small desk manual of the busy priest. This 
History contains 1000 pages of syntheses, from Thales to Maritain, plus 
70 valuable pages of indices and doctrinal table. Yet this single volume 
is compact in size and expertly printed. The translation of Marziarz is 
faithful and smooth. 

While the work of this Augustinian Father contains sections remarkable 
in themselves — for example — the classic sixty-page summation of St. 
Augustine's doctrine, the real value is ready reference. Suppose we are 
discussing William James and Pragmatism. We want to refresh the 
memory, establish connections, recall definitions. Thonnard's manual 
offers a sixty-five page summation of modern pragmatism. Within this 
compass, we now locate the American brand of James, which is outlined 
in ten pages. There is more than a page of bibliography and rich foot- 
noting. The doctrinal table will refer us to pragmatic elements in earlier 

This volume completes Desclees well known set of texts which has 
included the works of Diekamp, Tanquerey, and Cay re. 

(3) Many of us are excessively modest, and therefore ignorant, of 
America's philosophical accomplishment. Leaving aside the question of 


the intrinsic merit of America's "amateur" philosophizing, we may be 
sure that it gives matter for exciting and rewarding study. For the priest 
anxious to acquaint himself with the major elements in our thought-life, 
Professor Blau's Men and Movements in American Philosophy* has much 
to offer. Here is a systematic — almost a mechanical treatment — which 
subordinates the thinker to the thought. The book is divided into ten 
basic "schools" which together form the design of the American heritage. 
Each of the schools receives exactly the same forty-page allotment: 10 
pages for definition and explanation of the "movement," then 10 pages 
for each of three American representatives. The advantage of this preci- 
sion is the possibility of methodical reading, uncluttered by confusing 

Although Columbia's Professor Blau is himself a naturalist of sorts, his 
presentation is in no way seriously biased. It is expository, rather than 
critical. From the Puritan beginnings, through the Enlightenment of 
Jefferson and the Transcendentalism of Dewey and Cohen, the indigenous 
elements of American philosophy are clearly brought to focus. 

(4) One of the central problems of American and, indeed, of all 
modern thought is the problem of God — God's nature, His existence, His 
relation to man. Since the secularizing of philosophy by Rene Descartes, 
the problem of the reintegrating of the divine into successive epistemo- 
logical theories has been the challenge, and sometimes the despair, of 
modern thinkers. One excellent chronicle of these theories is God in 
Modern Philosophy* by James Collins, of the University of St. Louis. 

The purpose of this book is to determine and describe the kinds of 
philosophical approach to God in vogue from the Renaissance to our own 
day. "But what has been brought home to me quite vividly during the 
course of this investigation is the intimate penetration of the question of 
God to the very heart of the modern philosophical enterprise." Pascal, 
Mill, Kierkegaard, Newman and others are examined in the light of sober, 
objective, and solid scholarship, and their approach toward God is inte- 
grated into the heart of their metaphysical position. This is practical 
reading for the modern priest. 

(5) James Collins, precise and technical, makes difficult reading. For a 
change of pace, for the lighter and more psychological side of things, 


Neill's Makers of the Modern Mind 5 is a favorite. Professor Thomas Neill 
surveys eleven famous idea-men who have struck a sympathetic chord with 
our times. He does so in a popular, almost overdrawn series of sketches 
which will remain in the memory as the personalities of our acquaintances. 
Luther, Calvin, Descartes, Locke, Newton, Rousseau, Kant, Bentham, 
Darwin, Marx, and Freud are truly makers of the modern mind; Professor 
Neill is the maker of an unforgettable etching of each. 

— Ronan Callahan, CP, PhD 

1 Contemporary European Philosophy by I. M. Bochenski, translated from the 
German by Donal Nicholl and Karl Aschenbrenner. Paperback edition: University 
of California Press, 1961. $1.75. 326 pp. 

2 A Short History of Philosophy by F. J. Thonnard, AA. Translated by E. A. 
Marziarz, CPPS. Desclee, $6.50. 

3 Men and Movements in American Philosophy by Joseph P. Blau. Prentice- 
Hall, 400 pages, with index. $4.50. 

4 God in Modern Philosophy by James Collins. Henry Regnery, 476 pp. $6.50. 

5 Makers of the Modern Mind by Thomas P. Neill. Bruce Publishing Company. 

1. The Salvation Meaning of 

Preaching. Schneyer, J., "Die 

Heilsbedeutung der Predigt," 

ZKT 84 (1962), pp. 152- 


Modern theology informs us that 
the priest, in preaching, undertakes bOUTCC 

in the name of the Church a salva- 
tion function. The invisible divine 
Word of God enters into a living, 
saving encounter with men through 
the mediation — or instrumentality — 



of an intelligent, relevant proclamation of revelation. Revelation, itself, 
is centered in the mystery of Jesus Christ and is to be set forth in the 
context of life and history. 


2. The Commandments. Tremblay, P., "Towards a Biblical Cathechesis 
of the Decalogue," Lumen VHae 18 (1963) pp. 507-28. 

Since the 4th century the Commandments have played an important part 
in the preaching of the Church. Earlier centuries, in moral instruction, 
followed the plan of the two paths: the path of life, the path of death. 
St. Angustine, in his moral teaching, gave a prominent place to the Com- 
mandments. His example was followed and passed down the ages without 
excluding the plan of the virtues set forth by St. Thomas. Yet the demands 
of modern moral teaching often make the Commandments seem too nega- 
tive, too individualistic, too strict or too vague, too exacting. As a conse- 
quence, the meaning of the Decalogue is often misunderstood. 

(1) The Decalogue is inseparable from Israel's Pasch. It is meant for 
a people who have experienced God's saving deliverance and entered into 
a living covenant with him. The Commandments, therefore, are meant for 
free men. As the Decalogue is inseparable from the first Exodus, the 
new Commandment which Christ gave has its foundation in His Pasch. 
The measure of its love refers to His Paschal death. "A new commandment 
I give to you, that you love one another; as I have loved you, so you are 
to love one another" (Jn. 13. 34). 

(2) The Decalogue should be presented in the context of salvation. 
The Decalogue was meant as a spiritual deliverance from the various temp- 
tations by which true freedom is lost: idols, concupiscence, greed, lack of 
veracity and fidelity. Since our Lord gave His new Commandment in the 
context of His Passover to the Father, each and every commandment 
becomes an invitation to pass to a life of freedom and fulfillment, in a 
more personal encounter with God. 

(3) The Decalogue should not be separated from the Covenant God 
made with Israel. If it is taken out of this context, without being placed 
within the wonderful initiative of God's love, hearers are bound to practice 
it with mere servile compliance and in a spirit of self -profit. If its connec- 
tion with the Covenant is maintained, we cannot fail to stress that the 
only authentic answer from man to God is love, the Commandments 
being the concrete norms of steadfast fidelity. 

(4) The Covenant is much more comprehensive than the Law. We must 
never give the impression that the ten Commandments summarize the 


whole of morality. There could be more commandments, there could be 
fewer. Christ summarized everything in one word: love. In the context of 
the Covenant, the Decalogue ceases to be mere external law. It becomes the 
model, in its concrete demands, of man's answer to God's love. 
Cf. also: Schollgen, W., Moral Problems Today (1963), Herder. 

3. On the Last Things. Schoonenberg, P., "A New Heaven and a New 
Earth," Lumen Vitae 18 (1963), pp. 413-428. 

In the middle ages two points were denned on the last things: 1) the 
beatific vision or eternal damnation can be attained before the last judg- 
ment; 2) the existence of a purification, called Purgatory. In modern 
theology and preaching, interest is being renewed in the future life. Present 
thought emphasizes the following: 

(1) Christian existence means a being in Christ, and of Christ being 
in us. This living union in and with Christ is the possession of eternal 
life. Associated with the present moment is the promise of the future. 
But the future, and the path leading to it, must always be integrated into 
present relations between God and man. These relations are personal on 
both sides and constitute our actual salvation. 

(2) In the NT, the final end of God's kingdom is expressed in the 
language of Hebrew images. God and our Lord appear in a tremendous 
upheaval of the entire universe, even in what to the Jew was most stable: 
the sun, moon, and stars. Such language expresses the dawn of new rela- 
tions between God and men. The basic emphasis, however, is on the 
personal: the eternal lordship of God over us, our eternal communion 
with Christ, men dwelling together in mutual love and friendship, God 
giving Himself to us eternally. The Father will give himself through the 
Son in the Holy Spirit. 

(3) In the future promised kingdom we will no longer reason over 
God's being from His works. We shall see His very self. This living com- 
munion with God will be the most intimate possible for each one; it will 
be the name which none but the bearer knows. At the same time, there 
will be perfect communion among the elect because God will be all in all. 
It will be a perfect community in the Trinity, assuming all the elect 
within itself. 


(4) Man will not only have his body and soul in the life to come; in 
a certain sense, his world will be there too, all glorified. During our earthly 
life, we make part of the world our own, not only making it useful but 
making it our home. In this way, the glorified world will be perfectly ours 
as well as God's who will live and reign in us. 

Cf. also: Winklhofer, A., The Coming of His Kingdom (1963), 
Herder-Nelson. _ NmL Sh std 




General Works 

Bernard Haring, CSsR, The Jo- 
hannine Council: Witness to 
Unity. New York: Herder & 
Herder, 1963. Pp. 155. $3.50. 

Chapter Four, "The Moral 
Message of the Church" con- 
tains valuable reminders for 
preachers of moral sermons 

that their efforts to effect an 

authentic reform of the Chris- 
tian people in the prosaic and 
sometimes seamy dimensions of 
real life must be rooted in the Christian mystery of charity. 

The Prison Meditations of Father Alfred Delp. New York: Herder & 
Herder, 1963. Pp. 193. $4.50. 

If it were ever a desirable thing, the "simple Faith" of the proverbial 
Mrs. Murphy is a disappearing commodity. Our affluent society may 
mask the sickness at work in the heart of contemporary man, but it is 
incapable of eliminating it. Father Delp's meditations are an acute 
probing of the needs of men for a rebirth of humility, love, and 
openness to God. A useful adjunct to and stimulus of a preacher's 
own reflections. 


John F. Cronin, The Catholic as Citizen. Baltimore: Helicon, 1963. 

Many of men's moral problems are imbedded in the condition of our 
society. Father Cronin discusses the situation of the individual with 
regard to these social problems: giving the underlying Catholic teach- 
ing, the attitude we should assume, and suggesting actions that can 
easily be implemented. Useful for realistic moral applications. 

Aloysius Mullins, OP. A Guide to the Kingdom. Westminster: New- 
man. Pp. 139. $3.75. 

Unpretentiously subtitled "A Simple Handbook on the Parables," 
this little, easy to read book can be a source of insight for preachers 
in any line. 

Liturgy: The Church, Mass and the Sacraments 

Edward Schillebeeckx, OP, Christ: The Sacrament of the Encounter 
with God. New York: Sheed & Ward, 1963. Pp. 222. $4.50. 
The liturgical reforms of Vatican II must find their echo in the call 
to a vital Christianity that sounds in the retreat movement. The 
preacher's role here is to impress laity and clergy alike with a reali- 
zation of the meaning of the Church-community and its sanctifying 
worship in the Sacraments. For this purpose Schillebeeckx' book is 
superb background material. Exciting, but not easy reading. 

James King, SJ, Liturgy and the Laity. Westminster: Newman, 1963. 

A popular treatment of the nature of the liturgy and of our place 
in it. Strives to create a yearning in each person to be more active in 
practicing and living daily his adoration of God as the Church wants 
him to. May be helpful in giving flesh to the doctrinal insights of 
Schillebeeckx' book. 

Sacred Passion 

Barnabas M. Ahern, CP, New Horizons. Notre Dame: Fides, 1963. 
Pp. 218. $3.95. 

Collection of eleven articles, each stamped with that combination of 
scholarship and warmth that marks everything Father Barnabas 


touches. Chapters 5 and 6 should be especially welcomed by those who 
have the mission of preaching the Good News of Salvation. How 
should we speak of the Christian's identity with Christ, his union 
with the sufferings of Christ? Father Barnabas puts us back on the 
solid ground of the meaning of the Pauline scriptures — though, of 
course, this is but the normative beginning of the Christian insight 
into the mystery of the Cross. 

"La Sainte Croix" La Maison-Dieu No. 75, 1963. 

If I may be pardoned the reference to this French periodical, I think 
that our retreat preachers will be interested to know that the Center 
of Pastoral Liturgy has issued a special number on the Cross — there 
are eleven articles in 159 pages. The editors remark: "We must not 
go to a new excess and see nothing but the Resurrection ! ... If the 
ancients represented the Cross as glorious, they did not forget that 
it was a Cross." 

Retreats for Religious 

Sister Marian Dolores, SNJM, Creative 'Personality in Religious Life. 
New York: Sheed & Ward, 1963. Pp. 179: $3.50. 
The bulk of the book is quite readable. The author, a clinical psy- 
chologist, analyzes common personality problems of convent life and 
suggests appropriate remedies. Perhaps retreat masters will find her 
observations a useful supplement to their own experience in counsel- 
ling religious. 

Abp. Paul Philippe, OP, The Ends of Religious Life. Athens, 1963. 
Pp. 89. (Available on request from: Fraternity of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, 24 Eleftheriou Veniezelou, Amaroussion, Athens, Greece) 
The laudable effort at "aggiornamento" in religious communities is 
producing a necessary ferment and some rather one-sided writing. This 
booklet of the Secretary of the Congregation of Religious (a transla- 
tion of an article appearing in Angelicum, December 1962) focuses 
clearly on the essential principles of religious life in a way that can 
help bring peace to souls troubled by the changes, and guidance to 
those responsible for the renewal. Excerpts are printed in Cross and 
Crown, December 1963, pp. 466-470. 


College Groups 

Richard Butler, OP, God on the Secular Campus. New York: Double- 
day, 1963. Pp. 191. $3.95. 

"A first reader in the Newman Apostolate — (his book) is obligatory 
for all those who want to promote the work of the Catholic Church 
in the secular campus community." (America) Militant secular hu- 
manism is the principal religious problem of the secular campus, and 
it would be fitting for those giving retreats to Newman groups (and 
to the products of secular higher education) to make themselves 
aware of its dimensions and ramifications. Such is the special utility 
of this book to retreat preachers. 

Quaestiones Disputatae 

Papal Succession 

Pope Paul VI could express a preference as to his successor in the papacy. 
As Vicar of Christ, could he also appoint that successor? Would the Col- 
lege of Cardinals be obliged to accept the appointee, de jure} If, de facto, 
the College refused to do so, would the succession of the appointee be 
legitimate ? 

Some theologians and canonists maintain that the Roman Pontiff could 
not appoint his successor. The basis of their argument is this: A person, 
by divine law, cannot be elected to the Papacy until the Roman See actually 
becomes vacant. Some authorities maintain the Roman Pontiff could, in a 
case of necessity, appoint his successor. The common good, in such a 
situation, would demand such a choice. Other authorities maintain that 
the Roman Pontiff could, without any qualifications, appoint his successor 
if he so desired. This last opinion seems to be the correct one. Why? The 
ruling power of the Roman Pontiff over the Church is supreme and uni- 
versal. Further, the manner in which the successor to St. Peter is to be 
chosen has not been fixed by divine positive law. Factually, Pope Felix IV 
(526-30) appointed his successor, Pope Boniface II (530-2). The answers 
to the other questions follow. 


Transfer of Personal Grace 

Apropos of our Rules and Constitutions (XXXVIII/330, 331), what 
is popularly understood when a person plans to offer Holy Communion for 
another ? Why is it theologically impossible to do so ? To what very limited 
extent, in what very limited sense, is this kind of suffrage feasible? 

Some people seem to think that Holy Communion received for others 
has value for others through the immediate efficacy of the sacrament itself. 
Such a thought implies the idea of a possible sacramental substitution (Cf. 
1 Cor. 15. 29). 

(1) The Eucharist as a Sacrament. The reception of the Sacrament of 
the Eucharist has direct, immediate efficacy {ex op ere operato), only for 
the person receiving the sacrament, much in the same manner as natural 
food gives life only to the person who eats it. The Eucharist as a sacra- 
ment, however, can be of indirect value to others, through the dispositions 
of the person receiving it (ex opere operands). In this way it takes on 
the aspect of a pleading prayer and is a sign of unity. Further, some in- 
dulgences associated with the reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist 
can, at times, be applied to the dead. 

(2) The Eucharist as a Sacrifice. The Eucharist, unlike the other sacra- 
ments, has within it the nature not only of a sacrament but also of a sacri- 
fice. It has the nature of a sacrament in so far as it is eaten. It has the 
nature of a sacrifice in so far as it is a gift which is being offered to God 
the Father, or has been offered to God the Father. As a sacrifice, the 
Eucharist can directly help others ex opere operato. As a sacrament, how- 
ever, it has its immediate, direct efficacy only for those who receive it. 

—Neil Sharkey, CP, STD 

New — English language edition of Herder Correspondence. A Monthly 
Review for the Christian World. Worth more than a bachelor's mite- 
Regular annual subscription: $6.00. Apply for sample, complimentary 
copy of October issue: Vol. 0, No. 0. Herder & Herder, 232 Madison 
Ave., New York 16, N.Y. 

"Nothing dies harder than a theological difference." — Ronald Knox 




Editorial 1 

Passiology 2 

Theology 5 

Sacred Scripture 8 

Church History 11 

Homiletics 15 

Liturgy 19 


Philosophicals 22 

Mission Source Material . . . 25 

Retreat Source Material ... 28 

Quaestiones Disputatae . . 31 

"A great author is one who has something to say and 
knows how to say it." — Cardinal Newman 

"It is the least pardonable fault in an orator to fail 
in clearness of style." — Cardinal Newman 

". . . The word of the cross . . . is . . .to us . . .the power of God." 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

Irrbum Cruris 

Vol. II April, A.D. 1964 No. 2 

lerbum (Sntria 

Vol. II April, A.D. 1964 No. 2 

A Quarterly Review of Clerical Literature 
Published by the Passionist Fathers 
Province of Saint Paul of the Cross. 

Cum Superiorum permissu 

Ad instar manuscriptt 

For private circulation only 

Opinions expressed by contributors do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the editor. 


86-45 178 Street 

Jamaica 32, N. Y. 

Telephone: AXtel 7-0044 

Cable Address: Veecee New York 

I want to take this opportunity 
to express my appreciation to the GlXCSt 

priests of both Eastern and Western 
Provinces for their splendid cooper- Editorial 

ation with our editor, Father Aloys- « 

ius, CP, in constantly furthering the 
excellence of our joint publication — 
Verbum Cruets. 

It was understood from the beginning that, this publication was not 
to be a technical journal. It was not designed as an intercom between 
Lectors, or between Lectors and students, but rather as a handy channel 
of communication for professors at their desks and missionaries in the 

More and more, we are pleased to see the magazine shaping up in this 
direction, aiding the busy priest to update his knowledge of current 
developments in the vast life of Holy Mother Church, while keeping the 
style of expression free from professional jargon. This surely requires 
hard work, not only for constant coverage of literature in many fields, but 
even more so in hammering out the ideas in clear-cut terminology couched 
in brief, readable sentences. 

Moreover, by bringing to the attention of the missionary the more read- 
able, recent literature in the field of homiletics and catechetics, in theology 
and scripture, in canon law and church history, in liturgy and sacred 
music and art, in philosophy, psychology and sociology, the Lectors are 
admirably assisting our communities to keep alive the spirit of study and 
to create a more vital atmosphere of wisdom, knowledge, and under- 

To pursue a standard of excellence, and to prepare themselves more 
adeptly for conducting missions and special retreats, and for the ever- 
increasing Sister Formation Courses, the missionaries must keep well 
posted in new developments, and constantly rework their homilies, lec- 
tures, conferences, and sermons. 

Our Mission Department is keenly aware of the significance of all this 
development, as is also our Advisory Commission on Missions and Re- 
treats. The Province takes pleasure and pride in seeing so many of our 
brethren increasing their talents, as they prepare to address effectively 
the different types of audience, on a greater variety of ecclesiastical subjects. 

The fruit of all this expenditure of time, talent, and energy will surely 
be better informed missionaries, more efficient handlers of the word of 
God, and more zealous confessors and preachers. 

For this trend and for all this hard work that constantly goes into it, 
we are most grateful. Again, to all concerned — Ad multos annos! 

— Gerald Rooney, CP 

Did you ever meet anybody who 
had ever met somebody who had 

Editorial ever ^ een P°^ ec ^ ky a Gallup or 

other pollster? 

Our poll of January, '64 was but 

a repetition of the wide-open invitation of January, '63. Upshot: 

Brickbats = 
Bashful Souls = 

t> r? , I We have ordered an adding machine. 
Brave Souls) ° 

From the laity, even more so from religious and priests outside the 
Congregation, we have received requests to quote from Verbum Cruris, 
and to subscribe. Although we appreciate the implied compliment to V C, 
it has been deemed advisable to adhere to our original policy of private 
circulation only. Aside from any censorship complication, we have in 
mind the familial spirit of V C. 

In the history of the Church, our day will hallmark the updating of 
the Church in disciplinary as well as liturgical matters, and in the revised 
formulation of unchangeable doctrine. 

There is much ado about conciliar influences — liberal vs. conservative. 
Both are middle of the road, compared to the ultra-conservative or the 
ultra-liberal. No matter how well-intentioned, any ultraism does more 
harm than good. In these days of religious ferment, moderatio in omnibus 
is a necessary watchword. Excesses call for indictment as cases of "a zeal 
of God, but not according to knowledge." (Rom.:X:2) 

— AMcD 


The Crux of Salvation History 

David Bulman, CP 

The Resurrection 

The most glorious day in the year is the Sunday we mark the triumphant 
resurrection of the Lord. Easter always has been the peak of the liturgical 
year — all because of an empty tomb, an empty tomb that restored hope 
to men, an empty tomb that insured all mankind that it could rise to 
newness of life, could share in Christ's victory over death, and His glory 
in eternity. 

Amidst all the ferment of renewal in the Church today, the thrilling 
glory of Easter is stressed, and the Risen Christ presented as perhaps they 
have not been since the days of the primitive apostolic catechesis. Empha- 
sis on the "redemptive Resurrection" would seem almost to eclipse Cal- 
vary's eminence. 

This trend is so evident in so many of the best Catholic minds of today. 
For example, after condemning modern scholastic theology for seeming 
to slight the doctrine of the resurrection and confining it to the realm 
of mere apologetics, Father Davis writes: 

"A theology of Redemption that pays exclusive attention to Christ's death is neces- 
sarily unbalanced and impoverished. It is not that there is any opposition between 
Redemption by the death of Christ and a Redemption by His Resurrection. Nothing 
is taken away from the redemptive significance of Christ's death by insisting on 
the resurrection. On the contrary, it is the resurrection that gives meaning to His 
death, while His death gives meaning to His resurrection. But both are essential 
and indissociable." 1 

An exegete, Father Harrington, carries it further: 

"Though the Fourth Gospel and St. Paul stress the paramount importance of the 
resurrection, yet, in the course of centuries, it was gradually relegated to a very 
secondary place in our theology. Now, quite recently, the restored Paschal liturgy 
has rectified this and the resurrection is once again seen to be central, theologically 
as well as liturgically." 2 

1 Charles Davis, Theology for Today (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1962), 
p. 210. 

2 Wilfrid J. Harrington, Explaining the Gospels (New York: Paulist Press, 
1963), p. 189. 


The purpose of this paper is not to put the Passion and the Resurrection 
into some sort of ridiculous opposition. After all, they are not two separate 
mysteries between which we must choose the more important. The paschal 
mystery is comprised of both. 

Yet, theologically speaking, the evaluation of the relative place of each 
in the mystery of salvation history is most important. To Passionists, who 
are deputed by the Church to rivet the minds of the faithful on the Cross 
as the dynamic sun around which their lives must orbit, the purpose of 
this paper is vital. Is the resurrection essential to salvation? Is Christ's 
death merely a condition} Is the resurrection central, theologically as well 
as liturgically ? In the current enthusiasm for the restored truth of the 
salvific worth of the resurrection, there does seem to be the danger that 
the centrality of the Cross be lost sight of. 3 

It was Prat 4 who seems, back in the early twenties, to have given 
impetus to the soteriological aspects of the resurrection. But it was Durr- 
well 5 who, perhaps more than any other, established a remarkably strong 
theological foundation for the doctrine. It was eagerly greeted by exegetes 
and positive (biblical) theologians and, of course, the liturgists. 

It is time to raise a danger signal. Could it be that the mistake of making 
the resurrection little more than a sequel to the Passion is now becoming 
a mistake in reverse — the making of the Passion little more than a pre- 
amble to the resurrection ? 

The Place of the Cross 

For twenty centuries the Church has brooded over the mystery of 
Christ, under the Spirit of love and insight. Not without reason does she 
put a cross, not an empty tomb, upon her altars — a figure of the Crucified 
and not a winding sheet. 

3 In stressing the Resurrection, it is constantly maintained that with the Passion 
one mystery is constituted. They pertain to each other as the concave and convex 
sides of one mirror. Yet the Passion itself receives scant attention. E.g., Hitz 
recommends that the modern mission center on the Biblical and liturgical theme 
of Easter. P. Hitz, CSSR To Preach the Gospel (New York: Sheed and Ward, 
1963), p. 192. 

4 Fernand Prat, SJ, The Theology of St. Paul, trans. John L. Stoddard, (Lon- 
don: Burns, Oates and Washbourne, 1934) II, p. 208 sq. 

5 F. X. Durrwell, CSSR, The Resurrection, trans. Rosemary Sheed (New York: 
Sheed and Ward, I960). 

In the restored Good Friday liturgy, the Church proclaims: "We adore 
you, O Christ, and we bless you, because by your holy Cross you have 
redeemed the world." And again, "Saviour of the world, save us, You 
who by your Cross and Blood redeemed us." And: "Almighty and merci- 
ful God, You have restored us by the blessed Passion and death of Christ, 
your Son. Preserve in us the work of your mercy. ..." 

In the beginning, the apostolic kerygma did its best to skim over the 
scandal of the Cross. The memory of it brought only heartbreak and the 
recollection of those three days when hope died. The Risen Christ, the 
memory of a Sunday morning when He came to them glorified — there was 
the basis of their faith and reborn hope. 

When Christ had ascended to His Father and then had sent His Spirit 
on Pentecost, suddenly it burst upon the consciousness of the Apostles 
that, this Christ whom they had known so familiarly was actually Yahweh 
Himself. This realization made them atremble with zeal to tell the good 
news to the whole world. Christ had risen glorious and would come again ! 
Resurrection and parousia! 

Kerygma and Passion 

This original kerygma had little appeal among the Jews. They simply 
had no teaching that the Messias was to be raised from the dead. More 
difficult was it to make the Passion and death the theme. 

And then the stumbling block became the focal base for belief in Jesus. 
Calling to mind His prophecies, how time and again He had said He must 
suffer if He were to enter into glory, suddenly the mystery of the Cross 
became pivotal. Gradual understanding of the prophecies of the Suffering 
Servant became the key to understanding that the power of the Cross is 
"the power of God." (1 Cor.: 1:18) 

Paul's experience was the same. He had preached the Resurrection and 
the Second Coming. Initial success gave way to bewildered failure in 
Athens. The Athenians told him politely they would hear him another day. 
But that other day never came. On the way to Corinth, reflection under 
the Holy Spirit brought home to him that God uses the weak things of 
this earth to confound the strong, to manifest His power; that through 
the weakness of Christ's suffering humanity, God performed the Paschal 
miracle, that through the Cross Christ entered upon His glory. 6 From 

6 Cf. Barnabas M. Ahem, CP, New Horizons (Notre Dame, Ind.: Fides Pub- 


then on, Paul became the proclaimer, the trumpeter of the Crucified. And 
Christ's words were realized, "And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, 
will draw all things to Myself." (Jn. 12:32) 

Ever more deeply did Paul's heart fasten to the Cross of Christ, the 
most compelling proof of divine love. He claimed to know nothing but 
Christ Crucified (1 Cor. 2:2). With Christ he was nailed to the Cross 
(Gal. 2:20), and gloried in nothing but the Cross (Gal. 6:14). He 
preached a Crucified Christ (1 Cor. 1:23,24,17), because the message 
that the Cross proclaims is the power of God and the wisdom of God. 
"In the Son of God, in His blood, we find the redemption that sets us 
free from our sins." (Col. 1:13, 14) 

The Paschal Mystery 

Vatican II refers to the Paschal Mystery — Our Lord's Passion, Resur- 
rection, and Ascension. Liturgically, there is no difficulty. Theologically, 
it must not be forgotten that the following truths have been defined as 
de fide: 

1. By His Passion, Christ merited for men all gifts whether of grace 
or glory. 7 

2. By His Passion, Christ made satisfaction to God the Father for the 
offense against Him and made recompense for the sin of the whole 
human race. 8 

3. By His Passion, Christ wrought our Redemption. 9 

4. Christ as man is priest who offered Himself on the altar of the 
Cross in a real sacrifice. 10 

In the order of efficient causality, every action of Christ's humanity 
possesses instrumental efficacy. 11 Salvation may be looked at in its integral 
totality, or in its principal act. The totality includes the incarnation, the 

lishers, 1963), pp. 94 sq.; Joseph Bonsirven, SJ, Theology of the New Testament, 
trans. S. F. L. Tye (Westminster, Md.: The Newman Press, 1963), pp. 164 sq. 

7 Denzinger (1963 edition), 1513, 1525, 1527, 1582. 

8 Ibid., nn. 1527, 1689-1691, 2038. 

9 Ibid., nn. 125, 126, 1571, 1880. 

10 Ibid., nn. 261, 1739-1741, 1743. 

11 For the growth of St. Thomas' thought on this, cf. Joseph M. O'Leary, CP, 
The Development of the Doctrine of St. Thomas on the Passion and Death of Our 
Lord (Chicago: J. S. Paluch Co., 1952), pp. 115 sq. 

life, the passion, the death, the resurrection, the ascension, and the session 
of Christ. 12 

The principal act in all this salvation mystery is Christ's act of dying, 
doing it out of ineffable love and obedience to God. This was His Pass- 
over, His transitus, His exodus. It was this that satisfied for sin, purchased 
through the shedding of blood (1 Pet. 1:18) our Redemption, merited 
His own resurrection and session as the firstborn of many brethren. "He 
became obedient unto death, even the death of the Cross ; for which cause, 
God also exalted Him." (Phil. 2:8) And so we see "Jesus, crowned with 
glory and honor because of His having suffered death." (Heb. 2:9) The 
Resurrection is an integral, not an essential fact of salvation. It completes 
the work of Redemption. Least of all is the Passion a mere condition. 

There is one moment of Our Lord's life that has become a perpetual 
now — the moment of His dying, the moment of supreme sacrifice, the 
moment renewed in the Mass every day from the rising of the sun to the 
going down. 

Passion Preaching 

To the redeemed in an unredeemed world, nothing gives more vital 
strength than thinking on Him who made them carry a cross every day. 
And so "... we suffer with Him that we may be glorified with Him." 
(Rom. 8:17) All roads to glory lead over the hill of Calvary. But it is 
the Lord's Passion-love that leads the way. 

How often did this thought cut to the heart of Paul! "He loved me 
and delivered Himself for me!" (Gal. 2:20) The resurrection shows 
the rewards of love. But the Cross — there is the monument of Love In- 
carnate ! It proves the unbelievable love of God for us. And this we preach. 
Cor ad cor loquitur. The response in the human heart can only be love, 
love unto suffering, sacrifice, death — and then resurrection and glory. 

In stressing the resurrection, an enormous good is achieved. The Holy 
Spirit is awakening in the children of God a realization anew of the 
eschatological meaning of the Cross — that we are experiencing what has 
been consummated in our Head, that through His passion and resurrec- 
tion we too shall follow from the Cross through death to union in glory 
with Him. 

In the meantime, in the perfect Sacrament of the Passion, Christ has 

12 Summa Theologica III, q. 53, a. 1. 

chosen to make the moment of His dying present to us enmeshed in 
this unique moment of Salvation-history, 1964. The Passion goes on in 
the members, and Christ has deigned to make His sacrifice of long ago 

Preaching this wonder is not confined to sentimental, even sterile ex- 
hortation to imitate Christ's spirit in the historical Passion. It is not calling 
to mind episodes in it as merely exemplary causes, motives for endurance. 
It is to awaken the thrilling realization that the Passion is now, that we 
are "always bearing about in our body the dying of Jesus." (2 Cor. 4:10) 
The Cross is our salvation, now. Union with the Risen Christ is our goal. 
The Cross is still, today, right now, the power of God, working our con- 
crucifixion, unto glory. This is our only hope, until He comes. This we 
must preach. 

Moral Theology 

The Case vs. Contraception 

Bertin Farrell, CP, STD 

"Is it too much to ask that Catholics be willing to recognize that their 
traditional arguments on this subject (artificial birth control) are at best 
unsatisfactory. . . ?" (Italics mine.) This question was asked by Mrs. 
Rosemary Ruether, a Catholic mother of three, in an article written for 
Jubilee (Dec. '63). During the past year similar questions about artificial 
birth control have appeared in such disparate periodicals as: Jubliee, Ram- 
parts, Cross Currents, Herders Correspondence, and Ephemerides Theo- 
logicae Lovanienses. They have one thing in common — all were written 
by Catholics — some, by mothers and fathers of families; some, by MDs, 
PhDs, and STDs teaching in Catholic colleges and universities; and even 
some by members of the Catholic Hierarchy. All are likewise causing con- 
siderable confusion in the minds of the non-emerging layman. So much 
so that the editors of ]ubliee can ask for comment on the question: "Is 
the Church's teaching about birth control clear to you?" The following 
observations are an attempt to indicate why it might not be and to show 
how it can be. 

The question proposed by the editors of Jubliee is ambiguous. There 
is no lack of clarity about what the Church is teaching: namely, that all 
forms of artificial birth control are intrinsically and gravely immoral. 
(Casti Connubii) But there may be some lack of understanding as to why 
it is wrong. And the reason for this is very simple. Just as the Church 
may define a dogmatic truth as revealed without showing its exact source 
in revelation (the Assumption of the BVM), so too she may teach a 
moral truth without giving detailed arguments that convincingly demon- 
strate it to be so (contraception is against the natural law) . The basis for 
recent papal condemnations of contraception is the natural-law principle 
that the inherent procreative purpose {or design) of the conjugal act must 
always he respected. Failure to see the force of this argument in nowise 
entitles anyone to reject what the Church is clearly teaching. The an sit 
and the quomodo sit remain two distinct questions. 

It is precisely the quomodo sit which strikes so many as a "hard saying." 
This is because it is not a self-evident principle but a remote conclusion of 
the natural law arrived at by a complicated process of reasoning. Saint 
Thomas would call it a secondary principle of the natural law. Even intel- 
ligent people living in a cultivated moral atmosphere can be invincibly 
ignorant of such precepts. Error on these remote conclusions is due to the 
same sources as error in general. Since even educated people can be mis- 
taken in other fields, such as science, history and politics, they can likewise 
be mistaken in moral matters when the argumentation becomes difficult and 
contrary conclusions seem equally plausible. 

De potentia all men could come to a certain knowledge of the moral 
truths deducible from the natural law. De facto they do not. Truth is no 
easier to attain in the practical order than in the speculative order. Many 
obstacles stand between existential man and the attainment of truth. Ac- 
cording to Pope Pius XII, {Humani Generis), they are: (a) the fact that 
the truths themselves are beyond the scope of the senses; (b) their applica- 
tion calls for severe self-control; (c) man's evil inclinations tend to inter- 
fere with his right judgment. Besides these St. Thomas would include: 
(a) the lack of leisure for serious study; (b) lack of interest; (c) lack of 
mental equipment. All of these add up to the moral necessity of revelation 
for an adequate knowledge of moral truths contained in the natural law. 
And in this context, nothing is more reasonable for a Catholic than to take 
the words of Christ at their face value: "He who hears you hears me." 

However, as often as one prefers to ask not merely what but why, then 
he should be prepared to discuss his question on the level of scientific 
theology. And in this field there is no reason why an ethical argument 
should be any easier to follow than a metaphysical one. Arguments based 
on the natural law are fundamentally metaphysical, and are no easier to 
follow than the arguments for the existence of God on which they ulti- 
mately depend. It is no service to truth, theology, or the Church, to speak 
of the natural law as "nothing other than an abstraction" (Archbishop 
Bekkers of Holland), and appeal from it to some vague form of existential 
phenomenology. It is one thing to say that thomistic moral theology is ab- 
stract, and quite another thing to say that it is unrealistic. In these days of 
engagement, confrontation, commitment, response and salvation-history, 
it should not be forgotten that, scientific theology is realistic in the same 
manner in which any genuine metaphysic is realistic. 

By way of conclusion it might be of some interest to indicate what an- 
swer moral theology has for questions laymen are asking about birth 
control. Is the Church's teaching on artificial birth prevention infallible? 
It is at least definable. If not infallible is it changeable? The a priori 
possibility of change must be admitted. Will it ever change? A change 
seems to be a highly unlikely eventuality. Are "pills" as immoral as other 
contraceptive means? Yes. The use of drugs, pills, or medicines which "by 
preventing ovulation make fecundation impossible," are gravely immoral. 
Does this mean that there is nothing left to be said about the use of 
pills? No. Theologians are still discussing certain of their uses to deter- 
mine whether they are really contraceptive. Is there any source where up- 
to-date information on all these questions may be obtained ? Yes. See Ford 
and Kelly, Contemporary Moral Theology, volume one, chapter one; and 
volume two, chapters 12 to 19. For a simple popular discussion, see "You, 
Marriage & the Pill," Connery, SJ, The Sign, Oct. '60. 

"Harmony seldom makes a headline.' 

"A teacher affects eternity: he can never tell where his influence stops." 

—Denver Post (8-11-63) 


Sacred Scripture 

Theological Content of the Gospels 

Roger Mercurio, CP, STL, SSL 

For a long time, biblical studies have concentrated chiefly on the his- 
torical interpretation of the Gospels. Scholars were interested solely in the 
chronology of the Gospels, the authenticity of the sayings of Jesus, the 
accuracy of the events. This strictly historical interest was not without its 
fruits, for many excellent lives of Our Lord resulted from it. Those of 
Lagrange, Lebreton, Prat, Ricciotti continue to hold their own among the 

The past ten years have witnessed a new point of departure by scholars. 
Instead of concentrating on the historical, they now stress the doctrinal 
purposes of the evangelists. Critics no longer hold the thesis that Mark 
is a pure "historian" without theological intent. On the contrary, they now 
see Mark just as much a "theologian" as John. 

While avoiding the extremes of certain radical critics, Catholic scholars 
insist that all four Gospels possess a marked doctrinal or theological dimen- 
sion. There are several positive and forceful reasons to persuade us that 
this recent view is correct. 

From the very beginning, Christians began to ponder over the sig- 
nificance of Jesus' life and message. Personal reflection under the guidance 
of the Pentecostal Spirit led them to discern the inner meaning of His 
message and to express this meaning in an ever deepening theological 
manner. They were above all else interested in the purposes of Christ's 
death. St. Luke in the Acts gives us several doctrinal interpretations of 
Christ's sufferings, while St. Paul's epistles develop a profound understand- 
ing of the redemptive death of Jesus in our behalf. 

We must conclude that the very atmosphere and mentality of the first 
century were profoundly theological. The first Christians wanted to do 
more than preserve every detail of the Lord's life and sufferings. They 
keenly wanted to know the purpose of His life, the reason for His Passion, 
the theology of His death. 

Now it is precisely in such a milieu that the evangelists lived and 
thought. They were men of their times. Mark accompanied Barnabas and 


Paul upon missionary journeys and knew St. Peter in Rome. St. Luke in 
his turn was a companion of St. Paul and visited Jerusalem. Both had ample 
opportunity of knowing the current theological appreciations of the life 
and death of the Lord. 

Surely, then, we have the right to conclude that the evangelists wrote 
of Christ as he was understood by the first Christians, that they wrote with 
a doctrinal or theological insight. 

Secondly, we have passed beyond the stage of maintaining that the sacred 
writers were mere compilers or recorders of past events. They were not con- 
tent simply to write down the actions and sayings of Jesus. Their narratives 
were not "tape-recordings" of the past, which we need simply splice to- 
gether to get the full picture of Jesus ! 

The evangelists lived, as we have said, in a period of theological reflec- 
tion. They were acquainted with the greatest Christian thinkers of their 
age. They themselves were intelligent men who had personally reflected 
upon the mystery of Christ. Certainly when they wrote they intended to do 
more than blindly record the past. They wanted to express in their narra- 
tives their own personal reflections upon Christ. 

Moreover, we know there are divergencies among the Gospels. These 
differences in regard to choice of matter, arrangement of narratives, omis- 
sions or additions in details, are purposeful and meaningful. For it was 
through the selection and arrangement of material that, the evangelists 
expressed their individual reflections upon Christ. It is in this way that 
they highlighted their personal presentations of the Christian mystery. 

And it is in this doctrinal contribution of each evangelist that we today 
contact the very inspiration of the Holy Spirit. This gift of inspiration so 
moved the writer that he chose and selected his material in complete ac- 
cord with the divine intentions and purposes. In discovering the aim of 
each writer, we are basically clarifying the very aim of the Holy Spirit 

Recent gospel interpreters are deeply concerned to detect the theological 
purposes of the evangelists. They are not neglecting the historical, but their 
emphasis is more and more upon the theology of the sacred writers. They 
would rather discuss the ecclesiastical understanding of the Magi visit than 
the astronomical problems of the star. They are more interested in St. 
Luke's theology of the Messianic fulfillment in the infancy narrative, than 
with the precise chronology of events. They are more concerned with 


uncovering the evangelical significance of Christ than in attempting at this 
time a life of Jesus. 

If we fail to understand or appreciate the value of this recent trend in 
gospel interpretation we may, indeed, find problems, difficulties, and un- 
answered questions in certain new writings. Once we understand what the 
scholars are attempting, we will acquire new and profound spiritual riches 
in today's theological interpretations of the Gospels. 

Canon Law 

Revision of the Code 
Paul M. Boyle, CP, STL, JCL 

When Pope John announced his intention of convoking a council, he 
also expressed a desire to see the Code of Canon Law revised. It might, 
perhaps, be interesting to discuss a few of the suggestions being made con- 
cerning changes in the Code. 

Legalists are interested in having technical and specialized nuances of 
meaning clarified. Terminology should be standard throughout the Code. 
Thus, one canon defines a legitimate marriage as a valid marriage between 
two pagans. Yet another canon requires that bishop be born of a legiti- 
mate marriage. A section defining various terms would be helpful. For 
example: who is a monk (en. 491)? to say something is sufficient for 
validity, does that imply it is necessary (en. 105) ? 

Many have written about the privileges of religious. Some ask whether 
the age of privileged groups has not passed. Among other reasons ad- 
vanced, one seems humorous and true. If religious had not enjoyed broad 
privileges regarding the divine office, their moralists and canonists would 
have explained the law on excusing causes more correctly. Others propose 
that each institute draw up a list of its privileges and submit them to the 
Holy See for recognition. All privileges not on this recognized list would 
be abrogated. Something similar seems to have been the purpose of our 
present canon 4, although this has not been the common interpretation. 

All commentators explain the technical meaning of questing. They point 


out that only questing is forbidden without permission. But many Bishops 
have suggested broadening the power of the local Ordinary to give him 
control over all forms of financial appeals. 

Another financial matter which has come under heavy attack from many 
quarters is the practice of Mass stipends and stole fees. Some bishops have 
already abolished the practice in their dioceses. 

Each of the Sacraments has called forth numerous suggestions. Writers 
are urging that priests be encouraged to carry the holy oils with them on 
trips. A very frequent plea is for universal or at least national confessional 
jurisdiction for any priest approved by his own local Ordinary. Each 
bishop would have the right to take the faculties of his diocese from any 
individual priest. 

A recommendation which many priests would second is that Sisters be 
obliged to go to confession at least once a month, unless reasonably pre- 
vented. The present legislation on confessors for Sisters seems to cause 
universal headaches, if the canonical comments are any criterion. 

Not many would deny that our present practice of confession has be- 
gotten a severe sin mentality. It is hard for legislation to change a mental- 
ity. But perhaps some of the proposals limiting children's confessions would 
help allay the sin mentality. Current investigations suggest that much of 
what we considered divine law may be merely ecclesiastical. Perhaps the 
Constitution on the Liturgy suggests this when it states: "The rite and 
formulas for the sacrament of penance are to be revised. . . ." (no. 72). 

We have all seen some of the proposed revisions concerning matrimonial 
legislation. Lively discussion abounds on the prudence of deleting the re- 
quirement of a priest for the validity of a marriage. Grandmother was not 
bound by any such law. Dropping the promises in a mixed marriage has 
caused heated controversy in rectories in this country. Most of the European 
periodicals seem to take it for granted that this will be dropped. Many see 
no divine obligation to provide for the Catholic education of the children. 
But then some are more adept at discovering obligations than others. 

Besides elimination of the minor (second cousins, spiritual relationships, 
etc. en. 1042 #2) and unusual impediments (e.g., abduction and deten- 
tion) to matrimony, suggestions abound for Regional Matrimonial Courts 
as well as a National Rota. Some countries, as Italy and Canada, already 
have regional courts. Spain has its own Rota. 

Despite the historical studies on the early concepts of servile work, the 


law still causes confusion. Many favor a recommendation for a relaxed and 
prayerful observance of Sunday. Hours of entertainment can be more detri- 
mental to the purpose of Sunday than hours of work. However, many favor 
a prohibition against working for a salary on Sunday. 

Church fast, and to a lesser degree the Friday abstinence, are already 
things of the past for most of the Latin rite. While most of our American 
bishops have not used their faculties in this matter, it seems likely that the 
new Code will not contain these laws. In fact some consider the Constitu- 
tion on the Liturgy (no. 110) as already revoking the law on fasting. 

Hopefully, the legislation on indulgences will be simplified. Many urge 
that privileges concerning blessings and indulgences be made common 
to all priests. Theologians hope that popular practice and preachings be 
brought into conformity with doctrinal truths. Surely the function of law 
should be to help promote solid and true devotions. Decorum might sug- 
gest that the tax on rescripts granting indulgences be eliminated. 

Secular newspapers and Catholic periodicals have speculated on possible 
modifications in the law concerning forbidden reading and censorship of 
books. The Cardinal Secretary of the Holy Office gave a talk on the need 
for updating this area of Church law. 

For years canonists have claimed that the entire section of book four deal- 
ing with beatifications and canonizations could be deleted from a universal 

The fifth book, delicts and penalties, has come in for much comment. All 
seem agreed that it needs a drastic reworking. At present you almost have 
to be a canonist to incur one of the automatic penalties. Only a rare canonist 
would know how to handle the case when you did incur the penalty. While 
the book provides matter for erudite speculation, it contributes little to the 
pastoral practice of the Church. Among the recommendations: omit inter- 
dicts; eliminate multiple divisions of suspensions and excommunications; 
delete all ipso facto penalties ; give a few simple rules on when and how an 
Ordinary may inflict a penalty. One author has reduced the entire book to 
ten or twelve canons. 

The title treating of the laity has long been acknowledged as inadequate. 
This section will surely be enlarged and enriched, pointing up the truth that 
the laity are the Church and the clergy are the servants of the laity. How 
fully and forcefully this truth will be expressed may be gauged by future 
enactments of the Council. 


Unfortunately, I have not seen too much speculation on modernization 
of seminaries. Episcopal suggestions have urged establishment on or near 
university campuses. Present indications are that the individual diocesan 
seminary is a thing of the past. Regional seminaries will take their place. 
Probably the proliferation of religious seminaries will be curtailed. Strong 
statements have been made by Council Fathers on the failure of the semi- 
nary to equip a man to meet the modern mind and deal meaningfully with 
modern problems. Isolation of the seminarians from the world and its 
people may be discouraged even more than recent documents have done. 

The real difference between solemn and simple vows is being discussed. 
Current legislation on religious poverty may be changed. Some suggest that 
solemn vow people retain ownership, but the money be placed in a trust 
fund and treated as a dowry. Others advocate that simple vow religious 
be allowed to give their property away after a certain number of years in 

Tentative and vague formulae have been proposed, allowing the Holy 
See to take funds from one diocese or religious institute and divert them 
to another place or purpose. Most seem to feel that an equitable and pru- 
dent law along these lines could not be formulated. Perhaps a tithe or a 
tax for mission purposes might be legislated. 

Pius XII has stressed the unicity of the priestly and religious vocation 
in the states of perfection. The modern youth does not intend to vow him- 
self to the religious life with priesthood as something incidental or added. 
Present trends indicate that this psychological fact will be recognized in 
law. A youth who refuses or is refused priesthood may be declared ipso 
facto dismissed from his religious vows. 

These are just a few of the many suggestions which have been made. 
No claim is implied that all of these will be written into law. But they do 
represent some of the thinking going on within the Church. 

"The error of youth is to believe that intelligence is a substitute for 
experience, while the error of age is to believe that experience is a substi- 
tute for intelligence." 

— Reader's Digest, March '64 



The Homily 

Timothy Fitzgerald, CP, STD 

"By means of the homily, the mysteries of the faith and the guiding principles of 
the Christian life are expounded, during the course of the liturgical year, from the 
sacred text; the homily, therefore, is to be highly esteemed as part of the liturgy 
itself; moreover, at these Masses which are celebrated with the assistance of the 
people on Sundays and holydays of obligation, it should not be omitted except for 
a serious reason." {Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, #52; cf. also #35, 2) 

The Second Vatican Council's insistence on a return to a homily which 
is fully integrated in the Mass is one of the happy results of the scriptural 
and liturgical renewals. The word "homily" has been so devaluated in 
recent centuries, however, that there is some difficulty in defining exactly 
what is meant by it. Everyone does seem to agree that the homily is not 
a launching pad for the preacher's favorite thesis, or for moralization that 
is completely divorced from the Mass texts. The Constitution on the Sacred 
Liturgy says quite clearly that "the mysteries of the faith and the guiding 
principles of the Christian life are expounded . . . from the sacred text." 
The homily is regarded by the Council as uniquely united to this celebra- 
tion, a bond between the liturgy of the Word and the liturgy of the 
Eucharist. Its aim, then, is to engage the faithful personally in the Eu- 
charistic mystery. Thus, commentators see the homily not as mere informa- 
tion which could be gathered from a missal or a liturgical commentary, 
nor as simply a proclamation of the Gospel, though both these elements 
may be present. Rather the homily is the spiritual word of a father who 
knows the needs, miseries, temptations and joys of his children, and 
having meditated on the Word himself, fixes goals and spiritual objectives 
for them. It is the nourishment a pastor gives to his flock. [For a fuller 
discussion of these ideas, cf. J. Kraus and T. Duffy, "Liturgical Preaching," 
Worship 37 (1963) 424-428; R. Lechner, "Liturgical Preaching," Wor- 
ship 37 (1963) 639-650; J. Connors, "The Science of the Sunday Sermon," 
Chicago Studies 2 (1963) 108-118] 

There are two limitations to this kind of preaching: (1) the preacher, 
coming upon the same texts year after year, has a tendency to repeat him- 



self; and (2) the need for adequate instruction, stressed by Councils, Popes 
and the Code of Canon Law, can easily be neglected. However, the 
homily and catechesis are not mutually exclusive. Increasingly, a number of 
European authors are showing how the two can be effectively combined. 
These men keep the style, spirit and biblical content of the homily with 
its orientation towards the Eucharistic sacrifice being celebrated; yet, they 
also present the essential elements of a true catechesis. Their concern ulti- 
mately is pastoral — i.e., they adapt the sermon to the needs of the present 

For example, A -M Roguet has attempted to link up the Sacraments {La 
Vie Sacramentelle, Paris: Les Editions du Cerf, 1962), the Creed (Notre 
Foi, 1963) and the Mass {Notre Sacrifice, 1963) with the liturgical year. 
He has an excellent treatment on the combination of the homily and the 
instruction in his introduction to Notre Foi, pp. 14-23. He observes that 
at first he was reluctant to combine the two, feeling that a series of in- 
structions would lead to an artificiality common to many of the diocesan 
sermon plans, which have little or no regard for the liturgical season or 
text. But upon experimentation, he discovered that in projecting a yearly 
theme like the Creed into the liturgical year he came to see the familiar 
texts under a new light. There emerged a clarity, a resonance in the for- 
mulary that he had not noticed before. The system is flexible, and while a 
certain artificiality remains, Roguet feels that its benefits outweigh the 
limitations. Preachers who must explain doctrine from biblical and liturgical 
sources are forced to break away from scholastic modes of thought and ex- 
pression and to simplify the message for the people. At the same time the 
faithful are enriched by new insights into the mysteries of Faith, united 
to the Eucharistic celebration of a particular day. 

E. Fournier {Predication Pastoral et Renouveau Liturgique, I, Le Credo, 
Brussels: Lumen Vitae, 1963; U, Les Sacrements, 1964; ///, Les Com- 
mandements — in preparation) develops the same ideas as Roguet. His 
method is at once liturgical (point of departure is always the Missal), 
doctrinal (either a doctrine contained in the Mass or an underlying theme 
for the entire year) , biblical and pastoral (the art of bringing to pass and 
of preserving the meeting of Christ and his people). It is interesting to 
note that these four parallel the four principles enumerated by Father 
Connors as forming the base for the Sunday sermon: the principles of 
adequate instruction, liturgical unity, life situation and the kerygma (art. 
in Chicago Studies cited above). 


This resurgence of interest in solid preaching is of vital importance to 
Passionists. As professional preachers, we have often been reminded of 
the necessity of being especially prepared for Sunday sermons. With the 
Council taking the lead, we now have a splendid opportunity of opening 
to the faithful the treasures of the Passion and Glory of Christ contained 
in the Missal. The homily seen as an essential part of the Eucharistic 
celebration, becomes a very precious type of Passion preaching. In the full 
spirit of our fourth vow we give to the People of God the fruit of our 
personal meditation on the Word, drawing them on to unite themselves 
completely to the Divine Victim of Calvary. And as the people become 
more accustomed to this kind of preaching, we can see the broad vistas 
opened for us in our preaching on missions and retreats. 

Needless to say, the homily thus conceived is not something that can be 
dashed off at a minute's notice. However, the wealth of material being 
made available in scripture, liturgy and catechetics makes the work easier 
and likewise personally profitable. Added to this is the Passionist's true de- 
sire to accomplish his mission in the Church. "For the love of God is 
very ingenious and is proved not so much by words as by the deeds and 
example of the lover." (Rules and Constitutions, #127) 


Thomism Today 

Melvin Glutz, CP, PhD 

Our age is one of intellectual ferment and crisis. New discoveries, 
new ideas, new ways of thinking are proliferating so rapidly that, the mind 
of man is hard put to assimilate and evaluate the new knowledge, as well 
as to integrate it with the wisdom inherited through our tradition. One 
product of the contemporary intellectual turmoil is the increasing prev- 
alence of an anti-Thomist attitude. 1 

1 Cf. G. McLean, OMI, (ed.), Teaching Thomism Today, CUA Press, 1963, 
pp. 41, 60 n.4; R. Harvanek, "The Crisis in Neo-Scholastic Philosophy," Thought, 
38 (1963) 529-546, a balanced and enlightening article; A Lee, "Thomism at the 
Council," The Thomist, 27 (1963) 451-492. 


It is quite difficult to assess the factors behind this attitude. It is found 
in some undergraduate circles, where it could hardly coexist with a tho- 
rough appreciation of Thomism. It is exhibited by certain scholars who, un- 
fortunately, betray a defective grasp of fundamental concepts of St. Thomas' 
philosophy. There are even some modern Catholics who seem to be enjoying 
the comfortable negativism of the sceptic who, in the words of David 
Hume, "remains always on the offensive, and has himself no fixed station 
or abiding city, which he is ever, on any occasion, obliged to defend." 

However, there is the serious situation that, great men whose competence 
is not to be impugned, disagree on even major issues of philosophy. There 
is need of trying to understand this fact, and certain recent investigators, 
who call themselves metaphilosophers, are giving attention to it. 2 In this 
spirit we must consider the current reaction against the philosophy, and 
consequently the theology, that have for so long had the encouragement 
of the Church. 

The argument that Thomism is "outmoded in form and rationalistic in 
its method of thought," "quite in accord with medieval mentality" and 
that it "hardly offers a method of philosophizing suited to the needs of 
our modern culture" has been disposed of in Humani Generis (n.29-34). 
We might add, however, that the proper method of Thomist philosophy 
is widely misunderstood and misrepresented in many manual presentations 
of philosophy. There is too much emphasis on the a priori and inadequate 
emphasis on the factual basis of philosophical doctrines. This has given 
the appearance of excessive intellectualism. Likewise, contemporary 
Thomists — and even St. Thomas himself — do not give sufficient analysis 
of internal experience, such as modern phenomenology has so richly done ; 
but this calls for mere supplementation, not abandonment of Thomism. 

The Latin language has, rightly or wrongly, made its contribution to the 
disfavor of our philosophy; but true scholarship requires knowledge of 
several languages, so blame cannot be put entirely on Latin as such. Nor 
on its unfamiliar terminology, for the most influential contemporary thinker, 
Martin Heidegger, employs a very different and difficult terminology. 
Odium is often directed toward the manuals and the thesis method. I 
believe that the general order of the thesis method is sound, namely, clear 
definition of the question, review of the literature, demonstrations, dis- 

2 Cf. G. Grisez, "Toward a Metaphilosophy," Proceedings of the American 
Catholic Philosophical Association, 1963, 47-70. 


cussion. The fault in its use must be laid to a too great conciseness, which 
petrifies the matter being considered and gives an appearance of dogmatism. 
St. Thomas himself noted the dangers of too great brevity. 3 Perhaps, the 
use of Latin in the manuals, as well as the overcrowding of the philosoph- 
ical and theological curricula in seminaries, account in large part for the 
dehydrated nature of the manuals. 

Thomism has been criticized for being a static philosophy of essences, 
rather than a dynamic philosophy of process and change. This criticism is 
only partly valid. It is true, nevertheless, that Thomism must establish 
continuity with science, especially psychology, in order to take full cog- 
nizance of the on-going dynamism of reality. This is one of those areas 
where there is need for further development, not for rejection. 

Many young Catholic intellectuals complain that their philosophical 
training makes communication with their non-Catholic philosophical 
friends impossible. They do not speak the same language, nor do they find 
acceptance by their peers. We must remedy this by giving broader training 
in contemporary thought. Unfortunately, this causes the problem that time 
must be taken away from the courses in Thomism in order to teach other 
brands of philosophy, while the courses in Thomism are already too super- 
ficial and inadequate, so that too many Catholics have never had a full 
appreciation of the system. Moreover, we must not accept the principle 
that other philosophies are the measure of philosophical truth and that, 
in order to be relevant, Thomism must somehow be in conformity with 
them. 4 

In every case, other philosophies must be judged critically and accepted 
in proportion to the elements of truth in them. It is widely admitted that 
philosophy is in a chaotic state and consequently it is likely to be sup- 

3 St. Thomas Aquinas, The Trinity and the Unicity of the Intellect, tr. Sister 
Rose Emmanuella Brennan, SHN, Herder, 1946, p. 18. 

4 "Some people are so anxious to be modern and 'up to date,' even in philosophy 
and theology, that they would replace, without hesitation, every traditional value 
with the fashions and preferences of the day. There is here, evidently, a big danger; 
rejuvenation of Catholic thought cannot be achieved by a 'revolution'; it must be 
accomplished by a progressive 'evolution,' without losing contact with tradition. 
Consequently, Thomists of today must have as their first aim a profound understand- 
ing of traditional doctrines, especially those of St. Thomas, and a thorough knowl- 
edge of St. Thomas' sources and historical background." (F. Van Steenberghen, 
"Thomism in a Changing World," New Scholasticism, 26 (1957) 41. 


planted by religion, science, or literature. Suppose that one would possess 
truth. Should he abandon it for the sake of communication and acceptance? 
To what extent is truth relevant to the modern philosophical world ? Not 
many outside the camp of Thomists would admit that it is a possble ob- 
jective, at least not in the sense of a conformity of thought to extramental 

The greatest challenge to Thomism is Existentialism. 5 There are some 
good elements in this philosophy, but in the overall perspective there is a 
basic difference in methodology and even a different conception of what 
philosophy is. Particularly dangerous is its irrationalism, represented by the 
distrust of abstract thought and the rejection of any moral absolutes. 
Existentialism denies that there is a valid rational proof for the existence 
of God. The ability to give such a proof should be the first requisite for 
acceptance and use of a philosophy by a Catholic. Other such requirements 
that seem essential are: the ability of the mind to know objective reality 
and to attain truth, the spirituality of the intellect, freedom of choice, the 
principle of causality, substance, natural law, and a system of moral ab- 
solutes. To my knowledge, there is no philosophy on the contemporary 
scene other than Thomism than can measure up to these requirements. 

One of the sources of the present difficulties of Thomism arises because 
of misunderstanding by some Thomist theologians regarding the Scripture 
movement, and vice versa. There is no doubt that St. Thomas and the other 
scholastics read Greek philosophical concepts into the Scriptures. There 
has been a certain intransigence on the part of some theologians to make 
the mental accommodation that the new Scriptural knowledge requires. 
It must be remembered that the Scriptures do not teach philosophy, just 
as they do not teach science or history in our modern sense. So we must 
interpret the Scriptures according to the Hebrew mind, in order to get the 
authentic message of God. But there will always be philosophical presup- 
positions influencing the reasoning of each Scripture scholar. It is desirable 
that these be rendered explicit. Likewise, concepts of a philosophical nature 
will be necessary for complete understanding of many things in Holy 
Scripture, as is evident from the history of dogmas. 

5 The best introduction to Existentialism is Wm. Barrett, Irrational Man, 
Doubleday Anchor Book, A 321, 1962. A Thomist critique can be found in: H. 
Klocker, SJ, Thomism and Modern Thought, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1962; A 
Dondeyne, Contemporary European Thought and Christian Faith, Duquesne Philo- 
sophical Series, 1958, Chap. 5, "The Relevance of Thomism." 


Some Scripture scholars are too ready to throw out Thomist philosophy. 
One of them has written, "Catholic exegetes . . . have not found in their 
philosophical training principles upon which they can erect a theory of 
interpretation of the Bible." 6 Would they find such principles in Kantian- 
ism, Positivism, Hegelianism, or Existentialism? Thomism gives the scrip- 
ture scholar a philosophy of realism, one that can justify certitude about 
objective reality and that can prove the existence of God. After remarking 
that Father Danielou "notes the sympathy between biblical expression and 
Existentialism," a Catholic author asks, "But would biblical theologians 
explicitly list themselves as Existentialist in philosophy?" 7 Not likely, if 
they faced the full philosophical implications of Existentialism. 

We must beware of absolute positions, both at the extreme left and at 
the extreme right. Let us follow the admonition of St. Paul, "Test all 
things; hold fast that which is good" (I Thess. 5:21), and try to attain 
the ideal proposed by Pope Leo XIII, "Vetera novis augere." A purified 
and rejuvenated Thomism, in vital contact with modern thought, will be 
a noble and powerful instrument for bringing intellectual stability into a 
troubled world, and for searching deeply into the mysteries of revelation 
in the exciting renewed venture of "fides quaerens intellectum." 

■ J. L. McKenzie, SJ., Catholic Biblical Quarterly, 22 (I960) 314. 
7 M. Novak, "The Philosophy Implicit in Biblical Studies," Catholic Biblical 
Quarterly, 22 (i960) 306-314. 

Mission Source Material 

Neil Sharkey, CP, STD 


1. Missions. H. Masterson, "The Evening Mass Mission," The Priest 
(Jan. 1964) pp. 55-9. 

This article was written by Father Masterson, Director of the Paulist 
Canadian Missions. His contention is this: The traditional mission of early 
Masses and morning instructions is dead and has been dead for some years. 
We must face up to the fact that people retire later and rise later. As a 
consequence of this conclusion, he now follows a new formula. 1st, he 


has eliminated the entire morning mission procedure and gives an evening 
mission Mass. 2nd, he begins services at 8:15 PM. This hour was chosen 
because of home conditions and the three-hour fast required for Holy 
Communion. 3rd, the time between 8:15 and 9 PM is divided into two 
sections, with the main sermon given from 8:37 PM to 9 PM. 4th, Mass 
begins promptly at 9 PM. The entire service takes one hour and 15 minutes. 
Those who come early may take advantage of confessions, one half -hour be- 
fore services. Others go during and after Mass. As a result, Communions 
far outnumber those of former morning Masses. 

2. Faith. The Way (Jan. 1964). This issue of The Way contains a 
group of essays on Faith. 

Throughout the articles there is one clear line of thought. Faith in the 
divinity of Jesus Christ does two things: 1st, it makes us present to His 
past; to believe in Him means to assimilate the gospel, to be convinced that 
it is addressed to us today, even though we come 2000 years afterwards; 
2nd, faith enables us to meet our Lord here and now ; through his divine in- 
dwelling, through his Eucharistic presence, through the Sacrifice of the 

3. Preaching on Hell? A. M. Roguet, "Hollenpredigt?" Theologie der 
gegenwart, 4 (1963), pp. 214-17. 

This article first appeared under the Pseudonym "Apostolus" in La Vie 
Spirituelle 108 (1963), pp. 49-54. 

Some say that preachers no longer speak on the great truths which gave 
solidity to the faith of Catholics in the past. They maintain that priests, 
today, speak only on two vague themes : The Mystical Body and the Paschal 
Mystery. This brings one to a modern problem: Should one preach a 
sermon on Hell? In the 17th century, popular speakers took Hell as a 
favorite topic, describing its physical torments. Bourdaloue, however, sus- 
pected some lack of perspective. 

The proper theme for a sermon can be any truth of revelation, yet cer- 
tain qualifications should be made. Essentially, the Christian preacher is 
one who proclaims the glad tidings of eternal salvation offered to mankind, 
in and through the mystery of Jesus Christ. Further, when one preaches on 
a theme of revelation he should not present the truth in a subjective or 


distorted manner. Hell, as a place and state of eternal punishment, is a 
truth of revelation. Factually, however, the exact nature of Hell is a 
mystery. How, then, can one present the whole truth when all he knows 
is that Hell is a place of punishment and eternal separation from God? 
When one preaches directly on Hell, he tends to exaggerate and merits the 
judgment of Talleyrand: "Excess destroys meaning!" When one pictures 
Hell in a sermon, he is not telling the exact truth; rather, he creates his 
own Hell. This is a disservice to the infinite goodness and justice of God. 
The gospels and the liturgy speak of Hell as a fearful possibility that must 
be avoided at all costs. Yet what the gospels and the liturgy do directly is 
to proclaim the good news of eternal salvation. The author concedes that 
one may, if he chooses, preach on Hell ; but he is under the obligation to be 
faithful to truth. 


1. K. Rahner, The Christian Commitment (Sheed and Ward) 1963. 

In this book Rahner considers these subjects: The Present Situation of 
Christians; Apostleship; Ordering Creation towards Redemption; The 
Significance of the Individual Person; Mary, the Model of Christian 
Commitment; the Sacrifice of the Mass; the Eucharist. The last essay on 
Mass and Television must be qualified because of the recent Constitution 
on the Liturgy. 

There is one basic theme running through all these essays. Religion is 
what unites us to the true and living God. The Christian, because he 
accepts God and divine revelation, has never been a person having one 
idea, one method, one absolute way. Often we find people speaking in 
vast and splendid terms about one thing, as though it were the one and 
only thing that mattered ; then on some other occasion praising some other 
thing, as though the whole of life and salvation depended upon that. 
Every Christian must live his life within the framework of revelation and 
God's commandments. Yet it is never possible to deduce from Christian 
principles of belief and morality one single pattern of the world, of a 
society, of an individual life, as it ought to be. The many possibilities rest 
on free, creative, personal, prudent decision. Further, one must realize, 
God speaks to each of us by historical events, human situations, the signs 
of the time, life itself, as well as by revelation. 


2. K. Rahner, Theological Investigations, Vol 2 (London: Darton, 
Longman & Todd) 1963. 

The first volume of Karl Rahner' s theological investigations dealt with 
God, Christ, Mary, and Grace. This second volume has for its theme: 
Man in the Church. 

What is the true Church? "According to the teaching of the Church 
and the usage adopted by her (and binding also on us), the 'Church' 
means the Roman Catholic Church, which knows itself to be founded by 
Christ, even as an external, visibly organized society with the Bishop of 
Rome at its head, and which as such declares itself to be basically necessary 
for salvation." This true Church, however, has both a visible and invisible 
structure; and these dimensions enable us to understand the position of 
those who are not full members of the Church but truly related to it by 
sanctifying grace. "The justified person who belongs to the Church with- 
out being a member of it, belongs invisibly to the visible Church by grace 
and has a visible relation to the Church even when this relation is not 
constituted by Baptism." 

With reference to the resurrection of the body, there are erroneous 
opinions circulating today associated with the thought of Teihard de 
Chardin and Roger Mehl. These opinions maintain that man does not 
have a spiritual, substantial soul: that the life principle in man is brought 
forth from the energy of matter. Thus the resurrection of man, either at 
the moment of death, or on the last day, is a totally new creation. Yet, as 
Rahner observes, "Whoever lets man perish, ground to pieces in the cruel 
mill of Nature, does not know what spirit and person are, and does not 
know how much more real, in spite of all their apparent weakness, the 
spirit and the person are than all the matter and energy of physics." 

In VC, Vol. II, No. 1, pp. 28-31, Retreat Source Material, we failed to 
enter a by-line, giving credit to Father Cronan Regan. Homer nodded. 
Homeric apologies to CR II. 

— AMcD 


"Eloquence is the painting of thought." — Pascal 


Retreat Source Material 

Cronan Regan, CP, STD 

Seminary Retreats 

B. Frison, CMF, Selection and Incorporation of Candidates for the 
Religious Life (Milwaukee, 1962) pp. 136-161. 

N. Halligan, OP, The Administration of the Sacraments (Alba House, 
New York, 1963) pp. 376-381. 

On occasion, problems concerning the suitability of a candidate for 
profession or ordination from the point of view of chastity will be thrust 
upon the shoulders of a retreat master in the sacramental forum. His 
prudent judgment and advice must be based not merely on his own 
invaluable experience and the opinions of reputable moralists, but also on 
the directive norms that have been given by the Sacred Congregation of 
Seminaries, and by the Sacred Congregation of Religious. Some of these 
are as recent as 1961. They are quite explicit and somewhat more demand- 
ing than earlier moralists were. Documents do not eliminate the need of 
Christian prudence in the confessor's judgment, but they do provide it 
with objective norms that must be respected. These two recent works are 
written in the light of these directives. A study of the indicated pages 
would be very useful for informing the confessor's judgment. 


M. Novak, "Marriage: the Lay Voice" Commonweal 2/14/64. "Hus- 
band and Wife Report" America 11/23/63. 

R. A. McCormick, SJ, "Conjugal Love and Conjugal Morality" America 

There are pockets of deep unrest in some Catholic circles concerning 
the traditional Catholic teaching on conjugal morality. M. Novak displays 
some impatience with a too-clerical approach to marital love and society. 
The highly personal "report" evidences a deeply Christian yearning for 
realistic help and guidance. Articles in Jubliee in recent months show the 
influence of ideas like those of Doctor Rock. An article in Cross Currents 
(Winter, 1963) questions the soundness of the bases of the official 
Catholic position on birth control. In view of all this, McCormick's 


article is particularly relevant. He considers marriage as the loving com- 
mitment of the spouses one to another, and sketches the way in which the 
exigencies of this commitment lead to the same natural-law conclusions 
as does the more usual approach that considers marriage as an institution 
for procreation. Retreat preachers may find this approach more in tune with 
the needs of contemporary audiences. 

Young People 

K. Rahner, SJ, "The Sacrifice of the Mass and an Ascesis for Youth" 
The Christian Commitment (Sheed & Ward, New York, 1963) 
pp. 136-170. 

Father Rahner writes from the premise that Christian mystery is so rich 
that, there is no single "right" or "dogmatic" way to approach it in one's 
own religious life, or in one's preaching and pastoral guidance. The real 
inner devotion of the people is the goal we seek in educating them to the 
Mass and the sacraments — and for this we must work with our audience 
as it really is and by means of those things that vitally interest it. Especially 
from page 155 on, he analyzes youth's psychology and religious aspirations 
in a way that should be useful to anyone working with young people. 

A Consultant Psychiatrist, "The Sexual Instinct in Man" The Clergy 
Review 48 (Nov. 1963) pp. 675-690. 

This anonymous article highlights in a very common-sense way the 
harmful consequences of allowing the sexual instinct to remain bound to 
erotic fantasy. Its emphasis is on sexual maturity rather than on morality. 
But it should be useful to any preacher getting material ready for talks on 
chastity or marriage. 

Priests' Retreats 

C. Davis, "The Theology of Preaching" in Preaching ed. by R. Drury 
(Sheed & Ward, New York, 1963) pp. 1-26. 

Davis sets the ministry of preaching in the context of the biblical 
theology of the Word and shows how it belongs irreplaceably to the very 
structure of the Church. It is an exercise of the power of Order by which 
a man is made witness and minister of Christ. He opts for the view that 
sermons are a cause (not a mere occasion) of the special grace of faith. 
And finally, he writes very clearly and convincingly of the need to 


structure the message we preach, along the lines of an unfolding history 
of the events by which God has wrought salvation, howsoever much it is 
adapted to the capability of our own people. The article could provide 
matter for a conference in a priests' retreat — but its principal value will be 
to help the preacher to understand better his own role. 

The Cur sill o 

W. Jacobs, "The Cursillo— What Is It and Does It Work?" Ave Maria 

2/22/64, pp. 5-9 & 31. 
J. McLaughlin, SJ, "I Made a Cursillo" America 1/18/64, pp. 94-101. 

As an aspect of apostolate that runs somewhat parallel to the retreat 
movement, the Cursillo is of real interest to Passionists. The two popularly 
written articles remove some of the mystery from the "Little Course in 
Christianity" and indicate its potential and limitations. 

Quaestiones Disputatae 

Communion for Others Ronald Murray, CP, STD 

The fact that the remarks on receiving Holy Communion for another 
were published under the title of " 'Quaestiones Disputatae" suggests that, 
other opinions on this subject would be welcome. I would disagree with 
the author when he asks: "Why is it theologically impossible to do so?'', 
for he starts out with an assumption which he fails to prove. 

Our Holy Rule, written under divine inspiration and approved by the 
Church, commands the Clerics and Brothers to offer Holy Communion in 
suffrage for our deceased religious (nn. 330, 331); it would hardly do so, 
if such an act were theologically impossible. Indeed, to demonstrate her 
staunch approval of such legislation, the Church grants a plenary in- 
dulgence to our religious who receive Holy Communion in suffrage, 
applicable to the soul for whom It is received. (Coll. Facult, 152, n. 15) 
The Church is not accustomed to grant a plenary indulgence for an act 
which is theologically impossible. 

Any child who has studied his catechism knows that, in receiving 
Communion for another, there is no sacramental substitution. Such a child, 


for example, receiving Holy Communion for his parents who have 
neglected their Easter duty, does not need to be told that his Communion 
does not fulfill their duty, or restore them to sanctifying grace. But the 
same child instinctively knows that, his reception of this Sacrament for 
his negligent parents, can merit the grace they need to realize their 
negligence, and prompt them to fulfill their duty, personally. 

When St. Thomas, in 3 a, q. 79, a. 7 answers this question, he certainly 
does not intend to repudiate the entire treatment of merit, as contained in 
la 2ae, q. 114 and elsewhere in his writings. If every morally good act is 
worthy of a reward, provided the necessary conditions be present, and if 
the merit of a good act is determined by the dignity of the act and the 
dispositions of the one performing it, who will attempt to determine the 
extraordinary merit which accrues to a fervent soul, in the worthy reception 
of the Eucharist? 

The fact that we merit for ourselves in receiving Holy Communion, is 
only a preamble to the fact that we can also merit for others. The first 
way in which we communicate our merits to another is by virtue of the 
union which exists among the faithful, in that root principle of all 
meritorious works, charity. All who are mutually united by charity gain 
something from the good works of one another. Even the elect in Heaven 
rejoice because of the happiness of their fellow-elect. Here on earth, when 
a member of the Mystical Body of Christ increases in charity by the 
reception of Holy Communion, or by any other good work, all the mem- 
bers of the Mystical Body become dearer to God. For God loves us as part 
of the Body of Christ, and all are loved the more when any one of the 
members becomes more worthy of love. Thus, it is a poor simile to say: 
"the Eucharist has direct, immediate efficacy only for the person receiving 
the sacrament, much in the same manner as natural food gives life only to 
the person who eats it." It would be much closer to the truth to say that, 
as natural food nourishes not only the pregnant wife who receives it, 
but also the child hidden in her womb, so too, the fervent reception of 
this Eucharistic food nourishes not only the recipient, but all those who 
are united in charity. What a motive for personal holiness, and an ever 
increasing fervor in the reception of Holy Communion, and every good 
act we perform! 

Secondly, there may be a communication of merit by virtue of the 
intention which one makes in doing this or that good act, that it may 


profit a particular member, or a definite group of the Mystical Body. By 
such an intention, the good work becomes, thanks to the gift of the author, 
the property of the one for whom it was offered, and helps the latter pay 
his debts to the Justice of God, by satisfaction. Thus, a fervent communion 
offered for one who has just been restored to the life of grace after years of 
sin, not only benefits the one who receives the Sacrament, but could com- 
pletely wipe out the debt which the sinner owes the Justice of God. In both 
these cases, it is not merely "an aspect of pleading prayer," but as St. 
Thomas insists: "non solum per viam orationis, sed etiam per viam meriti." 
(Suppl. 3a q. 71 a. 1) 

To conclude: it is not only theologically possible to receive Holy Com- 
munion for others, but at times, it is commanded. The fervent reception of 
this Sacrament both by the priest at Mass and the faithful who com- 
municate, can be a powerful means of increasing the sanctity of the entire 
Church. It is an excellent means of offering satisfaction for sin, whether 
personal, or for some other member of the Mystical Body, living or in 
Purgatory. And if we go a step further and include congruous merit, "per 
viam orationis," then the persons and intentions for which Holy Com- 
munion can be offered are practically limitless, embracing sinners, heretics, 
infidels, and every human need. 

Riposte Neil Skarkey, CP, STD 

This question was raised, independently of me, in the July '63 issue of 
Verbum Cruets, p. 32. My answer (VC Jan. '64, p. 32) was this: The 
reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist has a direct, immediate 
efficacy (ex op ere operato) only for the person receiving the Sacrament; 
it can be of indirect value to others through the dispositions of the person 
receiving it (ex opere operantis). As a sacrifice, the Eucharist can directly 
help others ex opere operato. I answered in these terms, and not in terms 
of merit, in light of the article of St. Thomas (Summa III, q. 79. a. 7), 
and the accompanying note in the Marietti edition of the Summa: "As a 
Sacrament, the Eucharist benefits only those who receive it, ex opere 
operato. It can, however, benefit both the living and the dead ex opere 
operantis: 1st, because it is an excellent work of religion; 2nd, because 
through the reception of the Eucharist charity is increased, prayers are more 
fervent and efficacious." Further: "Whether we can 'offer up' a Holy 


Communion for anyone, as the expression is, can perhaps be answered best 
by pointing out that the expression shows the relationship of Communion 
to Sacrifice. If such is our mind when we use it, the expression is handy if 
not quite accurate." (Philip L. Hanley OP, The Life of the Mystical Body 
(1961), p. 243) 


Why not? 

The objective solidarity so characteristic of the Mystical Body of Christ 
is the reason for the Church's esprit de corps. In that spirit, early during 
the Canon of the Mass, we intercede by name in behalf of the Vicar of 
Christ, and of the Shepherd of the Diocese. 

Why not, likewise, in behalf of the Ordinarius Personarum? As a 
Congregation, as a Province we have, also, our own familial esprit de 
corps. Among us as exempt religious, the exhortation of Saint Paul applies 
to our General, and to our Provincials. "Remember your prelates ... for 
they watch as being to render an account of your souls." (Heb.: XIII: 
7, 17) 

Considered in perspective, as outlined above, such an additional Memento 
cannot be frowned upon as an irrelevant accretion. As for time — one second 
would suffice. Were this Memento to be inserted vocally, immediately 
after the mention of the Ordinarius Loci, it might be objected to as a 
rubrical interpolation. A rescript from SRC would eliminate that technical 
objection. But the Memento could be made mentally — uno ictu mentis. 
To say the least, this filial remembrance could head the list under the 
"Commemoration for the Living." 


Vatican II did a favor to all concerned, in changing the name of the 
last sacrament from "Extreme Unction" to "The Anointing of the Sick." 

Another psychological master stroke on the part of the Council would 
be to designate the Eucharist as a sacrifice, by a name which would "speak 
for itself," such as "The Holy Sacrifice," or "The Eucharistic Sacrifice." 
Such names are brimful of connotation and redolent of sacred history. The 
word "Mass" is, of itself, meaningless. It is in no way remindful of what 
it refers to. 

— XYZ 



Guest Editorial 
Moral Theology 
Sacred Scripture 
Canon Law 


Mission Source Material 
Retreat Source Material 
Quaestiones Disputatae .... 





"If two men agree on everything, you may be sure that one of them 
is doing all the thinking." 

— LBJ 

"Philosophers astonish ordinary men. Christians astonish philosophers." 

— Pascal 

ff . . . The word of the cross . . . is . . . to us . . . the power of God." 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

lie rfotm (Entria 

Vol. II July, A.D. 1964 No. 3 

Ifertwm (Erorta 

Vol. II July, A.D. 1964 No. 3 

A Quarterly Review of Clerical Literature 
Published by the Passionist Fathers 
Province of Saint Paul of the Cross. 

Cum Superiorum permissu 

Ad instar manuscripti 

For private circulation only 

Opinions expressed by contributors do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the editor. 


86-45 178 Street 

Jamaica 32, N. Y. 

Telephone: AXtel 7-0044 

Cable Address: Veecee New York 




Twenty-first Superior General 

of the 

Twentieth Successor 



The Staff and Readers of 




In response to the request of readers, we plan to publish an annual index 
of Verbum Cruets. Each index will be a 4-page insert, covering four 
quarterly issues. 

With understandable gratification, we note Recommendation # 3 of the 
recent 38 th General Chapter of the Congregation: "The Capitular Fathers 
wish to make mention of the apostolate of the press, which obviously per- 
tains to the ministry of the word of God especially committed to us, and 
which is of the greatest utility both to the Congregation and to the Church 
in these present times. It is therefore fitting that we, too, should favor such 
scientific and literary work, and that we should be better provided with 
competent writers." 

Over and above the immediate purpose of Verbum Cruris, and its in- 
trinsic merits, it should serve also as a proving ground for the apostolate of 
the press at large. — AMcD 


The Threatening Face 

Francis Shea, CP 

The reading of church history is a far greater danger to the faith for a 
certain type of mind, than a metaphysical discussion on the Trinity, the 
Incarnation and the Sacraments. Lacking education and the ability to deal 
in abstruse questions, they are more impressed and persuaded by facts. 
Even here, they are wanting in the critical faculty and the intensive study 
required to sift the true from the false and to arrive at — let us not say, a 
logical or just conclusion, but — a human view of the Church, or at least, 
the persons and events that scandalize them. True enough, there have 
been awful sins of simony, nepotism, sacrilege, schism, heresy on the part 
of those who should have known better. There was the lust of Catholic 
princes, their oppression of the poor, their bloody wars, their violation of 
Church rights. Up from the people came stories, collected by gifted rene- 
gades, about priests and religious, taken and believed by many today as 
universally true. All these things have scourged the Mystical Body of 
Christ and exposed her naked to the mockery of her enemies. These things 
of the long ago are brought up to grieve and shame the children of the 
Bride of Christ. Many hide from sharing her reproach when they do not 
go to the length of denying her. 

Faith itself gives an answer to these evils of a dim past. The Bride of 
Christ must surfer even as her Spouse. Herself immaculate, purchased by 
His death and cleansed in His Blood, without spot or wrinkle, she will be 
betrayed for money, denied by her own, stripped of honor, scourged by 
persecutors, crowned with thorny privileges by scheming princes, rejected 
by a people she loves and benefits, crucified between two accusations — lack 
of aggressiveness and too much assertiveness. The Passion of Christ was 
a scandal in His own day and is still a stumbling block in our own time. 

One's first impulse toward those who are scandalized by the Passion of 
the Church is sympathy, tolerance, gentle words. Jesus explained the mys- 
tery of His sufferings to Nicodemus before He broached the subject to the 
Apostles. But this Pharisee was an outsider, a seeker of the truth, honest 

but timid. It was an entirely different matter among His chosen twelve. 
That dear blundering man whom we admire so much for the lively and 
prompt expression of his emotions was the occasion for a less sentimental 
view of scandal. Only a moment before, St. Peter was the mouthpiece of 
the Father in heaven when he confessed: "Thou art Christ, the Son of the 
living God." With this secure foundation of faith in His Divinity, Jesus 
chose to lay upon it the revelation of His Passion. "From that time Jesus 
began to show His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many 
things from the ancients and scribes and chief priests and be put to death." 
(Matt. 16:16-21). "And He spoke the word openly," says St. Mark. But 
Peter, loyal and loving always, took Him aside and began to rebuke Him. 
The result was rather a shock to the good man, for "Jesus turning about . . . 
threatened Peter. Get thee behind Me, Satan; thou art a scandal unto Me: 
thou savorest not the things that are of God, but the things that are of 

This is without question one of the most impressive events in the life of 
our Lord, of great significance to all, especially to those who are scandalized 
by the Passion of the Church. In the knowledge he later acquired by ex- 
perience, thought, and the fullness of grace, St. Peter wrote these words 
about his Master: "Who when He was reviled, did not revile; when He 
suffered, He threatened not; but delivered Himself to him who judged 
Him unjustly." (Pet. 2:23). Did he remember the day when he was 
threatened, when the silent sufferer of the courts and Calvary turned on 
him a Face of awful severity and in what was, for so gentle a Master, an 
angry manner, scolded him for being scandalized by the talk of His Pas- 
sion? Did the first Pope, in his first encyclical letter, summarize for the 
faithful the chief and most grievous suffering of the Bride of Christ — that 
She should be delivered to those who would judge her unjustly? 

Here indeed is laid down the principle of Catholic controversy — not to 
revile nor threaten, not to be abusive, not employ reprisals against those 
who judge her on the falsity and lies of historians and others who igno- 
rantly misrepresent her doctrines. The man who judged Jesus unjustly, 
Pontius Pilate, received one of the kindest and clearest instructions that our 
Lord ever spoke. Jews and Pagans are deserving of the charity which Jesus 
showed to Nicodemus and Pilate. 

But it is difficult to be patient with those apostates who believe in the 
Divinity of Christ and cannot see that "scandals must come." Often it is a 

case of the wish being father to the thought. The observance of chastity 
and the indissolubility of the marriage bond are hard words. Not honest 
enough to admit their own perfidy, they talk vaguely of the vices of the 
clergy and the abuses in the church. There would never be a Catholic 
Church, if the first hearers of the gospel were as critical of the foundation 
stones chosen by Christ Himself. There wasn't much intellect among them ; 
they were ambitious, even quarrelsome. Judas betrayed Him; Peter denied 
and the rest "all leaving Him fled." In terror of their lives they awaited 
His appearance after the resurrection. 

All these things will happen in the Passion of the Church. Those who 
take scandal and rebuke her for these things should remember the harsh 
words, accompanied by the dreadful, threatening look that once appeared 
on the Face of our Christ. "Go behind me, Satan, thou art a scandal unto 
Me; because thou savorest not the things that are of God but the things 
that are of men." (Matt. 16:23). 

When Jesus was judged unjustly, two brutal assaults immediately fol- 
lowed — He was scourged and crowned with thorns. Notice then how the 
prophet visioned the forlorn Messias and the result of His appearance 
before the people. The many who had been astonished at the majesty and 
power of His speech and miracles, now saw His visage marred and His 
form inglorious. There was no beauty in Him nor comeliness that they 
should desire Him. On specious pretexts, following a malicious and mock- 
ing leadership, they cried out with one voice: "Away with this Man. Let 
Him be crucified." So does the weak Catholic — contemplating the less 
attractive features of the Church, those things by which the wicked have 
made her unsightly before a derisive world — reject the holy, the immaculate 
Bride of Christ. But this man, whoever he be, is caught and enmeshed in 
an inescapable dilemma — he must be terrified by the threat or softened by 
the sadness that appeared on the Face of our Christ. For the Word and the 
Bride are one. What He felt about His own Passion is exactly what He 
feels about the Passion of the Church. 

"Religion is the key of history." — Lord Acton 

Current Theology 

Salvation History 
Victor Hoagland, CP, STD 

Salvation History is an expression seen more and more in current theolog- 
ical, catechetical, and homiletical material. Basically, it means the thin line 
of key biblical events which God uses to reveal Himself to man, beginning 
with the Book of Genesis, extending through the history of Israel, climaxed 
with the first coming of Christ, and to be completed with His second 
coming. In this history, the world and each man find their meaning and 

God both reveals Himself to man and saves him through history. He 
begins in the events and people of the Old Testament, preparing for and 
indicating His final revelation and salvation in Jesus Christ, His Son, who 
fulfills the pattern of salvation established in God's wonderful works of the 
past, through His life, His church, and His sacraments. A striking con- 
tinuity exists in this historical plan of God — one part interpreting, prepar- 
ing, fulfilling the other. 

That God's saving revelation comes to us through history is, of course, 
no new idea. It has always been a part of traditional Christian teaching. 
We know that this was the basic framework for the preaching of the 
apostles. When Paul, speaking to the Jews at Pisidian Antioch, recalls 
God's promise to their fathers, His salvation of His chosen people in the 
Exodus, His establishment of a kingdom for them in Palestine, and finally 
the facts of Christ's saving mission, especially His death and resurrection, 
he is repeating the basic outline of the apostolic missionary preaching. 
(Acts 13:16 ff.) 

The ancient catechetical system of the Church rests on this same frame- 
work. Augustine, giving a classic exposition of early catechetical theory in 
his De Catechhandis Kudibus, tells one of his inquiring deacons that his 
basic instruction must be a summary of that history which is the outcome 
of God's love. "The narration is complete when the beginner is first in- 
structed from the text: "In the beginning God created heaven and earth,' 
down to the present period of church history." Augustine notes that this 
is not to be an exhaustive teaching on the whole Bible, but rather "we 

ought to present all the matter in a general and comprehensive summary, 
choosing certain of the more remarkable facts that are heard with the 
greater pleasure and constitute the cardinal points of history." Neither 
should this teaching be disconnected. It should carefully show the an- 
nouncement of the New Testament in the Old and the fulfillment of the 
Old Testament in the New. 

Indeed, in our present Roman Breviary, where we begin reading the 
Book of Genesis on Septuagesima Sunday, and in some of the Lenten 
Masses, especially those of Holy Week, we have substantial relics of the 
lectionary system of "the cardinal points of history" on which the western 
church based her fundamental catechetical instruction. 

We must note that Salvation History is not completely equivalent to the 
Bible. // stresses key events. The story of Ruth or of Job, for example, are 
not as central as the story of Abraham or the Exodus. The temptation of 
Christ in the desert is not as central as His death and resurrection. 

In current theology, Salvation History and the historic dimension of 
Christian revelation is again being given its rightful place. Our theology 
has concentrated too exclusively on the intellectual aspect of God's word. 
It has been too quick to jump from events to formal propositions, too 
ready to leave Lazarus' grace, where Christ shed tears over his friend, for 
formal definitions of mercy. Theologians are realizing more and more that 
there is something irreplaceable about the event, the people, the language, 
the symbols, the historic dimension through which God reveals himself. 
The business of theology is not solely with scientific language and orderly 

The reemphasis on the history of salvation has wide implications in the 
fields of catechetics and preaching. Too often in the past, our catechisms 
were condensed theological manuals, and our preaching was heavily in- 
fluenced by the language, the framework, and the current apologetical bias 
of scientific theology. In modern catechetics there is a noticeable trend of 
return to the pattern of apostolic and patristic teaching, and much of the 
better catechetical material is based now on Salvation History. 

In preaching, too, the place of Salvation History is better understood. 
The Council, speaking of the sermon accompanying the liturgy has directed 
that "it should draw its content mainly from scriptural and liturgical 
sources, and its character should be that of a proclamation of God's wonder- 
ful works in the history of salvation, the mystery of Christ, ever present 
and active with us, especially in the celebration of the liturgy." (#35,2) 

What about our mission preaching? Taking the Council's schema on the 
liturgy as a guide, we could perhaps locate our missions in that preaching 
of faith and penance, of preparation for the sacraments, of moral and 
ascetical doctrine that must precede participation in the liturgy. (#9) It 
would seem that here also the history of salvation should provide the basic 
framework of our sermons. 

This means that in our mission preaching we must initiate men into a 
history rather than into a moral philosophy. They must see their destiny 
described in that of Adam, of Abraham, of the Jews in the Exodus, of the 
apostles, of Christ. They must see their value before God not in terms of 
the philosophic worth of their souls, but from the loving interventions of 
God in behalf of His people. They must see the meaning of their sins, not 
through theological conclusions, but through the personal histories of 
Adam, of the Prodigal Son, of Judas Iscariot, of the Thief on the Cross, 
of the Crucified Himself. They must see death, not primarily as frightening 
and unexpected, but as changed by Christ. They must see the Passion of 
Christ, not simply as an isolated heroic struggle of the God-Man against 
death, but in the light of the prophecies and figures of the past. They must 
see above all, Christ, not simply in theological terms, but moving among 
people like themselves, reaching out His hands to perform actions that go 
back to Adam, to Moses and the prophets in their significance. 

Homiletic Theology 

Modern Theology of Preaching 

Neil Sharkey, CP, STD 

The problem of the theology of preaching has arisen in our time. The 
questions asked today are these: What is the priest to do when he preaches? 
Is he to proclaim a philosophy: words of wisdom coming from the East or 
West? Is he to proclaim his own ideas and personal insights: words of 
men? Or is he to proclaim the word of God: divine revelation centered in 
the mystery of Jesus Christ and set forth in the context of life and history? 

Modern theology informs us that the priest, in preaching, undertakes in 

the name of the Church a redemptive function. The invisible divine Word 
of God (God the Son) enters into a living, saving encounter with men 
through the mediation — or instrumentality — of an intelligent, relevant, 
audible proclamation of the word of God in the preaching of the priest. 
"Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from 
the mouth of God." (Mt. 4:4) "He who hears you hears Me." (Lk. 10:16) 
"It is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through 
you." (Mt. 10:20) "Faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard 
comes by the preaching of Christ." (Rom. 10:17) "My speech and my 
message were not in plausible words of wisdom, but in the demonstration 
of the Spirit and power." (1 Cor. 2:4) "Our gospel came to you not only 
in word, but also in power and in the Holy Spirit and with full convic- 
tion." (1 Th. 1:5) "When you received the word of God which you 
heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of men, but as what it 
really is, the word of God, which is at work in you believers." (1 Th. 2:13) 
St. Augustine expressed the theology of preaching this way: "We speak, 
but God instructs. We speak, but God teaches." (Sermo 103 ad Rom) 
"The sound of words strikes your ears, yet the Master dwells within you." 
(Tract. 3 in ep. Jn.) "Preach Christ when it is possible, to whom it is 
possible, as you are able. Faith is demanded of you, not eloquence. When 
you speak with faith, Christ speaks. For if you have faith, Christ dwells in 
you." (Sermo. post Maurinos reperti (ed. G. Morin, 1930), pg. 503) 

The Prophets 

In the Old Covenant community, God spoke to his people through the 
prophets. What was the word the prophets proclaimed? It was, of course, 
the word of God. "The Lord put forth his hand and touched my mouth; 
and the Lord said to me, 'Behold, I have put my words in your mouth.' " 
(Jer. 1:9) 

The prophetic word of the prophets consisted in the proclamation of 
God's revelation together with its meaning and relevance to the past, 
present, and future. These prophets considered themselves heralds of God's 
word. They confronted men with God's word; and each hearer gave a free 
response. God, on his part, entered into a living personal encounter with 
mankind through the mediation of the word of the prophet. "For as the 
rain and the snow come down from heaven, and return not thither but 
water the earth, making it bring forth and sprout, giving seed to the sower 
and bread to the eater, so shall my word be that goes forth from my mouth; 

it shall not return to me empty, but it shall accomplish that which I 
purpose, and prosper in the thing for which I sent it." (Is. 55:10-11) 

The Apostles 

What was the word the apostles spoke to the New Covenant people? 
Our best source in this matter is St. Paul. What did he preach? "Necessity 
is laid upon me. Woe to me if I do not preach the gospel!" (1 Cor. 9:16) 
He preached Christ as the Son of God (2 Cor. 1:19), Jesus Christ as Lord. 
(2 Cor. 4:5) "I decided to know nothing among you except Jesus Christ 
and him crucified." (1 Cor. 2:2) 

As with the prophets, the invisible divine Word of God willed to enter 
into a living saving encounter with men, through the mediation of the 
words of the apostles. "I am not ashamed of the gospel: it is the power of 
God for salvation to every one who has faith." (Rom. 1:16) 

The Priest 

Revelation, as such, closed with the death of the last apostle. The time of 
revelation gave way to the time of the Church. The Priest, preaching in the 
name of the Church, is the new herald of God. He takes the place of the 
prophets and apostles. As a herald, his essential responsibility is that he 
proclaim not his own message, but the revelation of the sovereign Lord. 
Through the word of sacred preaching, God desires to encounter men and 
save them. Through the word of preaching, men, on their part, encounter 
the invisible divine Word of God in a life with Him: by listening, answer- 
ing with faith, and obeying with love. "Everyone who calls upon the name 
of the Lord will be saved. But how are men to call upon him in whom they 
have not believed ? And how are they to believe in him of whom they have 
never heard ? And how are they to hear without a preacher ? And how can 
men preach unless they are sent? As it is written: 'How beautiful are the 
feet of those who preach the good news!' But they have not all heeded 
the gospel, for Isaiah says: 'Lord, who has believed what he has heard 
from us?' So faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes by 
the preaching of Christ." (Rom. 10:13-17) 


Schneyer, Joh. B., "Die Heilsbedeutung der Predigt" Zeitschrijt fiir Katholische 

Theologie 84 (1962) pp. 152-170. 
Grasso, D., "Nuovi apporti alia teologia della predicazione" Gregorianum 44 (1963) 

pp. 88-118. 

Pastoral Theology 


Alan McSweeney, CP, PhD 

Pope Pius XII, in his allocution to the new Cardinals, February 21, 
1946, spoke eloquently of the Church's concern for her human members. 
He insists, for instance, on how that concern is preoccupied, not with 
abstraction, but with the complete man as he is in the eyes of God — man 
in his concrete and historical reality. If you lose sight of that, Pius went 
on to say, you compromise the normal order of living together. Continuing, 
the Pope developed another note in the relationship between the Church 
and her members. It is the keenness of intuition that comes from the 
doctrine of Christ and the supernatural warmth of divine charity. So 
inspirited, the Church is bent in constant attention over her children. She 
knows all the beatings of the human heart, all its restlessness and is aware 
of all its aspirations. 

Pius XII then pictures the living, breathing human being, here and now 
bruised and battered, living and working out his eternal salvation. This 
human being is far from the textbook picture of the man who, with clear 
self-consciousness, a personal moral conscience, liberty, and responsibility, 
and acting freely, performs moral acts twenty-four hours a day. And the 
Pope also pictures the Church hovering with supernatural charity and wis- 
dom over this poor man, anxious with God's love to apply the right remedy 
from her own store of experience, and from the discoveries of human skill 
she so gladly adopts. 

Significantly, it was the same Pontiff who commanded the year of pas- 
toral studies. In one of its phases — Pastoral Psychology — he would have 
those who are to engage in apostolic works school themselves to fit the new 
society, each asking again the question which thinking minds today are 
asking: "What is man?" For as G. K. Chesterton somewhere remarks, 
while earlier ages of the faith were far ahead of the modern world in a 
sense of the things in which all men are one — death, and the daylight of 
reason and the common conscience that holds communities together — the 
modern world is more subtle in its sense of the things in which men are 
not one — temperamental varieties and differentiations that make up the 
problems of life. 


Ours is the day of much preoccupation with the human interior, right 
down to its depth. Much has been uncovered there. The specialized ter- 
minology of psychiatry and psychology has become part of everyday speech. 
Idego, superego, rejection, compensation, anxiety states are terms used 
glibly, and too often carelessly and with abandon. But they bespeak motive 
forces of human behavior until now guessed at, and only recently uncovered 
by patient and skilled investigation. It has been remarked, for instance, that 
the work of Sigmund Freud is the most profound analysis history has ever 
known of the less human elements of human behavior. Modern psychiatry 
and psychology have given and continue to give so much insight into the 
souls who are the pastoral concern of Holy Mother the Church and who, 
as Pius says, should be the concern of the minister of the Church — the 
apostolic priest. 

So, in the Pastoral Year, as the young priests prepare for their work 
with the "poor banished children of Eve" one area of concern is -the^ find- 
ings and remedies of modern psychiatry and psychology. According to the 
mind of Pius XII, as ministers of the Church, they too, must be "bent in 
constant attention over man, listening to all the beatings of his heart." 

They must, then, seek for knowledge of the human heart wherever it can 
be found. They must be aware not only of all its aspirations, with that 
charity and keenness of intuition which can come only from the doctrine of 
Christ and the supernatural warmth of divine charity, but also of the dark- 
ness and storms, the alarms and rages surging upward from the less human 
part of God's creature. 

This is not to say they are to jettison, disregard or underestimate the 
inspired and time-tested wisdom of the Church in their effort to save souls. 
God's Church has had the welfare of human souls as her greatest concern 
for twenty centuries. In that she has been inspired and directed by her 
Founder. With her long, long experience, and added to it the profound 
analyses of her greatest thinkers, as well as the unlimited zeal of her heroes 
the saints, she knows more about the heart of man — its heights and depths 
— than any other human institution. 

Not for the priest, then, is the hasty, ill-considered and poorly founded 
acceptance of every latest theory and position in modern psychology. Too 
often Christian ministers of Protestant denominations have so acted. 
Granted they are motivated by a concern for human beings. Yet, because 
they do not know or are estranged from the full patrimony of wisdom and 


zeal for souls of the Church, they are open to the risk of compromising, and 
even denying Christ's truth. 

Pastoral Psychology does not and need not represent such danger for us. 
Rooted and informed in faith, sharers in its wisdom, we go to modern 
findings, critically prepared to accept what there is of truth in them and 
learn from it. Fortunately, the synthesis between religion and psychiatry 
goes on apace. As defenders, according to Christ's injunction, of human 
freedom, conscience and the moral law, we know where to be on our guard 
against the psychologist's determinism. 

So we obey and implement the behest of the Pope, who showed himself 
so aware of and deeply interested in the discoveries of modern medicine 
and psychiatry. But more, we try to prepare ourselves as worthy ministers 
of Holy Mother the Church, according to her pattern, "bent in constant 
attention over man, listening to all the beatings of his heart." 

Sacred Scripture 

The Jewish Trial 

Ralph Gorman, CP 

The order of events in the Sacred Passion of Our Lord is not always 
certain. In a recent work Exegese et Theologie (Paris, 1961) Pere Pierre 
Benoit, O.P., the noted Scripture scholar, proposes an order which contains 
new elements. He admits that some of his proposals are conjectural, or at 
best probable. We shall state them briefly, as the author divides them 
between the Jewish and Roman trials of Jesus. 

Jesus was arrested at Gethsemani and brought to the house of the High 
Priest, occupied by both Annas, former High Priest, and the current High 
Priest, his son-in-law Caiphas. At this point the differences between the 
Evangelists become evident. 

In Matthew and Mark there follow two sessions of the Sanhedrin, one 
at night which the two Evangelists describe in detail and one in the 
morning which they pass over briefly. This arrangement is difficult to 
understand. An official session during the night was most unusual, irregular 
from the legal viewpoint, and unlikely in itself. Were the Sanhedrists 


routed out of bed and assembled at such an hour? If sentence was passed 
at the night session, what reason was there for another session in the 
morning ? 

St. Luke offers the solution by describing one session only, that of the 
morning and by placing at this session the events described by Matthew 
and Mark as taking place at the night session. 

Why this displacement and duplication in Matthew and Mark? The 
explanation comes from John, an excellent witness in matters of topog- 
raphy and chronology. John and Peter were the only eyewitnesses of these 
events, among the apostles, because they alone entered the palace of the 
High Priest. 

John also speaks of two appearances of Jesus, but the first before Annas 
and the second before Caiphas. He gives no details regarding the latter but 
describes the former in detail: Annas interrogates Jesus concerning His 
teachings and disciples, Jesus refuses to reply, a retainer strikes Him. It is 
probable that John gave no details concerning Jesus' appearance before 
Caiphas, because this had already been described at length by the Syn- 
optists, or because he utilized material from that appearance in other parts 
of his gospel. 

How explain the arrangement of events in Matthew and Mark? They 
speak of two sessions because in reality there were two sessions. They make 
out both to be before the Sanhedrin because they did not know about or 
eliminated the one before Annas. This created a vacuum which they filled 
by an anticipation of the morning session. Mark depended on Peter for 
his information and in Peter's mind his denials of his Master occupied a 
primary place among the events of that night. Harassed by embarrassing 
questions, unhappy Peter found it difficult to follow what was happening 
at the same moment to Jesus. It is altogether possible, too, that in the 
Synoptic tradition, some of what took place before Annas is narrated in 
connection with the preceding incident, the arrest of Jesus at Gethsemani. 
In that incident at the garden, Jesus addresses the Sanhedrists whose 
presence, affirmed by St. Luke, is extremely surprising to exegetes, and He 
addresses them in words that closely resemble what was said before Annas. 

To sum up the proposed order of events: Jesus was led as a prisoner 
from Gethsemani to the palace of the High Priests and there passed the 
night, waiting for daybreak to permit the Sanhedrin to assemble. During 
this wait Annas and some of the leading Jews interrogated Jesus regarding 


His teachings and disciples. The interrogation was not official, but the 
authority of Annas gave it weight, since he was former High Priest and 
still kept the title although his son-in-law Caiphas was the actual High 
Priest at the time. 

Jesus refuses to answer. A retainer strikes Him and that is the beginning 
of the mockeries described in more detail by the Synoptists than by St. 
John. Since Jesus refuses to speak, they pass the rest of the night deriding 
Him, the leaders spit in His face and demand that He prophesy, and the 
retainers who had arrested Him strike Him. 

The interrogation began in a hall of the palace, but since Jesus' silence 
robbed them of their hopes for a discussion, they led Him into the court- 
yard where Peter was denying that he knew Him. Jesus looked at Peter and 
Peter came to his senses and repented his denials. 

With daybreak, the Sanhedrin assembles. Did it assemble at the palace 
of Annas and Caiphas? This is possible, but the Gospel accounts do not 
demand this localization, which would be contrary to all that we know of 
Jewish customs. The Sanhedrin met in a special building, the Lishkath 
Hagazith or Boule, at the southwest corner of the Temple area. This is 
probably what Luke means when he says that they led Jesus from the 
palace of the High Priest to the Sanhedrin (22:66). Matthew and Mark 
do not contradict this interpretation. 

The order of events at the Jewish trial, then, is as follows: 

1. Arrest of Jesus at Gethsemani. 

2. He is conducted to the High Priests' Palace. 

3. Interrogation before Annas, Jesus is silent. 

4. Jesus is struck by a retainer. The Jewish leaders and retainers spit on 
Jesus, mock Him, and strike Him. 

5. At dawn He is led to the assembly place of the Sanhedrin which 
condemns Him to death. 

6. He is lead to Pilate. 

We see very little difficulty in accepting this order of events proposed by 
Pere Benoit. It is when he treats of the trial of Jesus before Pilate that he 
proposes an order quite different from that generally accepted. We would 
like to take up in another article the order of events in the trial before 
Pilate. (For Trial Before Pilate, see page 30.) 


Canon Law 

New Faculties of Bishops 
Fintan Lombard, CP, JCL 

By the Motu Proprio, Pastorale Munus of November 30, 1963, Pope 
Paul VI granted important new faculties and privileges to bishops. The 
purpose of this grant, the Pope described as two-fold: "to highlight the 
episcopal dignity, and to make the pastoral ministry more prompt and 
efficacious." The Motu Proprio consists of two parts. The first lists forty 
faculties granted to residential bishops and those equated in law with 
residential bishops — e.g., Prelates Nullius; the second gives eight privileges 
to all bishops, whether residential or titular. Both the faculties and the 
privileges are granted without any time limit and, in effect, are attached to 
the office or dignity of the recipient by law. 

In recent months a number of commentaries on Pastorale Munus have 
appeared in canon law periodicals. Periodica, 1964, fasc. II, pp. 284-322, 
carries both the Latin text and extensive comments by Ludovicus Buijs, SJ. 
The Jurist, Jan. 1964, pp. 99-106, has a translation of the Motu Proprio in 
English and its April, 1964 issue, pp. 239-240, mentions the changes in 
the official Latin text which was published in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, 
dated January 31, 1964. The Irish Ecclesiastical Record, April and May, 
1964, pp. 262-267 and 339-344, contains a lengthy commentary by T. P. 
Cunningham, which is to be continued in subsequent issues. Ephemerides 
Liturgicae, 1964, fasc. II, pp. 150-164, has the Latin text with comments 
by C. Braga, CM., emphasizing the points touching on matters liturgical. 

At the recent regional meeting of the Canon Law Society held in New 
York, a paper dealing with the Motu Proprio was read. This paper will 
most likely appear in a future issue of The Jurist. 

In this short space it will not be possible to treat of all the new faculties 
but since, as was pointed out at the Canon Law Society meeting, they can 
be exercised in favor of exempt religious, and since some of them will be 
of particular interest to confessors and parish priests, this article will 
summarize the list of faculties and privileges, adding comments on some 
of them. Before doing so, however, this seems to be the place to mention 


two other points, the results of interpretations received in recent months 
by American diocesan curias. First, the bishops are able to delegate to their 
chancellors those faculties which are not personal; secondly, the Motu 
Proprio does not revoke the quinquennial faculties which Local Ordinaries 

Among the forty faculties granted to residential bishops are nine which 
pertain to the celebration of Mass. They can permit: bination on ferial days 
because of scarcity of priests, and trination on Sundays and holydays 
because of pastoral necessity (n. 2); the use of liquids, by priests who 
binate or trinate, at any time between the end of one Mass and the begin- 
ning of another (n. 3) ; Mass at any hour and the distribution of Com- 
munion in the evening (n. 4) — Cunningham, p. 267, says: "even to the 
sick who have not been confined to their homes for a week ; the use of a 
daily Votive Mass by weak or blind priests (nn. 5-6) — Braga, p. 160, 
states that this can be any Votive Mass ; infirm priests to sit during Mass 
(n. 10). 

Mass aboard ship (n. 8) ; Mass in a non-sacred place per modum actus 
for a just cause, habitualker for a more grave cause (n. 7) — Cunningham, 
p. 340; per modum actus means that the faculty can be granted for the 
duration of a temporary cause, habitualiter means that it is granted on a 
permanent or indefinite basis ; the use of an antimensium instead of an altar- 
stone (n. 9). This faculty mentions the Greek antimensium and "a linen 
cloth blessed by a bishop containing relics of the martyrs." The Philadel- 
phia Chancery has designed such a linen cloth, the so-called "Latin" 

To confessors the bishop can grant the faculty to absolve from all 
reserved censures, except censures ab homine, the specialissimo modo cen- 
sures, those attached to the secret of the Holy Office, and the excommunica- 
tion incurred by priests and their partners who have attempted marriage and 
are still living together (n. 14) — Cunningham, p. 343: "Absolution given 
in virtue of this grant is not confined to urgent cases and no obligation of 
making recourse need be imposed." 

In regard to Orders, the bishop can grant a dispensation to sons of 
mixed marriages (n. 16); a dispensation, for those already ordained, from 
all irregularities ex delicto or ex dejectu, except those for marriage and 
homicide or abortion (n. 17) ; he can confer Orders even on ferial days 
(n. 18). 


He can grant a sanatio in radice for marriages invalid because of minor 
grade impediments, lack of form, and disparity of cult (nn. 21-22) ; 
commute the divine office to a Rosary or other prayers (n. 26) ; make use 
of faculties and privileges which religious in his diocese possess for the 
good of the faithful (n. 29) ; g iVt priests the right to erect the Stations of 
the Cross (n. 30) ; extend for a month expired Apostolic rescripts or 
indults (n. 1). 

In regard to religious, he can confirm, up to a fifth term, the ordinary 
confessor of religious women (n. 33) ; enter, and permit others to enter, 
the papal cloister of nuns and allow the nuns to leave the cloister (n. 34) ; 
dispense the impediment to entrance by those who have adhered to a non- 
Catholic sect (n. 35) ; dispense the impediment of illegitimacy, whether 
established by the law or by the constitutions (n. 36) ; permit diocesan 
religious to transfer to another diocesan institute (n. 38). N. 39 is interest- 
ing because it is something entirely new: the bishop can dismiss from the 
diocese, for a most serious cause, individual religious, if their Major 
Superior has neglected to pay attention to warnings, but with an immediate 
report of the matter to the Holy See. 

N. 40 permits the bishop to grant, even through others, permission to 
read and retain prohibited books and magazines. Studies is one reason for 

Among the eight personal privileges that all bishops now enjoy are: to 
preach everywhere and to hear confessions everywhere, unless the Local 
Ordinary expressly refuses (nn. 1-2); to absolve, in confession, from all 
reserved sins, except false delation, and all reserved censures, with the 
same exceptions as above (nn. 3-4) ; to say Mass at any hour (n. 6) ; to 
bless religious articles with one sign of the cross (n. 7); to erect, with a 
single blessing, the Stations of the Cross (n. 8). This last grant is found in 
the official text and replaces n. 8 of the original text which read "to bless 
images of the Crucified with the indulgences of the Way of the Cross," 
a privilege the bishops already enjoyed — Buijs, p. 322. 

"A few highly endowed men will rescue the world, for centuries to 
come." — Card. Newman {Oxford U Sermons) 



How God Helps Our Preaching 

Sylvester MacNutt, OP* 

If priests realized the extent to which God's power works through them 
while they preach, they would be overwhelmed. They would experience 
something of that awe and mystery they feel in uttering the words of 
consecration at Mass. 

But, unfortunately, the ideas about the mystery of preaching held by 
the Fathers of the Church have been dimmed since the time of the Counter- 
Reformation and have been replaced by pitifully barren notions about the 
worth of preaching. ("Father, how about whipping something together, 
and then going out to say a few words to the people this morning?") 
Fortunately, however, with the renewed emphasis on pastoral theology, the 
original, vital understanding of preaching is making a comeback. 

Following is a brief synopsis of the noble ideal of preaching that our 
age seemed in danger of losing (most of these ideas can be found in 
St. Augustine and St. Thomas) . 

The main value that seemed almost forgotten was the sense of God's 
power operating through the preacher in as real a way as when He acts 
through the sacraments. Of course, God does not operate the same way in 
preaching as in the sacraments, but His action is just as real and vital to its 
success. From beginning to end, preaching is shot through with God's 

1) Sermon Preparation 

Even before the preacher speaks, while he is still thinking up ideas, God 
gives him a special grace (the gratia sermon is) that helps him in two ways: 
a) It inspires him with ideas and with ways of clearly expressing these 
ideas, to help the listeners understand and love them (the sermo sapien- 
tiae) . God particularly helps the preacher in expressing the most sublime 
and difficult mysteries of faith, such as the Trinity, Christ's redeeming 
plan, and grace — which are the most important topics for our people to 

* Published with gracious permission of author, recently elected President of 
The Catholic Homiletic Society of America. 


hear. (Yet, preachers often seem to slight these mysteries, precisely because 
they are difficult to preach. ) 

b) It inspires him with examples and comparisons taken from the 
world around us, so that the preacher will, by a kind of divine instinct 
(the sermo scientiae), have an uncanny ability in finding examples that 
will make the Gospel relevant to men today. This talent imitates our 
Lord's unfailing ability to make use of a coin, the hair on a man's head, a 
loaf of bread, a sheep or a raven flying by — all to illustrate what he was 
saying at the moment. 

2) During the Actual Sermon 

At the very moment the preacher speaks, providing he speaks God's 
word without adulterating it, a special power is at work. The preacher's 
words are the word of God that pierces men's souls in a mysterious way. 
Somehow the Holy Spirit speaks through the preacher, who is the prophet 
of the New Testament. He is the descendant, the modern counterpart of 
Amos, Jonas, and even Isaias — not that he sees visions, but that he speaks 
as God's herald and spokesman. His words, if faithful to the Gospel, have 
an inner power that can penetrate men's minds and hearts as no merely 
human words can. 

3) Within the Listeners 

Still another grace is at work within the listeners — a grace that clears 
their minds and softens their hearts to accept God's word. Without this 
interior calling of each individual listener by the Holy Spirit, the preacher's 
words fall upon rocky ground. Even if the preacher is a faithful channel of 
God's word, the listener is still free to set up a block. Only the Holy Spirit 
can overcome men's resistance and inspire them to believe and love an 
unseen God. The Spirit enlightens men's minds, changes or strengthens 
their wills and inspires their emotions with love and hope through the 

To sum up: God is everywhere at work in preaching. He inspires the 
preacher with ideas and ways of expressing those ideas ; at the moment of 
delivery, He gives a special power to the preacher's words ; and He pours 
out His graces upon the listeners in another Pentecost to open their minds 
and hearts. 

Clearly, the outpouring of these graces depends, in large part, upon the 
holiness of the preacher and upon his begging God for them. And so, the 
preacher is responsible — more responsible than in administering the sac- 


raments whose grace he cannot so easily obstruct — for making himself a 
worthy collaborator in Christ's mission of preaching. Consequently, St. 
Augustine (JDe Doctrina Christiana, Bk. IV, ch. 15) says that a preacher 
must pray for three things: 

1) that God give him ideas; 

2) that God help him deliver his sermon effectively; and 

3) that God touch the hearts of his bearers to receive his words 

The preacher, then, is an orator — i.e., "one who prays," in the truest 
sense of the word; for he prays before he speaks, while he speaks, and 
after he speaks. (He prays afterwards that his words may sink deeper into 
his listeners' souls and there bear an abundant harvest.) 

And so we see that not only must the future preacher learn to speak on 
his feet, but on his knees, as well. 


Lest It Be Forgotten 

Alfred Duffy, CP 

During the years 1920-23, Very Reverend Patrick Darrah, CP, was the 
Rector of St. Gabriel's Monastery in Brighton, Mass. The refectorian was 
the sainted and revered little Brother Timothy Collins, CP. William 
Cardinal O'Connell was the Archbishop of Boston. At the time, His 
Eminence had chosen Reverend George Basel, CP, as his confessor, and 
on occasions would come to the monastery to see him. One day the Father 
Rector noticed the Cardinal walking up the pathway approaching St. 
Gabriel's and went downstairs to the front cloister porch to greet him. 

However, it was not his Father Confressor His Eminence had come to 
see that day, but Brother Timothy. Two men hardly could be found who 
offered greater contrast, the tall and stately Cardinal and the very tiny lay 
brother, the intellectual Prince of the Church and the simple monastic 
refectorian, the man of vast problems and the religious whose chief work 
consisted of washing cups and saucers, setting tables, and cleaning a com- 
munity dining room. Brother Timothy was sent for. He took off his blue 


work- apron and came out on the front cloister porch. His crippling 
arthritis prevented his kneeling but he bowed down low to kiss the 
Cardinal's ring that had been a gift to the Archbishop from the sainted 
Pius X. 

The Cardinal explained the purpose of his visit. He wanted Brother 
Timothy to pray for a very special intention. Brother Tim then proceeded 
to tell His Eminence that, at the time he was making a spiritual bouquet 
for Brother Ignatius' Golden Jubilee, and when he had finished doing that 
he would pray for the Cardinal. Smiling, His Eminence remarked to the 
Father Rector: "Well, that puts a Prince of the Church in his place," and 
turning to the brother he added: "Brother Timothy, I am not asking for all 
your prayers, but just some for a special intention." 

Brother Tim made the promise and told His Eminence that he must 
get back to the refectory to have it ready on time for dinner, and he asked 
the Cardinal to bless him. This His Eminence did with a spirit of deep 
feeling and emotion. Then the tall, somewhat imperious looking Cardinal 
got down on his two knees on the concrete flooring of the front cloister 
and said very simply: "Brother Timothy, bless me." Completely taken 
aback, little Tim stood there a moment and then said: "I can't do that, Your 
Eminence, but I will pray for you." And he went back to his work in the 
refectory. The Cardinal got to his feet, said goodbye to the Father Rector, 
and walked down the pathway to Washington Street, leaving behind him 
a very much surprised and highly edified Father Superior. 

This is not a learned article. It does not discuss a problem that dogmatic 
theologians are puzzling over at the moment. It does not present a question 
that scientific research has given to the moralists for solution. Nor does it 
alarm biblical scholars, conservative or liberal, by its implications. It is 
just a facet in the ascetical life of a Prince of the Church who showed that 
he possessed the practical knowledge that, humility is the law of grace and 
who did not hesitate to go to God through the simple prayers of a saintly 
Passionist lay brother. 

All the participants in this incident are dead. Most of the professed 
priests then stationed at St. Gabriel's Monastery have gone home to God, 
and the brothers, too, who then were there. I who recall the incident as 
Father Patrick told the community about it in recreation that day, and 
some of the students whom His Eminence ordained to the holy priesthood 
still live to remember and to be edified. I write about it now after more 
than forty years — lest it be forgotten. 


Mission Source Material 

Neil Sharkey, CP, STD 

1. Pope Paul VI, "Ash Wednesday Address to the Preachers of Rome," 
London Tablet (Feb. 22nd, 1964) pg. 222. 

"Preaching should study new forms, developing and adapting them to 
particular types of sermons, so that it may reach a greater number of 
people, coming down from too lofty a height and even, if necessary, going 
outside the church, and presenting itself in a conciliatory and persuasive 
manner to whoever will listen." 

"There are many people in the modern world who turn their backs on 
authoritarian or dogmatic ideas. At the same time, it is still true that the 
authority of the Gospel, presented in its genuine light, finds among the 
men of today, particularly among those painfully burdened, those who are 
suffering, and those who are sceptical and disillusioned, an unusual dis- 
position to listen and agree." 

"The message of religious truth must resound with greater vigor. Men 
need to believe in those who show themselves to be certain of what they 

2. filie Fournier, "When the Council Speaks of the Sermon," Lumen 
Vitae 19 (1964), No. 1, pg. 115-130. 

It seems that the new forms of preaching in the church will be related 
to the Liturgy of the Mass; outside the church, they will center on new 
ways of teaching revealed truth. At the same time, any homiletic renewal 
will demand, as its indispensable basis, a fresh orientation of the priest's 
intellectual culture and spiritual life. 

3. C. Gavaler, "Theology of the Sermon as Part of the Mass," Worship 
(March 1964), pg. 201-6. 

The Mass is a memorial, a making present, of Christ's passion, death, 
and resurrection. It does not repeat but continues, and makes present in a 
sacramental way, the eternal saving act of Christ's passing to God the 

What is the relationship between the first part of Mass, the service of 


the word of God, and the service of the Eucharist? In the service of the 
word the risen Lord is present in the priest to speak, and in the people 
to hear : the proclamation of His saving death and resurrection ; the call to 
believe in the saving event and thank God for it; the invitation to join 
oneself to the saving event in the Eucharist. The purpose of the sermon 
is to announce the significance of the present moment in the mystery of 

4. Grayson Kirk (President of Columbia U) "Responsibilities of the 
Educated Man," Vital Speeches (May 15, 1964), pg. 471-4. 

The varied responsibilities of an educated man are these: 

a) clarity and precision in his spoken and written communication. He is 
not truly educated, who has not learned to use his mother tongue with grace, 
precision, and clarity. Imprecision of speech reflects imprecision of observa- 
tion and thought. 

b) a sense of values and the courage to defend them. An educated man 
establishes for himself a set of moral and spiritual values in full awareness 
of his social obligations. He is prepared to explain and defend them in 
every needful way. 

c) the constant effort to understand the nature and problems of our 
society. Such an effort is the expression of an educated attitude. 

d) the ability to look squarely at the world and its problems with 
courage and hope, and not with fear or rejection. The world has done 
much for every man. A man owes much to the world and should be con- 
scious of his obligations. The world calls to him, and each man has a 
share in the world's future fulfillment. 

5. Robert Guelluy, "What Kind of Christian ism Should Be Put before 
Youth?" Lumen Vitae 19 (1964) No. 1, pg. 79-92. 

Today, preaching and teaching, like theology, must be pastoral. We must 
think and proclaim the content of revelation to the world of today, in its 
way, with its intellectual and moral orientations. What does this mean 
when applied to modern youth? 

a) There must be a return to the essential. "Christianism which we set 
before modern youth must be free from the characteristics special to an 
epoch or culture, and thought out again in an orientation of universal 
thought. The problem of adapting the message to youth must be set in 


terms of world problems. The world of tomorrow can become Catholic, 
but it cannot become, say, Scotist or Thomist, as the Middle Ages in the 
West understood these doctrinal questions." 

b) We must find a way of thinking more in harmony with the cultures 
of today. Our religious intuitions must not be dated but attuned to the 
world of the present. "This effort to regain universal and eternal thought 
is undoubtedly one of the most urgent problems in the adaptation of the 
Church to the modern world." 

c) Good theological thinking and speaking must center on the mystery 
of Jesus Christ. "What has Christianism which is unequalled by the heights 
of Indian mysticism? What had these apparently very ordinary men, Peter 
and James, to say, so unlike great spiritual figures? What did they bring 
that was worth missionary work among profoundly religious people, worth 
replacing the thought of the finest philosophers and keenest humanists? 
The fact that each man is, from an all-bountiful God, the object of a 
mercy which invites him to say "Father" with Christ on earth, to be His 
child with His Only Son forever in the Blessed Trinity." 

d) The living mode of thought today is concrete. "We are not easily 
understood if we talk about the abstract essence of actions, but (people) 
listen if we can offer a theology of work (not merely social morality), a 
theology of encounter (not merely a system of the precepts of justice or 
charity), a theology of man and woman (not merely morals concerning 
marriage) . 

6. Francois Varillon, Announcing Christ (The Newman Press) 1964. 
This book is a study of the whole of Christian doctrine. Sacred Scripture 
is the basis of everything expressed. It is an example of a renewed way of 
thinking undertaken by a modern theologian. It is the effort of a man of 
faith seeking constant new understanding. In attempting to make revela- 
tion understandable to others he attempts to understand it himself. Its 
inspiration is his personal struggle for clarity, for illuminating and ex- 
pressing the depths of his own faith. 

Saint Paul of the Cross has a well founded — though a poorly publicized 
— reputation as a patron of expectant mothers. On occasion, we could intro- 
duce our Holy Founder in this providential role. Attractive prayer-cards, 
with a secondary relic attached, are obtainable from the Passionist Nuns. 


Retreat Source Material 

Cronan Regan, CP, STD 

Religious Retreats 

D. Madden, OP, & F. S. MacNutt, OP, Teach Us to Love (St. Louis: 
B. Herder, 1963) pp. xii, 82. $.95. 

Along the lines of Fr. Dubay's Sisters' Retreats (cf. VC I, 4, p. 22), 
this booklet is based on a questionnaire answered by 212 sisters from 23 
communities. The sisters' comments are quoted in extenso on the purpose 
of the retreat, moral and emotional needs, topics preferred, the retreat 
master and his delivery. They are refreshing in their frankness and a 
thoughtful reading should assist our retreat masters in their approach to 
the spiritual needs of the sisters. 

J. H. McGoey, SFM, The Sins of the Just (Milwaukee: Bruce, 1963) 
pp. 224. $3.75. 

This book bears the stamp of a man who has had considerable dealings 
with religious women and their problems. Unfortunately, there is a tend- 
ency to overgeneralize particular abuses, with the attendant risk of alienat- 
ing or even wounding those who might have stood to benefit most from 
his acute perceptions. However, it should stimulate the retreat master who 
is looking to rework his material. 

A. Motte, OP, "Concerning The Nun in the World" Sponsa Regis 35 

(Feb. 1964) pp. 153-170. 
F. S. MacNutt, OP, "Cardinal Suenens and American Sisters" Sponsa 

Regis 35 (April 1964) pp. 213-221. 

Cardinal Suenens' book has had a profound impact on the thinking and 
! feeling of the sisters who will be making retreats this summer. I would 
imagine that they will expect a retreat master to be familiar with the book 
and to have some views on its relevance to their situation. Fr. Motte has 
contributed one of the most balanced items of study/review of the book 
and the questions it raises. Fr. MacNutt's briefer article underscores the 
Cardinal's central theme and intuition on the obligation to direct apostolate. 


T. Dubay, SM, "Updating Puzzlements" Review for Religious 23 (May, 
1964) pp. 296-308. 

Written in the climate of the unrest that the discussion of aggiornamento 
has occasioned in sisters' communities, Fr. Dubay's article comes to grips 
with the essential data in masterful fashion. He suggests seven principles 
as sound guides for resolving the unsettling questions on the essential and 
accessory in religious life — and each of these principles suggests a subject 
for a retreat conference. Fr. D. writes clearly and warmly, and is an ur- 
bane champion of the primacy of the contemplative in any sane religious 

Renovation Courses for Sisters 

E. J. Stokes, SJ, "Tertianship Program" Review for Religious 21 (May, 
1962) pp. 234-243. 

As V. Rev. Fr. Gerard indicated (cf. VC II, 2, p. 1) an increasing 
number of sisters' communities are asking our help in conducting their 
Renovation Programs. How is the priest to assist in this work? Fr. Stokes' 
article, which is the most complete presentation readily available, indicates 
that there is no simple or single answer. Some comments on this relatively 
new form of apostolate: 

1. The renovation is not simply a long retreat, nor is it a summer 
school of theology. It is an internal institution of the religious community 
similar in scope to that provided for in #190 of our Holy Rules and 

2. The priest is usually asked to assist in the work by means of lectures 
and guidance, both within and outside of the confessional. 

3. The content of the lectures depends on the wishes of the particular 
community and, as Fr. Stokes points out, there is quite a variety of prefer- 
ences in the different communities. The program should be worked out in 
advance with the major superiors of the community. In two different com- 
munities I have programmed a series of lectures on the Theology of Spirit- 
ual Life with particular emphasis on the theology of grace; and an after- 
noon series on either the Theology of Religious Life, or a reading and 
commentary on a New Testament book. The scheduling is flexible enough 
to permit the introduction of topical lectures or discussions as the situation 
seems to call for them. 

4. The atmosphere of the lectures is more usually that of the classroom 


or novitiate chapter room than that of the chapel. And the usual schedule 
calls for ten or eleven lectures a week. 

Conference Materials 

B. Ahern, CP, "The Charity of Christ" The Way 4 (April, 1964) 
pp. 100-109. 

The nature of Christian charity is driven home as by an experience in 
this beautiful meditation on the mystery of the Love that became flesh and 
poured itself out on men of flesh and blood. This whole issue is built 
around the theme "God Is Love," and while the other articles are excellent, 
none has quite the immediacy of this one. 

"Spiritual Vocabulary" 

A feature in each issue of The Way bears this title, and gives much 
more than the title promises. Each entry is a masterpiece of plain but 
evocative writing. There is clarity without jargon, and a wholesome 
Christian humanism characterizes the definitions. The presentations are 
lengthy enough to provide considerable guidance for conferences on the 
subjects treated. The terms are not being treated in any manifest alpha- 
betical or logical order. The only way to work this mine is to thumb the 
back issues. The April issue "defines" temperance, chastity, and purity. 

J. E. Corrigan, "Bless Me, Father" America 3/14/64 pp. 342-344. 

For the "little fish" of a retreat, the problem of making frequent devo- 
tional confession of venial sins meaningful is very real. This brief article 
may suggest approaches that could be incorporated with profit in a con- 
ference on the sacrament of penance. 


V. Walgrave, OP, "Contemplative Vocation of Active Monastic Orders," 
Review for Religious, May, 1964, pp. 273-295. 

More pertinent, perhaps, to renovation courses than to retreats, those 
who have the time and patience to read studiously will relish this honest- 
to-goodness survey, devoted to blazing a trail of balanced adjustment, for 
religious communities dedicated to an active apostolate based upon a con- 
templative foundation. 


From the Celian Hill 

Silvan Rouse, CP, STD 

Our basilica of Saints John & Paul was the setting for the observance of 
the 11 th centennial of the conversion of Bulgaria to Christianity. The pon- 
tifical Mass on January 12 was celebrated in the Byzantine- Slavic rite, by 
the Apostolic Exarch of Bulgarian Catholics. The sermon was delivered by 
a Bulgarian Passionist, who recalled that Bulgaria was the locale of our first 
missionary venture beyond the confines of Italy. Religious personnel work- 
ing in Bulgaria were represented by their respective Generals — Passionists, 
Friars Minor Conventual, Capuchins, Resurrectionists, and Assumptionists. 

Dr. Albert Possenti, last surviving nephew of Saint Gabriel, died Feb. 3, 
at Ancona, aged 91. In '49, Dr. Possenti retired as a pharmacist, took up 
residence at a Friars Minor monastery. His savings he bequeathed to the 
Passionists, for the promotion of missionary vocations. 

Every week end, a Passionist member of the AEF functions as assistant 
to Chaplain Nilus Hubble, at the Naval Base, Naples. Father Timothy 
Fitzgerald preached the annual retreat at the Pontifical Philippine College. 
Subsequent engagements took him to Malta. During Easter Week, he 
preached a Chaplains' retreat, at Rome. Father John Fidelis McMillan con- 
ducted a retreat at the American parish of S. Susanna, Rome ; then to the 
naval personnel and their families, Naples. Father Barnabas Ahern, during 
the summer, will lecture in England. 

On June 13, Father Boniface Cousins, at the Aljonsianum, Rome, mer- 
ited the STD by defending his dissertation magna cum laude. 

On June 15, Father Frederick Bauer attained the Licentiate in Philosophy, 
cum laude, at the Pontifical University of St. Thomas, Rome. 

Quaestiones Disputatae 

Evening Mass Mission 

In the April, '64 issue of Verbum Cruets "Mission Source Material" 
quoted a Paulist Missionary, who described his success with the Evening 
Mass Mission. 


Permit me to observe that for many years, in the Archdiocese of Mont- 
real, the English speaking pastors have required the Evening Mass Mission. 
I have had three such missions. 

The Evening Mission Mass was most acceptable to both men and women. 
Attendance at the missions was very good despite the fact all three parishes 
have a mission every year. 

Our evening service lasted about one hour. One missionary made the 
announcements and preached. He limited himself to thirty minutes. The 
sermon was followed by a dialogue Mass which likewise lasted about thirty 
minutes. During f he Mass both missionaries heard confessions. 

Services began at 8:15 P.M. We were greatly pleased to note that when 
the Mass ended, a goodly number of men and women remained each night 
for confessions. We never left the box before 10:15 P.M. At two of the 
parishes, the pastors requested no morning mission service. At one mission 
the pastor allowed a morning mission service, for the benefit of those who 
could not attend at night. 

As the number of Holy Communions increased each night the Mass was 
somewhat longer, but no one complained of it. 

The mission closed Saturday afternoon at 4 P.M. which seemed to be a 
most acceptable time for the men as well as the women. There was no 
decrease in attendance at the closing. Sermon closing and Mass ran to one 

I think that in the United States we should promote the Evening Mission 
Mass as a regular part of our mission service. I think we are unrealistic, if 
we do not admit that attendance has greatly fallen off at the evening mission 
service, whilst in the morning, usually only a few attend. 

For a long time we have been looking for something to revitalize attend- 
ance at the evening mission. I believe that the answer can be found in what 
is being done in Montreal. In Montreal, the Evening Mission Mass has been 
eminently popular. 

The Evening Mission Mass demands that we sacrifice some of the features 
of our mission — namely, the rosary, the evening instruction and Benedic- 
tion. For them we substitute Holy Mass, which is the greatest act of worship 
that we can offer God. 

We admit that we live in changing times, that we must make adaptations 
or else we shall be preaching to smaller congregations. Why not try the 
Evening Mission Mass? 

— Father Anxious 


Trial Before Pilate 

Ralph Gorman, CP 

In the trial of Jesus before Pilate, it is extremely difficult to determine 
just when certain events took place. This is particularly true of the scourg- 
ing, the crowning with thorns, and the outrages against Our Lord. Here, 
again, as in our discussion of the order of events in the Jewish trial, we 
shall explain the proposals of Pere Pierre Benoit in his book Exegese et 
Theologie (Paris, 1961). 

The Evangelists differ in the order in which they recount the scourging, 
crowning with thorns, and mockeries. Matthew and Mark place them in 
the Pretorium after the condemnation of Jesus. John places them in the 
same locality but during the trial, not after. Which order shall we choose? 
It would seem that the scourging is better placed by Matthew and Mark, 
after the condemnation and as a prelude to crucifixion. It was regular pro- 
cedure to scourge one condemned to crucifixion, not to increase his suffer- 
ings but on the contrary to diminish them. A crucified of sound body 
could live for a long time, as death came only by exhaustion. The purpose 
of the scourging was to weaken the condemned, cause a loss of blood, and 
so bring about a quicker death. 

For the placing of the mockery of Jesus, the order of John is to be pre- 
ferred. That masquerade which made of Jesus a comical king was an inter- 
lude in the trial which Pilate used in an effort to save Jesus, by showing 
the Jews how ridiculous it was to fear the political ambitions of such a 
man: "Ecce Homo!" Also, once the condemnation had been pronounced 
and the scourging administered, could the soldiers have delayed the pro- 
ceedings for the length of time necessary for the outrages described in 
Matthew and Mark? The trial had ended, it was at least noon. All would 
be in a hurry, especially the Jews who had still to prepare the Pascal meal. 
Would everybody wait while these soldiers amused thmeslves in the 
Pretorium? It is likely that Matthew and Mark narrate there an episode 
that took place earlier. 

Thus the outrages took place during the trial, as St. John narrates, the 
scourging at the end as stated by Matthew and Mark. This different man- 
ner of redaction should not surprise us. According to a well known pro- 


cedure two analogous facts are united to one another, the scourging united 
with the outrages in John, the outrages united to the scourging in Matthew 
and Mark. 

Could the comedy scene described by the Evangelists be attributed to 
Roman soldiers? Some have brought out similarities to cruel games of 
antiquity. While these games varied considerably, still it is true that in 
ancient countries there existed the sinister farce of making a slave or a 
condemned man a mock king, granting him all the externals of an ephem- 
eral royalty and in the end killing him. Perhaps some such customs in- 
spired the mockery of Jesus. 

If this was so, who was behind it all? One hesitates to attribute such 
conduct to Roman soldiers who were under strict discipline. On the other 
hand, were they ordered by Pilate to act in this manner? If we put off 
the scourging until after the trial, then we must admit that Pilate could 
very well have commanded this scene of comedy in the midst of the trial. 
On the other hand, even supposing that he did, in order to persuade the 
Jews to release Jesus, would such measures conform to the dignity of his 
position, and with his conviction concerning the innocence of Jesus? 

Here Luke provides us with valuable information. He does not speak 
of the scourging or of the outrages on the part of the Romans, but he 
does mention— and he alone— in the midst of the trial, the transfer of 
Jesus to Herod, who makes Jesus an object of derision in a manner very 
similar to the outrages described by the other Evangelists. Herod and his 
followers mock Jesus, clothe Him in a brilliant garment, perhaps one of 
his own castoff royal robes, and then send Him back to Pilate. It was 
then, by the Tetrarch Herod and his followers, Galileans, that Jesus their 
fellow Galilean was treated as a mock king. The Roman soldiers, seeing 
Jesus return to the Pretorium thus garbed, took up the game and made 
some additions of their own, such as the crown of thorns, of which Luke 
says nothing. The scene begins at Herod's and ends at the Pretorium. Mat- 
thew, Mark, and John who knew nothing of the Herod episode, or simply 
omitted it, naturally make the Pretorium the locality where the whole scene 
took place. 

If Pere Benoit's hypotheses are accepted, the order of events would be 
as follows: 

1. Jesus is lead from the Sanhedrin to Pilate. 

2. Pilate interrogates Jesus. 


3. The crowd assembles at the Pretorium to ask for the release of a 
prisoner according to custom. 

4. The Jewish leaders persuade the people to ask for the release of 
Barabbas and the crucifixion of Jesus. 

5. Pilate sends Jesus to Herod. 

6. Herod mocks Jesus as a comical king and sends Him back to Pilate. 

7. The Roman soldiers continue the mockery and add the crown of 

8. Ecce Homo. 

9. The Jewish leaders threaten an appeal to Caesar. 

10. Jesus is condemned, scourged, and led to Calvary to be crucified. 

Joy, by Bertrand Weaver, CP, Sheed & Ward. Featured by Catholic 
Literary Foundation (6,000 copies); Spiritual Book Associates (4,400 
copies); Catholic Digest Book Club (15,000 copies). Applied for also 
by Thomas More Book Club, for November promotion, but Joy will be 
off press in October. With penman BW, gaudeamus! 

1964 recipient of the Cardinal Spellman Award of The Catholic Theo- 
logical Society of America: Father Barnabas Ahern, CP, STL, SSD. 

"10,000 difficulties do not make one doubt — difficulty and doubt are 
incommensurate." — Card. Newman (Apologia pro Vita Sua) 

Graphology is definable, not as a science, but as a study of handwriting 
as an expression of the writer's character and temperament. Psychologists 
and psychiatrists rate graphology as of little if any diagnostic value. Come 
August, Macmillan will publish The Saints through their Handwriting, by 
Moretti. An entire chapter is devoted to Saint Paul of the Cross. 




Editorial 1 

Passiology 2 

! Salvation History 5 

Homiletic 7 

Pastoral 10 

Sacred Scripture 12, 30 

Canon Law 15 

Homiletics 18 

Hagiology 20 

Mission Source Material .... 22 

Retreat Source Material . . . . 25 

From the Celian Hill 28 

Quaestiones Disputatae 28 


"Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge with- 
out integrity is dangerous and dreadful." — Samuel Johnson 

"What greater work is there, than training the mind and forming the 
habits of the young?" — St. John Chrysostom 

". . . The word of the cross . . . is . . . to us . . . the poiver of God" 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

lerbmtt (Eruria 

Vol. II October, A.D. 1964 No. 4 

Unburn (Ewria 

Vol. II October, A.D. 1964 No. 4 

A Quarterly Review of Clerical Literature 
Published by the Passionist Fathers 
Province of Saint Paul of the Cross. 

Cum Superiorum permissu 

Ad instar manuscripti 

For private circulation only 

Opinions expressed by contributors do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the editor. 


86-45 178 Street 

Jamaica 32, N. Y. 

Telephone: AXtel 7-0044 

Cable Address: Veecee New York 


October 18, 1964— 



on the occasion of 


Veneration and Congratulations 

from the staff and readers of 


November 1, 1964 — "Today, on one solemn day of rejoicing, we 
celebrate the feast of all the saints in heaven. In their communion, heaven 
exults; in their patronage, earth rejoices; in their triumph, Holy Church 
is crowned with glory." — Venerable Bede (4th Lesson: Sermon 18) 

November 2, 1964 — "Miseremini mei, miseremini mei, saltern vos, 
amici mei, quia manus Domini tetigit me!" (J 0D: XIX: 21) 

December 25, 1964 — Holyday and holiday greetings to all and each 
of our staff and readers throughout the Passionist World! 

December 31, 1964 — "Te Deum laudamus!" 

January 1, 1965 — The formulation of New Year's Resolutions has 
deteriorated into a fad. Granted — without resolutions, there would be 
no progress. To the detriment of progess, countless resolutions fail, 
because we mistake a mere wish for a determination, a volitum for a 

To co-editors and readers: A holy and happy New Year of Our Lord! 
Veni Sancte Spiritus! — AMcD 


The Man from Africa 

Francis Shea, CP 

Man has an insatiable desire to know what the future has in store for 
him. Even children have a ready answer for the question: "What do you 
wish to be when you grow up?" At so early an age, through chance or 
circumstance, through parent or plaything, they may have made choice 
of a way of life. Adolescent years are made up of dreams and aspirations, 
desires and ambitions, infinitely varied in character, but which the youth 
of the land confidently expect or vaguely hope will be somehow and 
somewhere realized in the future. Grown to maturity and settled in a 
determined course of action or occupation, man still looks ahead, laboring 
to provide against the uncertainty of the years to come. So much does 
the future dwell in his thoughts, and so thick are the mists which conceal 
or blur its outlines that, he suffers a thousand anxieties. "What a happy 
man I would be if I knew what the future has in store for me!" So he 
thinks and so he expresses the disquietude of his mind. He is ready to 
believe that nine-tenths of the pain of living would vanish if the future 
were as clear to him as the reflection in a mirror. 

He is wrong, of course, for the worst thing that can happen to a man 
is to know the future. There is the case of the man condemned to the 
electric chair. He hears the sentence and is too stunned for utterance. But 
soon, hope revives at the prospect of new evidence and further trials. 
Again he hears his doom pronounced. One hope remains — an appeal to 
the governor may win commutation to a life sentence. That, too, fails 
and inexorable justice brings him face to face with a grisly and ignomini- 
ous death. Then the passions of fear, remorse, sadness and terror begin 
to work on the mind — a torture in which the victim dies a thousand deaths. 
To this tormented man, the sure knowledge of the future is more cruel 
than death itself. 

It is sometimes said that Jesus never smiled. One must be cautious in 
taking this statement for granted, because it is most often made by sneer- 
ing devotees of pleasure, vacant laughter and vain pursuits. The impli- 
cation is that, such a One frowned on the simple, innocent joys of life 

and was, therefore, no model for the ordinary man of flesh and blood. 
The objection is hardly worth a thesis in refutation. Children and the 
outcast would never have approached Him with such simplicity and direct 
confidence had He not been amiable, and even cheerful in manner. The 
joy that inundated the soul of Jesus was so great that, when He allowed 
it to overflow His faculties, He was changed into a figure of blinding 
splendor — His face was more brilliant than the sun, and even His gar- 
ments shone with glittering whiteness of snow. Such joy as this He pos- 
sessed always, but hidden and controlled. It was hidden in the dark 
cloud that overshadowed His sacred Humanity from the beginning — the 
certain knowledge of a future event — a detailed knowledge of betrayal, 
rejection, scourging, mockery, crucifixion. Significant is the fact that He 
began to tell these things to His disciples after His moment of glorious 
ecstasy, like a Man seeking to begin where He had left off. This exuberant 
joy was controlled by a steadfast will, unwavering in His purpose to 
fulfill all things that were spoken concerning the Son of Man. There 
could be no frivolity in such a life. What if the Evangelists never recorded 
that He smiled? We can only marvel at His restraint, at the calmness of 
His soul and the kindliness of His manner in the face of such a destiny. 

There came a time when He opened the floodgates of knowledge, when 
He permitted it to flood His sensitive faculties. And the result was pitiful. 
In Gethsemane, the anguish of His soul drained Him of His strength 
until He was flat on His face, trembling in every limb, sweating from 
every pore. It was a true death agony, so great as to force from His labor- 
ing Heart great drops of His lifeblood. And all this was the effect of His 
perfect Humanity, of a clear, detailed knowledge of the morrow's events. 

Foolish, impatient man desires to read the future, but God, in His 
goodness, has reserved that knowledge to Himself. He even forbids all 
traffic with those who presume to lay bare the secrets of the future through 
fortune telling, witchcraft, clairvoyance. Like all His prohibitions, this 
is also dictated by His love for man, His concern for man's happiness. 
Who could bear through life such knowledge as that which prostrated 
the strong Son of God? True, man does not desire such things to be part 
of his destiny, but suffering and death must come to everyone, and it is 
a merciful concealment that we know not when, where or how these ines- 
capable events are to take place. 

This is a blessed ignorance, and no one is more sure of the fact or 
happier as a consequence, than the man from Africa. His name was 

Simon, a native of Cyrene. The city was located far out on the coast 
beyond Egypt. He had immigrated and settled in Jerusalem. To support 
his family he had hired out as a laborer in the fields, orchards and vine- 
yards. Such work was done early in the morning, to escape as much as 
possible the exhausting heat of the day. It was now long after sunrise; 
the heat had become oppressive when he returned to Jerusalem, tired 
and hungry, in need of rest. A cooling shade, a pleasant lunch, genial 
friends were about the level of his desires. If he had known what was 
ahead of him, he would without doubt have avoided the tumultuous pro- 
cession approaching along the narrow street. Before he could turn aside, 
he was roughly seized by soldiers and commanded to bear the instrument 
of death in place of the One too exhausted to carry it Himself. Simon 
was in no mood to obey an order involving more work. No vigorous man 
with a sense of dignity would meekly submit to such an outrage. Why 
not one of the multitude? He protested and resisted. In the end he was 
compelled to do their bidding. And so he bent his shoulder and took up 
the burden of the cross. 

Through what strange ways, through what devious paths had God in 
His providence brought this sturdy stranger, this commonplace working 
man that, he of all that vast multitude should be chosen to bear the 
whole weight of the holy Cross, the glorious instrument of the world's 
salvation! More than twelve legions of Angels were at that moment 
eagerly awaiting the command to give help. All the saints of the ages to 
come would be moved by a holy envy, in the contemplation of the price- 
less privilege granted to Simon alone. And yet he considered it at the 
moment a violation of his liberty, an unwanted interference with the 
ordered ways of his daily life, a distasteful task delaying the satisfaction 
of, even adding to his present physical needs. 

What changed his rebellious mood we do not know. It may be that 
Jesus, relieved of His burden, was able to speak a word of gratitude; 
He may have turned on the distressed man one look of His divine elo- 
quence, revealing to Simon, better than volumes, a sympathetic under- 
standing of his plight, and a certain promise of a generous reward. What 
we do know is that Simon became a disciple of Christ. His fame in the 
early Church must have been very great, for ten years later St. Mark, 
writing his gospel at Rome, inserted into the record a contemporary fact 
— a thing unusual in the sacred histories. He says that Simon was the 
"father of Alexander and Rufus." (Mark 15:21) St. Paul knew his wife 

and son Rufus, and was proud to call her "his mother." (Rom. 16:13) 
Both wife and sons were esteemed and honored for what husband and 
father did under a hot sun on a Spring day in Jerusalem when, weary 
and hungry, he sweated under the ugly beams that were soon to bear 
the Flower of Humanity and the Fruit of Salvation. 

The future is God's province alone; the present is ours. Confidence 
in the goodness of God liberates from the bondage of fear. "The spirit 
of adoption of sons whereby we cry: Abba, Father" is a mighty insurance 
against the fear of the future. From end to end of creation, from the 
dawn of time to the crack of doom, there is one unwavering, infallible 
purpose in all God's ways . "To them that love God, all things work 
together unto good; to such as, according to His purpose, are called to 
be saints." (Rom. 8:28) The man from Africa, under the brutal com- 
pulsion of Roman soldiers, in the company of criminals, amid a riotous 
mob of bloodthirsty people, in the cowardly absence of chosen, conse- 
crated apostles, discovered all these things worked together unto good, 
his everlasting good. 

In the continuous recital of the Passion of Christ which is the pre- 
occupation of the elect in heaven, there is surely a moment when the 
choirs of angels, the venerable prophets, the apostles, martyrs, confessors, 
virgins, the whole company of glorious Saints, pay tribute to the lowly 
laborer, Simon of Cyrene. But this homage will only make him sink into 
new depths of humility, as he remembers that moment of indignant refusal. 
He will be overwhelmed with confusion as he recalls what might have 
happened, had he known or guessed what lay ahead of him on that narrow 
street. His eyes will seek the Face of our Christ and rest there in thankful 
knowledge. What he sees, we may see one day. In the words of the great 
mystic, Julian of Norwich: "When the doom is given and we are all 
brought up above, then shall we clearly see in God the secret things 
which now be hidden from us. Then shall none of us be stirred to say 
in any wise: Lord, if it had been thus, then it had been full well; but, we 
shall all say with one voice: Lord, blessed mayest Thou be, for it is thus; 
it is well; and now see we verily that all things are done as it was then 
ordained, before that anything was made." 

"Two excesses: reason excluded, only reason allowed." 

— Pascal (Pen sees) 

Dogmatic Theology 

Reservation of the Holy Eucharist 

Neil Sharkey, CP, STD 

In recent years a movement has appeared in Europe which expresses 
open dissatisfaction over any reservation of the Eucharist for purposes of 
adoration. The Dutch bishops warned their people against this movement 
on Feb. 5, 1962. The movement presents two basic criticisms. First, since 
the Holy Eucharist was not reserved in the early Church, except on occa- 
sion, to give it to the sick and dying, present practices of reservation for 
cultic purposes should be discontinued. Second, they maintain that the 
Eucharist is a mystery of thanksgiving and should be actualized only at 
the Eucharistic banquet. Opportunity for subjective devotion is to be 
provided for within the Mass, not outside of it. 


The first objection takes the primitive Church as the norm for what 
should be in the present. Little or no place is given to authentic develop- 
ment of doctrine and practice. In the middle ages the Blessed Sacrament 
became, for some, an object to be adored from a distance rather than a 
food to be received. Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa, traveling through Ger- 
many in 1450, objected to lengthy exposition of the Eucharist. He main- 
tained, rightly, that the Eucharist was not to be used as a showpiece. 
Yet abuses need not destroy reasonable practice. The Council of Trent 
realized this and decreed in 1551: "If anyone says that in the holy sacra- 
ment of the Eucharist the only-begotten Son of God is not to be adored 
even outwardly with the worship of latria (the act of adoration), and 
therefore not to be venerated with a special festive celebration, nor to be 
borne about in procession according to the praiseworthy and universal 
rite and custom of the holy Church, or is not to be set before the people 
publicly to be adored, and that the adorers of it are idolators: let him be 
anathema" (Denz. 888). Speaking of archaism, Pope Pius XII declared 
in 1947: "Unwise and mistaken is the zeal of one who in matters litur- 
gical, would go back to the rites and usages of antiquity, discarding new 
patterns introduced by disposition of divine providence to meet the changes 
of circumstances and situation" {Mediator Dei, No. 63). 

Theory of Dynamic Presence 

The second criticism is quite delicate and has led to the expression of 
ideas on the Holy Eucharist which come close to the error of dynamic 
presence. In the 16th century, the theory of dynamic presence meant that 
our Lord was in the Eucharist only as a sign, or force, at the moment 
of use. On Sept. 22, 1956, Pope Pius XII, in writing to the international 
liturgical congress of Assisi, spoke out against certain theologians who 
interpret the words of Christ in such a way that, nothing remains of the 
real presence of Christ except a sign emptied of its proper contents. 
The Eucharist is reduced to a meal of thanksgiving: a sign of the dynamic 
power of our Lord in heaven over the celebrating congregation (cf. ASS 
(1956), pg. 720). As a consequence, one must be careful not to put an 
emphasis on the notion of a "Eucharistic banquet," or "sacrificial action," 
in opposition to any focus on "the physical presence of our Lord in the 
Holy Eucharist." Catholic teaching is clear: "If anyone denies that in 
the sacrament of the most holy Eucharist there are truly, really, and sub- 
stantially contained the body and blood together with the soul and divin- 
ity of our Lord Jesus Christ, and therefore the whole Christ, but shall 
say that He is in it as by a sign or figure, or force, let him be anathema" 
(Denz. 883). 

Some, further, seem to fall into the erroneous opinion that the basic 
structure of the Eucharist lies in its character as food for a cultic meal. 
Rudolf Bultmann supports this view: "The act is first and foremost a 
meal." Emphasis is thus placed on the act of eating; and the words of 
institution, as found in the gospel of St. Matthew, are used as evidence: 
"Take, eat; this is my body" (Mt. 26:26). It is true the Council of 
Trent did say that the Sacrament of the Eucharist "was instituted by 
Christ the Lord to be received" (Denz. 878) ; but this is only one aspect 
of the total mystery. Some have concluded, however, that our Lord is 
present in the Eucharist only at the moment of eating. Many Lutherans 
hold this opinion. As a consequence, they object to the reservation of the 
Blessed Sacrament and any acts of adoration extended to our Lord. Martin 
Luther's theory was quite close to this notion of dynamic presence, though 
slightly different. He rejected the Sacrifice of the Mass as a human work, 
yet upheld the real presence from the moment of the consecration to 
the act of Communion. He opposed reservation. Calvin also held a theory 
of dynamic presence. He taught that as one received the Eucharist, a 
power emanated from the body of Christ in heaven and was communi- 

cated to the spirit of the person. It was because of such a situation that 
the Council of Trent declared: "If anyone says that after the completion 
of the consecration, the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ is not 
in the marvelous sacrament of the Eucharist, but only in use, while it is 
taken, not however before or after, and that in the hosts or consecrated 
particles, which are reserved or remain after communion, the true body 
of the Lord does not remain: let him be anathema" (Denz. 886). 

The Real Presence 

Factually, if we look at the words of institution, as reported in the 
gospels, we discover they are oriented, not toward eating and drinking, 
but toward the Sacrifice of the New Covenant. Even in the gospel of 
St. Matthew we find these words: "And he took the cup, and when he 
had given thanks he gave it to them, saying: 'Drink of it, all of you; 
for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for 
the forgiveness of sins' " (Mt. 26:27-8). In St. Luke's gospel, the 
consecration of the bread is also linked to the Sacrifice: "This is my 
body, given for you" (Lk. 22:20). The same idea is found in the words 
of St. John's gospel: "This bread which I shall give for the life of the 
world is my flesh" (Jn. 6:51). Our Lord's incarnated presence in the 
Eucharist was demanded for the Sacrifice of the New Covenant before 
it was demanded as food. To partake of this sacrificial meal, the Christian 
must first believe in our Lord's incarnated presence in the mystery. St. 
Paul, as a consequence, warned the Corinthians of the necessity of 
"discerning the body" (1 Cor. 11:29). 

In affirming the presence of his body and blood in the Eucharist, our 
Lord referred to the total reality of the incarnated Word. In the Hebrew 
and Aramaic, the term flesh indicates the whole person. Because God's 
word is creative and effectual, to say, "This is my body, or flesh," means 
the immediate real presence of the Word incarnate. This presence is 
absolute. It is the first reality of the sacrifice and sacrament of the 
Eucharist: that which gives value to the sacrifice and Eucharistic meal. 

Reservation of the Eucharist 

To understand the meaning of why the Eucharist can and should be 
prolonged beyond the offering of the Sacrifice of the Mass, one should 
recall that, according to the epistle to the Hebrews, there is only one 
sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 9:12; 9:28; 10:14), consummated on the altar 

of the Cross, but carried by Him beyond the veils of earth and perpetually 
presented and continued, before God the Father in heaven. 

The Sacrifice of the Mass, on earth, renews and makes present — every 
time it is offered — this Sacrifice of Christ, in a sacramental manner. Our 
Lord, reserved in the tabernacle, is the sacramental sign of his continued 
heavenly presence. Present in the tabernacle, he does not offer himself 
sacramentally as he does at Mass, but he remains in the state of a living 
priest and victim, who intercedes for men. 

Reservation of the Holy Eucharist, then, far from placing itself outside 
the limits of liturgical action, enables the incarnated Word of God to 
remain present on earth. And this sacramental presence on earth is the 
sign of his glorified presence in heaven. We, on our part, by reserving the 
Blessed Sacrament for purposes of adoration, manifest our faith in his 
real presence, and enter into a living encounter with him. 

Moral Theology 

Mixed Marriages 

Nicholas Gill, CP, JCD 

"Written" Promises — The Choice of the Child's Religion 

The expression "mixed marriage" includes those with the impediments 
of Disparity of Cult and Mixed Religion. Disparity of Cult marriages 
began in Apostolic times between the faithful and the unconverted, while 
Mixed Religion nuptials were almost negligible until the time of the 
Protestant revolt. The former is an invalidating impediment, the latter 
a prohibiting one, according to present Canon Law. 

In both impediments we distinguish between the Divine-Natural Law 
and the Ecclesiastical Law. By the Divine-Natural Law Catholics are for- 
bidden to contract marriage with a non-Catholic (baptized or not) if 
there be danger of perversion for the Catholic party or the children (C. 
1060). This danger — proximate and not merely remote — is present if 
either one's faith or morals is in jeopardy. By Ecclesiastical Law mixed 
marriages are prohibited unless all the conditions of the Church are met: 
grave reason, written promises, moral certitude of their fulfillment. The 

usual means to ensure the observance of the Divine Law is the party's 
acceptance of promises. The "written" promises are of ecclesiastical origin. 

"Written" Promises 

Is it possible that the Church will not require "written" promises in 
the future? Yes, since there are other means to safeguard the faith of the 
Catholic and his offspring, and because the Church, becoming more aware 
of her mission to the world and her ecumenical goals, may be striving 
even in each marriage in the post-Conciliar world, for objectives broader 
than the immediate marriage at hand. 

Actually, some bishops and experts think that the time has come to 
make a change. They opine that the written promises have lost much of 
their effectiveness. Today, with people enjoying a freedom of thought 
and of expression unheard of in past centuries, and rebelling against 
anyone who dictates to them, it is alleged that written promises only 
antagonize non- Catholics, who think they are being forced into this un- 
pleasant experience, at a time when they are powerless because they are 
helplessly in love. To demand promises of them at such a time and event 
only embitters them, and creates an unhappy religious climate for the 
marriage. Why not, instead, put greater burdens on the Catholic to 
emphasize his lifelong responsibility? Require the Catholic to receive a 
more lengthy preparation before contracting a mixed marriage; explain 
to him in a concrete way the many dangers and challenges of a mixed 
marriage; encourage him to strive toward the highest ideals in all areas 
of Christian living; prepare him to deal with the inter-faith problems of 
religious education, church attendance and support, reception of baptism, 
confirmation, penance, Eucharist; the choice of sponsors, etc.; warn him 
about the marital issues on which there can be no compromise. The same 
line would be followed in our preaching and catechetical instruction. 
With this new emphasis on the Catholic's responsibility, and with no 
promises demanded from the non-Catholic, the Church would then en- 
trust the priest with the duty of explaining the Divine-Natural Law to 
each couple, and requesting their cooperation — a form of the dialogue. 
Only if they resisted the children's Catholic education, or stated that they 
would choose it on an existential basis (as the children are born), would 
the priest be unable to seek a dispensation from the bishop. If no objection 
is forthcoming, then their silence may be interpreted as an equivalent 
or implicit promise. 


Other bishops and experts say that this thinking reads well on paper, 
but won't stand up in practice. The "old way" is still the better one and 
will bring greater blessings to the Church and a better quality to mixed 

Choice of Child's Religion 

Suppose that one of our separated brethren in a mixed marriage insists 
that he be allowed to rear at least one child in his religion. Would the 
Church grant a dispensation for the marriage? Would she tolerate this 
arrangement ? 

The law of God imposes the duty on the Catholic party to educate all 
the children in the true religion. Each child has the same right as the 
others. The parent, in possession of the true religion, must communicate 
it to the children. The obligation arises from the parent's reception of 
baptism, confirmation, matrimony with the voluntary acceptance of future 
children. The child, once baptized, has the right to the full gospel mes- 
sage, not to only a part of it. This has been the traditional argument of 
the Church. "Surely the obligation of the parents to provide as far as 
they can for the Catholic education of all their children, is a most grave 
duty and one which admits of no dispensation. The Church by her laws 
determines this obligation of the law of God . . ."* The Church has 
consistently refused a dispensation from the impediments unless the 
promises extended to all the children. A marriage contracted with the 
agreement to bring up even one child in a non-Catholic religion begets 
an automatic excommunication for the Catholic party (C. 2319, 1, 2). 

In the past few centuries, some governments enacted laws which chose 
the religion of the children — e.g., the male children followed the religion 
of the father and the female of the mother, unless the parents made a 
prior agreement. The Church has never consented to this arrangement, 
and her silence in certain instances was simply a toleration, lest greater 
evils should come to Christ's Mystical Body. 

Yet, in dire circumstances the Church, foreseeing that the children will 
be brought up outside the Catholic religion, has granted a dispensation 
from the impediment and allowed the marriage. The conditions are exact- 

* Holy Office, 1938; Response and Instruction for the Bishops in Japan for 
marriages in which the parents do not control the child's religion. A reading of 
the entire text will shed much light on this complicated subject. 

Bouscaren, Digest, II, pp. 281-285. 


ing: civil laws leave no choice to the parents; the Catholic must do all 
he can to secure the child's baptism and Catholic education; the parent is 
not the cause of the child's loss of religious training; he has no other 
opportunity to marry. The Holy Office, after revealing these conditions, 
gives the reason for its conclusion: "For the fact that they generate chil- 
dren, foreseeing the impossibility of their Catholic education, does not 
make them the cause that their children are not regenerated by baptism. 
And even though, by begetting children, they are said to cooperate in some 
way to their non-Catholic education, if this be cooperation at all, it is 
material cooperation, for the placing of which they have, in this case, 
a very grave justifying reason — namely, the natural right of man to 
marriage and its natural use. . . . The celebration and use of marriage in 
such a case is an act having a double effect, good and bad, which are so 
connected that the good effect cannot be obtained without the other. For 
in the circumstances of which we are speaking, owing to the manners 
and customs of the people, the want of baptism and Catholic education is 
inseparable, not merely from this particular marriage, but from the right 
to enter the married state at all, which latter is the good effect, alone in- 
tended." (Bouscaren, II, 285) 

It seems unlikely that the principles given and explained by the Holy 
Office can be applied to mixed marriages generally. It seems even more 
unlikely that the parties will be allowed to decide in each case. But there 
could be new applications of the dire circumstances in some parts of 
the world. 

Pastoral Theology 

New Directions in Psychology 

Melvin Glutz, CP, PhD 

To speak of a new direction in psychology is to be guilty of a cliche, for 
the whole history of the science has been a succession of new approaches, 
new theories, new schools. In the last twenty-five years, the variety of 
schools has yielded somewhat to an eclectic and unifying tendency. Ec- 
lecticism in turn has provided a favorable climate for new influences of a 
philosophical, humanistic, and even of a religious kind, that are helping 
to produce a healthy revolution in psychology. 

Prolific work is still being done in the particular fields of the science, 


such as physiological studies, testing, and experimentation. But it is in the 
overall field of personality, especially as related to motivational theory 
and psychotherapy, that developments are taking place which are of most 
significance to us priests and will perhaps prove most revolutionary to 
psychology itself. 

A recent article in the journal of the American Psychological Associa- 
tion proposed that "a major breakthrough is occurring at the present time 
in psychology." Another author, Abraham Maslow, says: "There is now 
emerging over the horizon a new conception of human sickness and of 
human health, a psychology that I find so thrilling and so full of wonder- 
ful possibilities that, I yield to the temptation to present it publicly even 
before it is checked and confirmed." 1 Maslow calls this new movement 
"The Third Force," because it contrasts sharply with the two major orienta- 
tions of psychology — the Freudian and the behavioristic. 

The Third Force is a convergence of many different movements in 
psychology, each of which was seeking a more adequate concept of man 
than that presented by the older schools. Major influence has come from 
the clinic, where the whole man is encountered, and from existential 
philosophy with its emphasis on freedom and the search for meaning. 
Some of the more important names associated with the new movement are: 
G. Allport, R. May, E. Fromm, C. Rogers, A. Maslow, and V. Frankl. 

We can best understand The Third Force by summarizing some of the 
points emphasized by this group of writers. 

1. Methodological flexibility. Psychology is shaking loose from the 
grip of mechanistic science, which sought to explain man according to 
the method of physics and chemistry. The physiological approach to man's 
psychic life is still strong, and significant advances have been made in it, 
especially in drug therapy. But emphasis on psychosomatics has highlighted 
the influence of the psychic and spiritual upon the body, thereby counter- 
acting the tendency to reduce the psychic to the physical. Psychology is 
becoming human rather than robotic. Likewise, there is increasing aware- 
ness of the limitation of statistics for studying man. In the clinic, the 
psychologist faces the individual human person in all his uniqueness; 
the person is not an abstraction or a statistic. The influence of clinical 
experience upon theoretical psychology has pointed up the impossibility 

1 Toward a Psychology of Being (Van Nostrand Insight Books, 1962) p. 3. This 
little paperback is a good introduction to the new movement. Its bibliography sug- 
gests further reading. 


of classifying and categorizing the human individual. Methodological 
flexibility is opening up the doors of psychology so that theology and 
philosophy may enter to present their valid insights about man. 

2. The whole, rather than parts. After many generations of atomizing 
man, his consciousness, and his behavior, psychology is coming to realize 
that the total human person is the unit of behavior. The need of starting 
with the whole was emphasized by the Gestalt school of psychologists 
and has now gained in influence. It is especially welcome to the Catholic 
philosopher, who has always emphasized the unity in man under the 
direction of his spiritual faculties. 

3- The normal rather than the pathological. The Freudian concepts 
were developed from a study of sick people and were then extended to 
normal people. Although some valid knowledge of human nature can 
be derived from study of the mentally diseased, the new psychology con- 
centrates upon the normal, mature, self- actualized person, and builds up 
a theory of personality from observing these best human individuals. The 
genius of Freud will continue to be recognized in the realm of the 
pathological. But as Maslow remarks, "Freud's picture of man was clearly 
unsuitable, leaving out as it did his aspirations, his realizable hopes, his 
godlike qualities." 2 

4. Contemporary rather than infantile. Classical Freudianism placed 
the crucial determinants of personality in the various stages of infantile 
sexuality. The deviant psychoanalytical schools put the emphasis upon 
later life situations, in place of infantile complexes and traumas. The one 
or two basic instincts or needs postulated by Freud were multiplied by 
others and even hierarchized. Gordon Allport of Harvard, one of the 
most respected of American psychologists, proposed, twenty-five years ago, 
a theory of the functional autonomy of motives: a motive which originally 
grew out of a basic need becomes independent of that need and stands on 
its own merits. Such a theory of motivation removes the necessity of ex- 
plaining all adult behavior in terms of infantile or childhood experiences. 3 

5. Conscious rather than unconscious. The great discovery of Freud 
was the dynamism of the unconscious psychic life. Much of the motiva- 
tion of even mature and well adjusted individuals is not conscious, and 
often at the level of awareness the deep-moving forces are cloaked in 

2 ibid, p. 12. 

3 Cf. G. Allport, Pattern and Growth in Personality (Holt, Rinehart, & Win- 
ston, 1961). This book is highly recommended. 


rationalizations. This encouraged Freud to locate the focus of personality 
in the unconscious and to minimize the fact of consciousness. The psychic 
life was said to be like an iceberg, two thirds below the surface. Con- 
temporary psychologists have challenged some of Freud's postulates about 
the unconscious: that it dominates psychic life almost completely, that 
its content never changes, that it contains only what is evil, dangerous, 
and anti-social, rather than what is noble and good. Many writers have 
turned away from this one-sided emphasis and have developed an "ego- 
psychology" which acknowledges the dynamism and regulatory power of 
conscious experience. 

6. Values. Previously any mention of values was ruled out of psy- 
chology. Now it is becoming respectable to raise questions bordering 
upon morality and philosophy of life. V. Frankl maintains that "existen- 
tial frustration," or meaninglessness, constitutes a new neurosis of modern 
times, and his type of "logotherapy" consists in helping a patient gain 
an integrating "world-view" and to find value in his life. 4 Thus, the 
clinic is forcing psychology to break out of its materialistic mold and to 
seek strictly human values. At this point, the Catholic theology and 
philosophy of man are relevant and can make a contribution to psychology. 
Catholic psychologists are active in their field and are becoming more and 
more respected by their colleagues. 

7. Freedom. The old laboratory type of psychology banished the con- 
cept of freedom of choice. Under the strong influence of existentialist 
philosophy and of the experience of the clinic, freedom has been rein- 
stated as an admissible term in the psychologist's vocabulary. One author 
speaks of "the wedge which the determinism-freedom issue has driven 
into the camp of modern psychology." But there is grave danger that 
psychology, in the absence of a valid philosophical defense of freedom, 
will settle for a notion of freedom as merely absence of external or of 
neurotic determination. The time is ripe for Thomists to make a deeper 
study of freedom in the light of contemporary psychology, and to propose 
their philosophy of man as an adequate explanation of this important 
attribute of man. 

The above points will serve as a meager introduction to the new direc- 
tion in psychology. This movement is heartening for us priests. It promises 

4 "Psychiatry and Man's Quest for Meaning," Journal of Religion and Health, 
1 (1962) 93ff. Mention should be made of this author's book, From Death-Camp 
to Existentialism: A Psychiatrist's Path to a New Therapy (Beacon Press, 1959). 


to produce a concept of man that approaches and supplements our tradi- 
tional Catholic view. As a result, dialogue and cooperation with psycholo- 
gists and psychiatrists will become easier and we will have greater assur- 
ance when we have to refer people to a doctor for professional care. 

Sacred Scripture 

Recent Gospel Studies and the Gospel Preacher 

Carroll Stuhlmueller, CP, STL, SSL 

On April 21, 1964 Pope Paul VI approved an instruction of the Bibli- 
cal Commission, On the Historical Truth of the Gospels. An accurate 
translation can be located in the Catholic Biblical Quarterly 26 (July 
1964) and in Theological Studies 25 (Sept 1964) 402-408. The document 
is a courageous one, when judged against the very bitter and hard-fought 
scripture controversy of the past few years. It is also an exceptionally 
clear statement, not only for pointing out the gains and new insights 
already achieved, but also for indicating the direction of future gospel 
studies. In many ways it answers the half -serious, half-sarcastic question, 
"What have the scholars been doing to our gospels?" And it silences the 
annoying misquotation of John 20:13, "They (the scholars) have taken 
away my Lord, and I do not know where they have laid him" (Priest 16 
[Dec I960] 1069). 

Missionaries and preachers sometimes fear that recent studies have 
ripped their sermons apart. They will find, instead, that this instruction 
insists upon the same basic attitude which they themselves have been fol- 
lowing: to use the Gospels not as geographical or historical guides, but 
as divine helps for living and understanding the mystery of salvation in 
Christ Jesus. The gospel preacher may have to modify some expressions 
and tidy up other details in his sermons, but he is constantly doing just 
this, as he adapts examples and allusions to scientific advances and new 

1. The Historical Background. The present trend in gospel studies is 
due in great measure to the Formgeschichtliche Schule, the Form-Critical 
Method, inaugurated and developed by Rudolf Bultmann and Martin 
Debelius, 1919 onwards. These scholars scrutinized the gospels for various 


literary forms and felt more and more competent to isolate miracle stories, 
pronouncement stories, conflict stories, sayings (logia), parables, etc. 
Each type, they rightly claimed, was governed by its own particular laws 
to which the exegete must attend. The form-critic wrote under the impact 
of existential philosophy, and its presuppositions led him to claim, not 
only that the various literary forms resulted from the preaching and wor- 
ship of the early church, but also that the problems and anxieties of this 
church acted like creative fires, producing the truth within these literary 
forms. Only after the gospels were "demythologized" of their stories and 
late expressions of faith, could the historical Jesus be reclaimed. Very 
little was left of Jesus after the "Christ of faith" had been removed. This 
historical background has been sketched by Father Barnabas M. Ahern, 
CP, in ch 4 of his book, New Horizons, and by Msgr. Myles M. Bourke, 
in Thought 39 (Spring 1964) 37-56, reprinted in Studies in Salvation 
History (Prentice-Hall, 1964). 

A new trend, however, set in. While Form-Criticism stressed the creative 
role of the early church, a new school of exegesis, Redaktionsgeschichte, 
closely examined the role of the individual evangelists or gospel redactors. 
Willi Marxsen and Vincent Taylor recognized the unique contribution 
of St. Mark; Hans Conzelmann, of St. Luke; C. H. Dodd, of St. John. 
While Formgeschichte recognized the importance of church worship and 
preaching for a full understanding of the mystery of salvation, Redak- 
tionsgeschichte highlighted the special intuition of the individual gospel 
writers. Each in its own way directed attention away from sterile historical 
studies, and concentrated upon the inner spiritual meaning of the gospels. 

2. The Catholic reaction was cautious at best, ordinarily very adverse. 
The Catholic scholar, and especially the Pontifical Biblical Commission 
could not disentangle the authentic scriptural conclusions from the phil- 
osophical conclusions of Existentialism. What might have remained a 
scholarly disagreement degenerated into fear and then panic, when "Mod- 
ernism" simultaneously hit the ranks of Scripture studies. The suppression 
was severe and decisive. If a personal note is permitted here, I can re- 
member a remark by the then Father Augustin Bea, SJ, during a class 
at the Biblical Institute in Rome. He regretted, he said, the excessively 
harsh measures taken against Modernism. Catholic scholars took refuge 
in a hands-off policy and left many books of the Bible untouched for 
several decades. At the very same time, however, archcological and liter- 
ary studies of the Bible were striding ahead with giant steps. 


During the reign of Pius XII, a new confidence was placed in scrip- 
tural scholarship. The Divino Afflante Spirit u (1943) was issued precisely 
to endorse and encourage the scientific study of the Bible. The earlier 
decrees of the Biblical Commission were said to remain in force, but only 
to the extent that they were related to matters of faith and morals ; those 
dealing with literary and historical details were open to revision (see 
the Catholic Biblical Quarterly 18 [Jan 1956] 23-29). 

John XXIII allowed all sides to speak out freely, and in the process 
many voices, never heard from during Pius' reign, cried alarm! Fear and 
distrust, wonderment and bewilderment spread, as high ranking church- 
men leveled heavy condemnation against form-criticism and the new liter- 
ary advances in scripture studies. Many of their pronouncements can be 
located in the American Ecclesiastical Review July 1961, p. 1-14; Sept 

1961, p. 145-151; Dec 1961, p. 362-365; the March and June issues of 

1962. The Monitum, issued by the Holy Office in June 1961, was very 
negative in its defense of the "germanam veritatem historicam et obiecti- 
vam Scripturae Sacrae." This background makes the plain-spoken language 
of the new Instruction almost miraculous ! 

3. The Instruction states, as one might expect, that false philosophical 
and theological principles be first expugned. It lists some of these er- 
roneous assumptions as, refusal "to admit that there exists a supernatural 
order, or that a personal God intervenes in the world by revelation prop- 
erly so called, or that miracles and prophecies are possible and have 
actually occurred. There are others who have as their starting-point a 
wrong notion of faith, taking it that faith is indifferent to historical truth, 
and is indeed incompatible with it. Others practically deny a priori the 
historical value and character of the documents of revelation. . . ." But 
after rejecting abuses, it explicitly endorses "the sound elements ... in 
the 'Form- Critical Method' ... for a fuller understanding of the 
Gospels." Positively, it directs "the interpreter ... to the three stages of 
tradition by which the doctrine and the life of Jesus have come down 
to us." 

First, there is the life-setting of Jesus' own ministry (Sitz im Leben 
Jesu) . Jesus followed the methods of reasoning and of exposition common 
at His time; these may vary at times from our western, twentieth century 
styles of speech. Second, the gospel contains the life-setting of the early 
church (Sitz im Leben der Kirche). In the fuller light of Pentecost, the 
apostolic preachers "interpreted His words and deeds according to the 


needs of their hearers." There gradually emerged in church tradition a 
treasury of "catecheses, narratives, testimonies, hymns, . . . and other 
literary forms." Lastly, the gospel writers "selected certain things out of 
the many which had been handed down; some they synthesized, some they 
(further) explained; . . . (other) items were adapted to the circum- 
stances of the faithful." All was unified under a "special purpose which 
each (evangelist) had in view." 

4. The gospel-preacher today follows the precisely same steps. He 
strives to impart salvation in Christ Jesus, but he wants his message to 
be vital and meaningful to the modern generation, so as to enlist a lively, 
devoted loyalty to the sacred person of Jesus. The following books will 
provide further help in the various steps of depth-penetration of the gospel 

J. Jeremias, The Parables. 2nd ed. New York: Scribners, 1963 

T. W. Manson, The Sayings of Jesus. 

H. van den Bussche, Understanding the Lord's Prayer. New York: 

Sheed and Ward, 1963 
The Eucharist in the New Testament. Baltimore: Helicon, 1964 
Baptism in the New Testament. Baltimore: Helicon, 1964 


Person and Society 

John J. Reardon, CP, PhD 

If the present century can be characterized by one word, the word is 
change. Since the turn of the twentieth century there have been tremen- 
dous and universal changes. Change has become so prevalent that, for 
many there is nothing but an evolutionary concept of reality. No doubt 
there is the evolutionary concept of reality and the twentieth century is 
seeing the full advent of this, but at the same time, can it be maintained 
that only change has value or that only change exists? If there is nothing 
but change, then it alone is the abiding reality and conversely, there are 
no "grass roots" realities, no eternal verities. Such a one-sided view leads 
to two things, intellectual confusion and a loss of concepts required for 
correct living. 


In the social order, this fact of change is apparent in a marked degree. 
There is continual social change, one social order gives way to another, 
but is any social order simply an order of constant change, or are there 
stable realities even with the phenomenon of change? Is the modern 
social order just a series of problems offering no solution at all, or are 
there permanent values that remain, even despite the constant change? 
No man can deny the evolutionary aspects of social realities, but at the 
same time, the presence of eternal truth must be discovered not just in 
its transcendence, but also in its transcendence in relation to man's en- 
counter of it within the perspective of our "dialectical and historical" 
existence. Then, and only then, can our discovery of eternal verities be 
objectively true and not merely subjective and relative to man or to a 
particular age. 

In this day of social upheaval it is more than necessary to keep in mind 
the question of eternal truths — truths as such in "rerum natura" and veri- 
fied in experience — as applied to man and the social order. There are 
eternal truths present in this modern existential and historical situation. 
This brief paper would like to present a few notions of two truths that 
are eternal and still encountered in the existential order of social living. 
These are the notions of person and society. These are basic to social 

What is to be understood when man is specified as a person? At the 
risk of a slightly technical approach, the answer to this question may be 
expressed in this manner: a person is a complete substance, subsisting 
by itself, separated from all other realities, and endowed with a rational 
nature. Primarily, a person exists by himself. This factor does not imply 
self -creation, but existence in himself and not in something else. A person 
is a complete substantial essence, a complete rational nature. 

Person as person enjoys a certain uniqueness but this is coupled to a 
social character, for man is by nature a social animal. He stands in need 
of the company of others to attain to his physical and mental well-being 
and his moral perfection. This is merely saying that man has a natural 
social disposition. 

This factor of man's social nature indicates a further consideration. 
What is the nature of society, to which he is so disposed and what are 
his functions relative to it? 

First, society is a union of men for the purpose of effecting some one 
thing in common. It is not a unity of being, an ontological unity, but a 


unity of operation. It is a unified, ordered plurality of men in which the 
individual preserves his personal identity. Society consists in a natural 
ordered relationship with the co-ordination of member to member, and 
the subordination of all members to the whole. The decisive factor of 
man's incorporation into the social order is his personality, and his func- 
tions in society are based on this factor. 

Man has three basic functions in social living — realization, contribution, 
and opposition. The person must attempt to realize the potentialities of 
his individuated human nature, and this he does by freely and intelli- 
gently incorporating himself into society. True, it is man's nature that 
obliges him to membership in society, but he freely actualizes this 

Second, the person functions in society as a contributor. He must con- 
tribute values to society. This contributive function is both active and 
passive, for person gives values to society by his activity, but likewise, 
he must be receptive to the values society offers him in return. And 
although man is active and passive it is important to note that only per- 
sonal activity can assimilate the values society places at his disposal. For 
only in this way do these values become truly personal possessions. 

As a person, man is often called to play the role of opposition to 
society. This function, falsely regarded by many as anti-social, is of great 
importance. Although man is in society, as a person he is superior to it. 
Especially in modern times society often makes demands to which the 
person cannot concede, without a violation of his proper personal position. 
Against such demands man must exercise his power of opposition, even 
though at times the tendency to give in to such demands may be strong. 
This function of opposition protects man from relinquishing natural 
inalienable rights. To surrender these rights in a perverted social order 
is contrary to the natural law, and therefore to God's will. 

To this point, consideration has been given merely to the nature of 
society and the functions of the person within society. This has been 
general in character. More specifically, it is necessary to consider the 
person, relative to the more perfect of human societies — the civil society, 
whose object is the integration and unification of the social character of 

The relation of the person to the state or political society is based upon 
two principles — the principle of the whole and the principle of the 
common good. 


The state is a whole. Its members are persons who are by nature 
ordained to be parts of this whole. This is evident from the social 
nature of man. The state is perfect because it has by the multitude of 
the rational parts that compose it, the means to bring them to happiness 
here and to direct them toward eternal happiness. Still, the principle of 
the state as a whole and person as a part does not destroy the uniqueness 
of the human person, but rather brings it out. Modern totalitarian regimes, 
of course, with their materialistic philosophies, reduce the concept of 
person to that of individual and, as a consequence, subordinate the person 
completely to the state. There is no purpose beyond a temporal purpose 
in such a philosophy of the state and so logically the transcendence of a 
supernatural destiny for the human person is denied. 

This relation of part to the whole — person to state — is governed by 
purpose, and from this it follows that the state is subject to the moral 
law and not just the person. Anything that acts for a purpose is subject 
to law. The state, therefore, has rights and duties. It has a moral bond 
with each person because the person brings to the state a nature bound 
by the moral law. The state must conform to the moral law which the 
person brings to it, for only by so doing can it bring about the perfection 
of the person. 

The state must have a purpose that partakes of the nature and operation 
of its members. The person acts for a good. The state must likewise act 
for a good which is called the common good. This is the second principle 
upon which the relation of person to political society rests. 

In seeking the common good, the state must be ever conscious of the 
fact that the perfection of the person is found in the acquisition of moral 
virtue, and only when it acts in harmony with this idea will the relation 
of the person to the state be reciprocal and lead to mutual perfection. 
Membership in the state does not make the individual an instrument of 
the state, but the state serves human nature by enriching it out of the 
treasury of the common good. 

These few random philosophical thoughts on person and society, in 
this era of change and emphasis on the evolutionary aspect of reality, 
should be of assistance in avoiding some of the modern intellectual 
confusion relative to the matter, and aid in seeing reality from both its 
static and dynamic aspects. 


Mission Source Material 

Neil Sharkey, CP, STD 

1. Mission Theology. 

"The Holy Father and the Specific Mission of the Church," Christ to 
the World (1964), vol IX, No. 4, pg. 382-3. Recently it has been as- 
serted that religous pluralism is willed by God, that the different great 
religions are parallel ways to go to him, that we may be content with 
making Protestants better Protestants, Moslems better Moslems, the Hin- 
dus better Hindus, Buddhists better Buddhists, without trying to convert 
them to Catholicism. It has also been suggested that we limit our aposto- 
late activity to no more than bearing witness to Christ by our mere pres- 
ence in the world: the apostolate of presence. Since the Fall of last year, 
however, the present Roman pontiff had made important declarations on 
essential points which had been questioned: 

1. "All are called by God to eternal salvation." 

2. "God wills that all those who are still far away may be brought 
close through the blood of Christ." 

3. "The work of the Church is essentially missionary, in accordance 
with Christ's commandment: 'Euntes in mundum universum, praedicate 
Evangelium omni creaturae! " 

4. "Missionary dynamism springs from the potential, but not yet fully 
effective catholicity of the Church, from the Pentecostal investiture of 
universality bestowed upon the Church." 

5. "The apostolate must be considered as a precept and vigorous im- 
pulse which must be obeyed without objecting that one is weak. 'It would 
go hard with me indeed if I did not preach the Gospel' (1 Cor. 9. 16)." 

6. "The preaching of the Gospel, by its very nature, belongs to the 
life of the Church; it is the principal duty of the Church." 

2. "Personal Encounter with Jesus Christ. 

L. Lochet, "La rencontre du Seigneur," La Vie Spirituelle (Aug.-Sept, 
1964), pg. 295-309. It appears that our age has inaugurated a deep 
personal encounter with Jesus Christ, the God-Man. We seek, today, to 


embody the mystery of the Incarnation in our person and society. We 
seek to make Christ present everywhere. We attempt to order all our 
achievements toward the Son of God. 

a) Factually, the mystery of the Incarnation unveils its meaning to 
every period of history. The OT longed for the perfect unveiling of the 
mystery of God, who was present among his people as a Sovereign Lord. 
This presence of God was a promise of a more perfect fulfillment. 
Revelation given in the NT continued to unveil the mystery of the Person 
and work of Jesus Christ: the mystery of God living in and among his 
people. The Son of God became incarnated in the Person of Jesus Christ, 
though no one perceived the infinite fullness of the mystery. The apostles, 
the disciples, our Lady, observed the person, words, and actions of Jesus 
and sought, at the same time, an ever new progressive understanding of 
the mystery. This understanding did not end with the Resurrection and 
Pentecost. The Spirit of Jesus continued to guide them into all the truth 
(Jn. 16. 13). 

b) We do not encounter Jesus Christ in the same way as did the 
Christians in apostolic times or in the middle ages. There is something 
unique about our situation. The structure of society and the modern state 
is secular. Rulers no longer make religious decisions for a nation. One is 
no longer carried along by society, the family, a system of education. The 
present wave of secularism is a belief in the material components of life 
and a denial of spiritual components of God and the soul. Faith, today, 
is a question of a personal act, a personal engagement, a personal 

There are, however, positive counterparts to the many disconcerting 
aspects of modern life. When one says today: "I believe in Jesus Christ," 
what he means is: '7, a free responsible person, believe in You, a divine 
Person." Faith, as a result, has become deeply personal both with regard 
the subject and its object. It becomes a deep personal encounter with the 
divine Person of Jesus. Sacraments are considered as personal actions of 
Christ, actions of the glorious risen Christ present and active in the 
Church. The Sacrifice of the Eucharist makes Christ present in the midst 
of the Church assembled together. When we read, or listen to sacred 
scripture, the Person of Christ speaks to us through His words. As we 
live in grace, the Person of Christ lives in each of us: speaks to me, calls 
to me. 

c) In a true sense, it would seem that our faith, today, is deeper than 


that of Christians in any period before us. The apostolic Christians, for 
example, expected the imminent return of the risen Lord and cut them- 
selves off from the world and daily labor. They encountered the Lord 
interiorly, but made little effort to meet Him in and through the things 
of the world. Today, we understand that the mystery of the Incarnation 
brings deliverance to the whole universe. We, on our part, cooperate 
with the Lord's present redemptive activity, and impregnate society while 
dedicated to Jesus Christ. The modern Christian lives to make Christ 
present in every situation, precisely as it is conditioned and problematic. 

3. Redemption. 

James V. Schall, SJ, "The Crisis of Redemption in Modern Literature," 
Religion in Life (Autumn, 1964), pg. 617-30. One might be surprised 
to learn that modern literature, especially the novel, displays profound 
interest in theology and the mystery of redemption. In the past, writers 
looked on theology as a vague discipline that was irrelevant to life, and 
uninteresting; but, today, one finds the problems of morality, evil, God, 
sin, suffering, salvation, death, present in every field of modern literature. 
After a period of moral confusion — the last frontier of sex — we find 
new probings and growing interest about the ideal of an ordered human 
society, and man's obligation to do the right thing. Literature is at the 
point where it sees that the dilemma of evil, suffering, and God can 
only be resolved in a solution demanding man's redemption. 

Robinson Jeffers, in the poem "Where I," speaks of a young woman 
who suddenly learns that she is to die shortly. This knowledge gradually 
transforms her. She does not despair, but understands that all things — 
life, death, terror, pain, joy, song — pertain to a mystery of redemptive 
suffering and love. 

The modern novelist has become fascinated with the personal experience 
of loneliness. Thus John O'Hara asks: "What, really, can any of us know 
about any of us, and why make such a thing of loneliness, when it is 
the final condition of us all?" Yet loneliness forces the writer to search 
for salvation in Someone rather than in something. 

The modern novel suggests that the problem of sin emphasizes the 
nobility of each act of free choice. The possibility of personal sin gives 
man a choice. "Choice might be the most important word in the world. 
It says that the way is open." 

With the recognition of freedom, in the face of sin, there follows 


the problem of honesty about what one truly is. No matter what others 
may think, or say, "I am just what I am." Honesty enables a person to 
see his guilt, and the harm he has caused the lowly and innocent, so that 
he can redeem his past. 

Modern literature attempts to portray how the nobility of love silently 
challenges all forms of human darkness. "The lights have gone out in 
the sky. Blow on the coal of the heart. And we'll see by and by." 

Finally, if we experience the presence of the mystery of redemption 
to the extent that, we give salvation to others through charity, yet the 
experience includes the presence of suffering and evil. Thus we under- 
stand what is implied in the statement of Faulkner: — "You have got to 
sin?" You ain't got to. And He knows that. But you can suffer. And He 
knows that too. He don't tell you not to sin, He just asks you not to. 
And He don't tell you to suffer. But He gives you the chance. He gives 
you the best He can think of, that you are capable of doing. And He 
will save you." 

Thus modern literature accepts the illusions and difficulties of life, yet 
suggests the mysterious presence of grace. It looks on life as worthwhile, 
an experience out of which the sins of the past can be redeemed by suf- 
fering and love. It even seems to understand, in some vague way, that 
redemption is a supernatural gift of God's presence in and among men. 

Angelicum (Apr-June, 1964) features both the April document of 
the Biblical Commission, Instructio de historica Evangeliorum veritate, 
and by C. Kearns, OP, an analysis and commentary, under the title, 
Some First Impressions. Of especial interest are the admonitions to various 
groups — to professors of scripture in seminaries and similar establish- 
ments, to preachers who deal with biblical topics, to writers for the Chris- 
tian public at the popular level. 

"Much of the effectiveness of the missionary, although obviously not 
all, comes from the quality of his education." 

—Very Rev. James P. White, CP 
The Passionist Orbit, Fall '64) 

"It is better to remain silent than to speak the truth ill-humoredly, and 
so spoil an excellent dish by covering it with bad sauce." 

— J P Camus {Spirit of St. Francis de Sales) 


Retreat Source Material 

Cronan Regan, CP, STD 


J. Murphy-O'Connor, OP, Paul on Preaching (N.Y., Sheed & Ward, 
1964) pp. 314. 

A biblical study, that is written in a fairly technical way, on the nature 
of preaching, the function of preaching in the economy of salvation, 
the role of the preacher, and the relationship which exists between the 
preacher and his audience. Important for the work of retreat preaching 
is the conviction that Paul does not allow the work of the preacher to 
be equated with that of the teacher. Not only is what a preacher says 
and how he says it important, but for Paul what the preacher is is crucial. 

F. H. Drinkwater, "The Holiness of the Natural Law" The Clergy 
Review 49 (1964) pp. 428-438. 

The meaning of a natural law morality is being dimmed for many of 
our people, by the forces of relativism and an inaccurate understanding 
of the freedom of the New Law of the Gospel. A closed retreat provides 
an opportunity to speak of the natural law, and to show that it is not a 
scholastic "abstraction" remote from actual life. This rambling and chatty 
article is a suggestive approach to just this need, and it provides the 
preacher with useful examples, and recent citations from Cardinals 
Suenens, and Gracias, as well as from Popes John and Paul. 

J. Toner, OP, "The Church of the Poor" Doctrine and Life 14 (July, 

1964) pp. 397-401. 
V. Breton, OFM, Lady Poverty (Chicago, 1964) pp. 104. 
E. Dunne, Religious Poverty in Practice (Dublin, 1964) pp. 106. 

As Pope Paul said to our general chapter, "poverty is much discussed 
in the Church at the present time." Here are some sane suggestions to 
keep the discussion going on in retreats. J. Toner strongly urges the 
preaching of Christian poverty to the laity and the clergy. Breton's little 
book, in the form of meditations based on the life of Francis, ties the 


essence of Francis' poverty to the beatitude of the poor, which is that 
of the humble. Dunne's work provides matter for that personal examina- 
tion of conscience which can make a retreat conference more penetrating. 

G. S. Sloyan, "Progress Report on the Liturgy" America 8/22/64 pp. 

As our retreat houses have been centers of social consciousness and 
action in their respective dioceses, they cannot fail to be centers where 
the Liturgy is experienced and clarified. S. points out that many of the 
transitional problems are rooted in the fact that, we priests have not been 
formed in harmony with the Spirit of the Council Constitution on the 
Liturgy. He suggests materials available from the Liturgical Conference 
(2900 Newton St., NW, Wash., D.C. 20018) that can help fill in the gap. 

C. L. Salm, FSC, Studies in Salvation History (Prentice-Hall, N. J., 
1964) pp. xvii, 236. Paper. $2.95. 

This paperback is a compilation of articles that were printed in the 
annual volumes of the various American professional societies. The retreat 
preacher who wants a guide into the meaning of salvation history, and 
an indication of what is going on in Biblical studies, will find these 
writings of our most accomplished scripture scholars most useful. 

C. Davis, The Making of a Christian (N.Y., Sheed & Ward, 1964). 

This book is concerned with the sacraments of baptism and confir- 
mation — but it expands to give a feel for the whole biblical and liturgical 
field. This alone should recommend it to the retreat master striving for 
relevance to our changing world. 


A. Alexander, "The Vocation of Celibacy among Laywomen" Life of 
the Spirit 19 (July, 1964) pp. 32-35. 

The utility of this article lies in its focusing upon what appear to be 
the main problems of this group of women. It may be helpful to have 
the issues thus isolated and identified. 



Sr. Vera Marie, OCD. "Thoughts on Retreats for Nuns" Review for 
Religious 23 (July, 1964) pp. 473-480. 

Cast in the form of a letter from a nun to her priest cousin, about 
to give his first religious retreat, this article effectively recalls to the 
preacher the affectionate womanliness of the nun, her yearning for a vital 
exposure to the objective doctrine of the Church — its broad horizons 
embracing the world, and its existence embodied in each member — and 
on her Bible and liturgy. And above all she appeals for the retreat master 
to encourage the nun with the realization that she is loved. 


Abp. L. J. Shehan, "The Seminary Today and Today's Seminarian" 
The Priest (Sept., 1964) pp. 742-750. 

The apparent conflict of Christian freedom and obedience is the central 
point of this talk to seminarians at Roland Park, Baltimore. His approach 
is forceful and convincing — and it may provide useful orientation to 
priests charged with the difficult task of giving retreats to seminarians. 

Readings for Retreatants 

K. McGowan, CP, Your Way to God (Our Lady of Florida Press, 
North Palm Beach, Florida, 1964) pp. x, 198; paper, $1.00, imita- 
tion leather, $1.50. Special prices for quantities. 

Father Kilian's book is justly styled in the introduction "a book of 
spiritual guidance for the emerging layman." In 66 capsule-sized medi- 
tations, it provides this guidance and inspiration. The style is clear and 
concrete, the manner is virile, and the inspiration is clearly supernatural. 
The book is not a do-it-yourself guide to mental health, but a handbook 
of holiness. The emphasis is theocentric and Christocentric. The only 
thing I missed was an explicit emphasis on the communal character of 
the holiness and worship of the People of God — and this must be com- 
municated if "conscious, full, and active" participation in the Liturgy 
is to be meaningful (cf. p. 177). The book is attractively put together, 
beautifully illustrated with the Stations of the Cross by Sister Mary of 


the Compassion, OP, and amazingly inexpensive. It was written to be 
placed in retreatants' rooms and brought into their homes. It can bear 
much fruit there. 

Quaestiones Disputatae 

Wanted: Aggiornamento! 

I hesitate to lock horns with my former Lector — Father Bertin Farrell, 
CP — but, it seems to me that in his moral theology column (VC, April 
'64) he added nothing to our knowledge of the birth control controversy. 
He merely repeated the stock answers we could find in any of the dusty 
tomes. From my reading, it was a cut and dried, natural law "solution" 
to the problem. 

Also under question, I understand, is the authoritative force of such 
pronouncements as are found in Casti Connubii. If there be no de facto 
infallible teaching proposed in certain areas of marital morality, then, in 
spite of the "almost infallible" character of recent papal pronouncements, 
shouldn't the reasoning of the "new theology" get a fair hearing? None 
of this reasoning was evaluated by Father Bertin. 

I hope he will give us a critical summation of the new trends. Other- 
wise, it seems to me that, he dismisses out of hand the whole structure 
of closely reasoned thought. Our oft-repeated natural law arguments strike 
many as being blase and unreal. Finally, may I recommend for anyone 
who may have missed it, an article on this controversial subject: "Father 
Haring speaks on Marriage and Family Planning." (H & P Review, July, 
'64) — Vernon Kelly, CP 

Father Vernon Kelly, CP Pope Pius XII 

". . . Under question, I under- "Nor must it be thought that 

stand, is the authoritative force of what is contained in Encyclical 
such pronouncements as are found Letters does not of itself demand 
in Casti Connubii. assent, on the pretext that the 

Popes do not exercise in them the 
supreme power of their teaching 
authority; rather, such teachings 
belong to the ordinary magisterium, 


". . . If there be no de facto 
infallible teaching proposed in cer- 
tain areas of marital morality, then, 
in spite of the "almost infallible" 
character of recent papal pro- 
nouncements, shouldn't the reason- 
ing of the "new theology" get a 
fair hearing?" 

of which it is true to say: "He that 
heareth you, heareth me." (Humani 

Pope Paul VI 

"The question (the birth control 
controversy) is being subjected to 
study, as wide and profound as 
possible, as grave and honest as it 
must be on a subject of such im- 
portance. . . 

"But meanwhile we say frankly 
that, up to now we do not have 
sufficient motive to consider out of 
date and therefore not binding, the 
norms given by Pope Pius XII in 
this regard. They must be consid- 
ered valid, at least until we feel 
obliged in conscience to change 

"It seems opportune to recom- 
mend that no one, for the present, 
takes it on himself to make pro- 
nouncements in terms differing 
from the prevailing norm." (Ad- 
dress given in Rome, June 23, 
1964, to a gathering of cardinals.) 
[Italics mine.] 

So, what else is new in marital morality? I recommend for anyone 
who may have missed them, the following articles on this controversial 
subject. "Notes on Moral Theology," Theological Studies (June 1964) 
pp. 232-243. "The Pill Controversy," The Homiletic and Pastoral Review, 
(June 1964) pp. 747-754. "Reflexions d'un moraliste sur la fecondite 
humaine," Revue de I'Universite d'Ottawa (juillet-septembre 1964) 
pp. 409-463. These articles, I believe, give the "new theology" a "fair 
shake." — Bertin Farrell, CP, STD 


From the Celian Hill 

Timothy Fitzgerald, CP, STD 

Vatican II — Session HI — Some Impressions of the Solemn Opening: 
As in many other televised events, the audience was given an intimate 
glimpse, missed by those actually present. The omniscient and sensitive 
camera unfolded a drama in the glory of St. Peter's, impressive in its 
simplicity, moving in its prayerfulness. 

The Holy Father entered the basilica already attired in beautiful Gothic 
vestments. He was preceded by the 24 concelebrants. When they arrived at 
the Papal altar the Mass began immediately, and it was evident that this was 
going to be different than other solemn ceremonies. Gone were the massive 
candlesticks. In their place was a long, thin line of low candles across the 
center of the altar. Time and again the eye of the camera framed the great 
rectangular altar between the twisted Oriental pillars of Bernini's balda- 
chino, giving the unmistakable picture of a dining room table set for the 
family meal. At other times the camera zoomed in until the whole screen 
was filled with the hosts on the paten or the chalice held aloft in offering. 
The mass itself was a blend of high and low. The entire assembly sang the 
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei. From the Offertory on, the con- 
celebrants recited everything with the Holy Father. 


Saints John and Paul: Nine Passionist Bishops and our two Prefects 
Apostolic are living at the monastery during the present Session. They 
occupy the old General Curia wing. On Sept. 23rd, His Excellency, 
Gerardo Pellanda, CP, of Brazil celebrated his Silver Jubilee of Ordina- 
tion with a Solemn High Mass in our Holy Founder's Chapel. 

There are about 37 University Students this year. Padre Gesu Lizarraga, 
CP, has been appointed the new Director. 

Having completed the revision, for publication, of his doctoral dis- 
sertation, Father Silvan Rouse has returned from Rome. The Gift of 
Understanding according to Saint Thomas and His Predecessors comprises 
thirteen of twenty-two chapters; 290 pp. A limited number of copies 
available, upon application to author. $3:50. 

The Passionist Sisters from Mexico — the new culinary staff at SS. Gio e 
Paolo, reside in the former residence of Abp. Kierkels, CP. 




Editorial 1 

Passiology 2 

Dogmatic 6 

Theology { Moral 9 

Pastoral . 12 

Sacred Scripture 16 

Philosophy 19 

Mission Source Material . . . . 23 

Retreat Source Material .... 27 

Quaestiones Disputatae 30 

From the Celian Hill 32 


"A man who is religious, is religious morning, noon, and night; his 
religion is a mold in which his thoughts, words and actions are cast — all 
forming part of one and the same whole." 

— Card. Newman (Parochial & Plain Sermons') 

"A university is, according to the usual designation, an alma mater, 
knowing her children one by one — not a foundry, or a mint, or a 
treadmill." — Card. Newman {Idea of a University) 

". . . The word of the cross . . . is . . . to us . . . the power of God." 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

Irrhum (Entria 

Vol. Ill January, A.D. 1965 No. 1 

Itertrom druris 

Vol. Ill January, A.D. 1965 No. 1 

A Quarterly Review of Clerical Literature 
Published by the Passionist Fathers 
Province of Saint Paul of the Cross. 

Cum Superiorum permissu 

Ad instar manuscripti 

For private circulation only 

Opinions expressed by contributors do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the editor. 


86-45 178 Street 

Jamaica 32, N. Y. 

Telephone: AXtel 7-0044 

Cable Address: Veecee New York 

Guest Editorial 

As Verbum Cruets enters upon its third year of publication, I am very 
pleased to have this opportunity to congratulate and to thank the Fathers 
Provincial of both Provinces, the Editor — Father Aloysius, and all the 
Fathers who have collaborated in its production. A publication like 
Verbum Cruets is a reason for great satisfaction and gratitude on the part 
of a Superior General, who is responsible before God and the Church 
for the effectiveness of his Congregation's apostolic mission in the world. 
Vision and initiative, clear definition of purpose, faithful adherence to 
this finafity, a content of excellent articles, reviews and replies have made 
Verbum Cruets a success from the start, and worthy of high commenda- 
tion. It is surety for its own future and the need we have of it will 
increase rather than lessen in the years to come. 

Many have been disturbed by the fear that our privilege of exemption 
might be taken away, or severely whittled down by the II Vatican Council. 
As a matter of record, the privilege has held firm through three sessions, 
including the crucial discussion of the powers of the episcopacy. There 
appears to be no reason for fearing that exemption will be swept away 
in the final session of next autumn. However, in return for this retention 
of our privilege of exemption, Holy Mother the Church expects that we 
will use our freedom to renew our apostolic spirit, and to carry on with 
increased vigor and effectiveness the work Our Holy Father and Founder 
gave to us as our specific end. 

We are by vocation Preachers of the Word of the Cross, dedicated by 
vow to enlighten minds and to enkindle hearts with the knowledge and 
love of Our Lord's redemptive suffering and death. In these days, bold 
and searching questions are directed at everything that has been tradi- 
tional in the life of the Church. Some have voiced the opinion that our 
proper apostolate is finished, now that devotions have been demoted and 
the emphasis in preaching shifted to the Mystery of the Resurrection. 
For this reason one of the outstanding services rendered by Verbum 
Cruets has been its decisive refutation of this assertion. 

If we are to be effective Preachers of the Word of the Cross, then 
we must hold fast to this conviction that, the apostolate entrusted to us 
is always timely, always imperative. If this conviction is lost, the distinct 

identity we have among Religious Institutes will perish with it, because 
men do not have the heart to pursue or perfect what they estimate to 
have had its day. 

St. Paul of the Cross defined our specific end in a context which re- 
volves about that which is primary, now and always, in the life of man 
— namely, his love for God. As long as it is man's end to love God with 
his whole heart; as long as the meaning of his baptism calls for a con- 
temporary Passion in his own life; as long as the innermost meaning of 
the Mass and the dynamism of every Sacrament is to be found in the 
redemptive death of Our Lord, the Word of the Cross will have a rele- 
vance, and our preaching of it a prominence in the life of the Church. 
The Passion of Jesus is inseparably bound up with all these momentous 

In contrast with the permanence which the Preaching of the Passion 
has in the salvific mission of the Church is, the changeable character of 
the world which it is intended to convert and to sanctify. If he is not 
to fail, the Preacher of the Word of the Cross must know well the world 
to which he is sent — particularly, its diverse and varying modes of recep- 
tivity. The great Pere Lacordaire was an immediate success in the pulpit 
of Notre Dame, where the seven preceding preachers dismally failed. 
The reason was the fact that, Lacordaire had regard for what the others 
did not understand, or if they did, chose to ignore — the mode of recep- 
tivity of the people of that time and place. 

I think it is in the light of this urgency which the Preacher of the 
Cross is under, to comprehend the world of his own day, that we can 
best appreciate the invaluable contribution now being made by Verbum 
Cruets, to the success of our apostolic ministry in the Provinces of North 
America. In each issue the gifted minds of our specialists, the fruits of 
their scholarship, their thinking, their experience is applied to help our 
preachers to know the People of God to whom they are sent; their prob- 
lems, their thought patterns, their expectations. All these factors determine 
their mode of receptivity. Who is unaware of how that is changing now, 
under the impact of the renewal of the Liturgy and the revival of biblical 

In the Ecumenical Council, it was routine to hear interventions begin 
like this: "Hoc Schema m'thi placuit; attamen." Then followed what dis- 
pleased His Excellency in the schema, be it doctrine or its mode or its 
Latinity. However from all these "attamens" eventually came those mag- 

nificent Constitutions on the Sacred Liturgy and the Church. It is our 
hope that in the years ahead Verbum Cruets, through the constructive 
criticism of the Brethren, will advance in the way of greater perfection, 
contributing ever more effectively to the success of our sublime ministry 
of preaching the Word of the Cross. Vivat, crescat, floreat! 

—Theodore Foley, CP, STD 
Superior General 



To the Rev. Barnabas M. Ahern, CP, on his election as President of 
The Catholic Biblical Association of America. 

To the Rev. Paul M. Boyle, CP, on his election as President of The 
Canon Law Society of America. 


To our Most Reverend Father General, CP, for his guest editorial, 
saluting Verbum Crucis as it enters upon its third year of supernaturalized 
intellectual life. 

— AMcD 


The Cross — Absurdity or Ideal?* 

Robert O'Hara, CP, MA 

In the year 1957, the Nobel prize for literature was given to a young 
Frenchman named Albert Camus. 

One of the basic principles of his philosophy is that life is absurd. 
We are born out of nothingness and go out into nothingness, and there 

* Digested and reprinted, with permission of author and editor, from Fall issue 
of Spiritual Life, published by the Discalced Carmelite Fathers, at Milwaukee, 

is no discernable pattern in the space between. However, instead of sink- 
ing down in crushed despair we must rebel against this futility. Like 
Faust, we must call down a curse upon patience and resignation. 

In I960, while his fame was still in the ascendancy, Camus was killed 
in an automobile accident. His death was almost like an illustration, a 
demonstration of his philosophy of the absurd. 

Nineteen hundred years ago, Christ entered into Jerusalem amid the 
cheers of an enthusiastic populace. He too was famous for the things 
he said, for the things he did, for that which he was. But within a week 
of his triumph, the cheers had turned to jeers; exaltation gave place to 
condemnation; the throne was exchanged for a cross; bright promise 
yielded to ignominious death. 

What we must ponder is this: what was Christ's attitude toward this 
death? Did he, like Camus, regard it as an absurdity which was of a 
piece with all the absurdity that went before? Was the cross a shocking 
conclusion to a life that just didn't add up to anything? 

On the contrary, that death, with all its pain and abyssmal loneliness 
— that death was the dramatic climax, "the moment of truth" that made 
logic of all that went before. 

What happened on that bad Friday we have learned to call good was 
not endured simply because it could not be avoided. Rather, all three 
Synoptic Evangelists relate that, on the way to the holy city, our Lord 
began "to tell them the things that would befall him; saying, Behold 
the Son of Man shall be betrayed, and they shall condemn him to death, 
and shall deliver him to the Gentiles. And they shall mock him and spit 
on him and scourge him and kill him; and the third day he shall rise 
again" (Mark 10, 32 ff.). St. Thomas Aquinas explained this determina- 
tion in the face of death by saying that the Father had infused into his 
Son a will both to suffer and to die, "voluntas patiendi et moriendi" (In 
Joannem, c. 3, 1.3). That will was the dynamism of his life. Far from 
looking upon the Crucifixion as something to be avoided at all costs and, 
if unavoidable, to be endured in rebellious bitterness, St. John makes 
clear that our Lord regarded that awful time as his special hour; he 
spoke of it in terms of glory: "The hour has come for the Son of Man 
to be glorified. Amen, amen, I say to you, unless the grain of wheat fall 
into the ground and die, it remains alone. But if it die, it brings forth 
much fruit. . . . And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all 

things to myself. Now, he said this signifying by what death he was 
to die" (John, 12, 23 ff.). His Passion was to be his "finest hour." 

There was never to be any excuse for misunderstanding the place of 
his death in his overall purpose. He saw to it that his death would 
never fade from the abiding consciousness of humanity. He employed 
the ultimate dimensions of his wisdom, love and power to insure the 
continued awareness of that dreadful time when divine mercy and human 
malice met on Calvary. 

Obviously, our Saviour did not think it would be a kindness upon the 
part of humanity to veil over his terrible death with forgetfulness. On 
the contrary, it was his declared will that we never forget it, and when 
he said, "do this," he was not commissioning us to erect a plaque on a 
wall, or to plant a tree, or to name a street or hill after him. He ordered 
an action, a mysterious re-enactment of that very dying in a far-off corner 
of the earth in a distant time. He made possible a bringing of it into 
all time and everywhere. The celebration of Mass is not a witnessing to 
the absurdity of his death but to the beauty and glory and power of it. 

Granted that such was the mind of the Master, what of the disciples? 
The question is easily answered. All we have to do is turn to the second 
chapter of the Acts of the Apostles which tells of the descent of the 
Holy Spirit upon our Lady and the Apostles. St. Peter went forth and 
spoke immediately of the Crucified. The heart of his proclamation was: 
"Therefore, let all the house of Israel know most assuredly that God 
has made both Lord and Christ this Jesus whom you crucified." The 
first sermon of St. Peter is regarded as a classic example of the heralding 
of the good news of salvation. It is paralleled by St. Paul's statement to 
the Corinthians that he was determined "not to know anything among 
you except Jesus Christ and him crucified" (1 Cor. 2,2). Not only were 
the Apostles not tempted to forget the story of the Master's death, they 
were under a holy compulsion not to let anyone else forget it. 

This is clear from the very structure of the Gospels. The Apostles did 
not immediately undertake the composition of the Gospels as we now 
have them. What we have in the Gospels is a bringing together of the 
repeated, the typical, the constant retelling of the story of Christ. Hence, 
we find his parables, his miracles, his teachings, the historical facts of 
his life and death. But the significant fact is that, while the Evangelists 
do not all tell exactly the same things, all four of them relate the history 
of his Passion at great length from the scene in the garden of Gethsemane 

to the last gasp on Calvary. Thus, St. Mark's Gospel has been called "a 
Gospel of the Passion" (C. H. Dodd, The Apostolic Preaching, p. 49) . 

In short, it might be said that just as our Blessed Lord instituted the 
Eucharist as a sacramental memorial of his death, so the Holy Spirit 
inspired the Evangelists to make of their Gospels a verbal memorial. 
There is a genuine affinity between the celebration of Mass and the 
reading of the Gospels during Mass, especially the Passion Gospels (Cf., 
Card. Bea, The Pastoral Value of the Word of God in the Sacred Liturgy, 
Assisi Papers). Dom Barsotti goes so far as to say: "The other Passion 
Gospels have the character of a religious meditation: the Passion Gospel 
on Good Friday has a sacramental character, unique in its power of 
evocation. It is truly the announcement of the death of Christ, the accom- 
plishment of the apostolic catechesis. It takes the place of the Consecration; 
it is the most solemn act of the day's liturgy" (La Parole de Dieu dans 
Le My st ere Chretien, p. 250). 

The early Christians went beyond giving the Passion a central place 
in their thoughts. They experienced a desire to identify with it. St. Peter 
held out to them this ideal, "Christ also has suffered for you, leaving you 
an example that you may follow in his steps" (1 Peter, 2,21). St. Paul 
could boast, "I bear the marks of the Lord Jesus in my body" (Galatians, 

The religious life appeared in the Church just about the time the age 
of persecution passed and, with it, the opportunity to witness to the 
Crucified in blood. The asceticism and total dedication to God associated 
with the religious life were soon regarded as another way of being a 
martyr, another way of identifying with the Passion. Accordingly, whereas 
previously the only ones regarded as saints were martyrs, these bloodless 
martyrs also were venerated as saints. 

Not only is there development of dogma but there is also development 
of devotion and the two factors are intertwined. Thus, in the Middle 
Ages, the desire to become one with the Crucified assumed emotional and 
affective tones but it wasn't just sentiment. The stigmata of St. Francis 
were real wounds; they bled like ruddy mouths proclaiming the intensity 
of his love for his Crucified Master. 

More recently, there appeared in the Church a saint whom we now 
call Saint Paul of the Cross. Essential to his spiritual doctrine is the 
desire to participate in the Passion of Christ. It is the opinion of Garrigou- 
Lagrange, OP, that this desire was one of reparation and that Paul of the 

Cross founded the Congregation of the Passion in order that there might 
be corporate reparation for the sins of the world. However, Stanislas 
Breton, CP, in a profound study of the spiritual teaching of his Founder, 
questions this opinion, arguing that it is not at all evident in any of the 
saint's writings thus far discovered. In his opinion, St. Paul longed to 
participate in the sufferings of Christ because his deepening union with 
the Crucified brought him into union with the Agape of God, the love 
which revealed itself in the redemptive act. According to the logic of 
this spirituality, if one truly loved God, one had to identify with the 
Passion which expressed God's love for man. It was as simple as that. 
In his Encyclical Mediator Dei (n. 92) Pope Pius XII warned: 

"From these teachings which we have so far laid down, it appears 
clearly, Venerable Brethren, how far from the genuine and essential 
way of the Liturgy those writers of our time have wandered who, 
deceived by the pretense of a loftier mystical yearning, dare to affirm 
that it is not the historical Christ who is to be concentrated upon, 
but rather the 'pneumatic or glorified' Christ; nor do they hesitate 
to say that in popular piety Christ has undergone a certain change, 
and been, as it were, dethroned, so that the glorified Christ, living 
and reigning through all ages and sitting at the right hand of the 
Father, has been hidden; and in his place has been installed the 
Christ who led this earthly life." 

The Pope goes on to teach that we must study the historical Christ in 
order to imitate his way of living, and then concludes: 

"since indeed Christ's bitter sufferings constitute the principal mys- 
tery from which our salvation arises, the universal agreement of Cath- 
olic faith requires that this mystery should be replaced in the fullest 
light; indeed it is as it were the center of divine worship, since the 
Eucharistic sacrifice represents and renews it daily, and since all 
Sacraments are joined by the strictest bond to the Cross." 

We can hope that they are few who maintain the position here con- 
demned, but apparently some of our contemporaries have grown sensitive 
about the Passion of Christ. If there are those who do not make it a 
point to meditate upon it or to speak about it, it would seem logical 
that they might not make any effort to become identified with it. One 
wonders whether we are not all exposed to a temptation to live as if 

Christ did all the suffering for us once and for all, and we, for our part, 
need only share in the victory without taking part in the battle. 

We must be realistic and admit that we are exposed to influences that 
are not favorable to the spirituality of the Cross. Not only are there those 
who look upon all of life as an absurdity and suffering as the most absurd 
thing about it, but there are those schools of psychiatry which regard 
a desire to suffer as something unhealthy, something pathological rather 
than ennobling; furthermore, the whole idea of suffering for sin is irra- 
tional because the notion of sin is itself unscientific; a sense of guilt is 
an emotional aberration to be removed by analysis rather than by con- 
trition and suffering. 

In former times, suffering was not only normal to life, it was freely 
embraced. We can think of people even now, off the main stream of 
modern thought, who seek to add pain to lives already filled with pain 
because of their hatred of sin and their love for the Crucified. But we 
in the United States at this time live in a culture of comfort where much 
money and energy and great scientific know-how are devoted to making 
life ever more easeful. Moreover, we are surrounded by analgesics; there 
is a pill for every pain on the shelf of the medicine cabinet. And while 
it was once taken for granted that life would someday break your heart 
and one steeled his soul for the black moments by meditating on the 
Passion of Christ, we now readily turn to synthetic tranquillity everywhere 
available to us. One wonders whether at long last applied science will 
uproot the Cross from the cosmos. 

The fact of the matter is that the law of suffering is universal. One 
way or the other it will find us out. The important thing, then, is the 
attitude we take toward it. Like some we can regard all suffering as absurd, 
especially willed suffering. Or, we can imitate Christ who looked upon 
suffering as the redemptive instrument with which he remade the world. 
In thus following the Passion of our God our lives and our deaths will 
be ennobled and made glorious with the shared glory of the Crucified 
and Risen Saviour. 

'A mission is a microcosm of the Church as a moral force." 

— W. Elliott {Life of Father Hecker) 


Fundamental Theology 

A Study in Perspective 

John S. Gresser, CP, MA 

Apologia — ac si esset necesse! 

"A hundred years ago (December 8, 1864) a Pope proclaimed his 
refusal to 'come to terms with progress, liberalism and modern civili- 
zation.' On September 13, 1964, ... the present Pope asked the 
crowd ... to pray that the Church 'can resume the necessary contact 
with the world.' The optic had shifted in a century: 'We must enter 
into contact to render it service for its salvation, its prosperity and 
its peace.' The world one Pope would not deign to pray for is loved 
by a successor as the arena of the Church's service. ..." {Common- 
weal: 11/13/64) 

The author of this paragraph is referring to Proposition 80 of the 
Syllabus of Errors. Recently an NC news item quoted a "noted Church 
historian" as saying that the "siege mentality" under Pius IX "closed 
the gates of the Church and locked up the Catholic community from the 
world" {The Catholic Transcript: 12/10/64). Statements such as these, 
from Catholic sources, deserve comment. 

First, Pius IX, his "mentality," his pontificate, his pronouncements 
must be interpreted in the light of his own historical setting, not in that 
of our age. 

Next, the Syllabus was directed not to the general public, nor even to 
the faithful, but "to all the bishops of the Catholic world, in order that 
these bishops may have before their eyes all the errors and pernicious 
doctrines which he (the Pope) has reprobated and condemned." (Letter 
of Cardinal Antonelli accompanying and introducing the Syllabus) 

Addressed to a particular audience, theologically competent to interpret 
it properly, the Syllabus has a unique value in its references to original 
sources which condemned the single errors. The above proposition, quoted 
in part but unidentified, reads in full: 

"80. The Roman Pontiff can and ought to reconcile himself to, and 

agree with, progress, liberalism, and civilization as lately introduced. 
(Emphasis added) Allocution: Jamdudum Cernimus, 3/18/1861. 

Finally, the original source gives a clear picture of the condemned 
"progress, liberalism and civilization." 

"Long since we have seen, Venerable Brethren, by how deplorable a 
conflict civil society is ravaged, especially in this our most miserable age, 
between truth and error, virtue and vice, light and darkness; and this, 
because of the mutually repugnant principles animating either side. For 
some on one side uphold certain tenets of modern civilization as they 
call it; others on the other, defend the rights of justice and of our most 
holy religion. And the first-named men demand that the Roman Pontiff 
should reconcile and harmonize himself with progress, with liberalism 
(as they call it), and with modern civilization. But others deservedly 
claim that, the immovable principles of eternal justice be preserved pure 
and inviolate, and the most healthful influence of our divine religion be 
preserved. . . . But the advocates of modern civilization . . . affirm that 
they are true and sincere friends of religion. Most miserable facts . . . 
show the very contrary. 

"But this modern civilization . . . exercises its wrath against religious 
orders, against institutes founded for the direction of Catholic schools, 
against very many ecclesiastical men of every grade, even those invested 
with the highest dignity. . . . This civilization, while it gives largesses to 
non-Catholic institutions and persons, robs the Catholic Church of its 
most just possessions, and devotes its whole thought and study to the 
diminution of that Church's salutary influence. 

"Could the Roman Pontiff, then, ever stretch forth the right hand of 
friendship to such civilization as this? . . . Let things have back their 
true appellation and this Holy See will ever be consistent with itself. 
She has herself been in truth the patroness and cultivator of true civili- 
zation; and historical records most loudly testify and prove that from 
this same See, there has been in every age diffused into the most distant 
and barbarous regions of the world true and legitimate refinement of 
manners, cultivation, wisdom. But when a system desires to be called by 
the name of civilization, which has been exquisitely adapted to the weak- 
ening, possibly to the destroying, of Christ's Church, never certainly will 
this Holy See and the Roman Pontiff be able to come to terms with such 
a civilization." (Emphasis added) 

Thus spoke Pius IX, March 18, 1861, the day after Victor Emmanuel 


had dropped the title of King of Sardinia and assumed that of King of 
Italy. For by the preceding September 30th, through the annexation of 
all Papal territory except Rome and its immediate environs, Sardinia had 
become United Italy. 

Receiving the officers of the French Army in a farewell audience, Dec. 
6, 1866, Pius IX remarked: "If you see the emperor (Napoleon III), 
tell him that I pray for him every day. They say that his health is poor; 
I pray for his health. They say that his soul is not tranquil; I pray for 
his soul. . . . Depart, my sons! I give you my blessing, hoping that it 
will accompany you during the entire voyage of your lives. Do not think 
that you leave me here alone! The good God remains to me; and in 
Him I have placed my confidence." 

To Victor Emmanuel, whose troops occupied Rome that same month, 
Pius IX wrote on Sept. 11, 1870: "Sire, I have received the letter which 
Your Majesty sent by the hand of Count Ponza di San Martino. That 
letter is unworthy of an affectionate son who glories in professing the 
Catholic faith, and who finds his honor in a royal loyalty. I enter into 
none of the details of the letter; since I wish not to renew the grief 
which its first perusal excited in my heart. I bless God Who has per- 
mitted Your Majesty to embitter the last years of my life. I cannot accede 
to the demands contained in your letter, nor can I conform to the prin- 
ciples advanced in it. I call on God, and I place in His hands my cause, 
which is His own. I pray that He may deliver you from every danger; 
and that He may extend to you the mercies which you need." 

"The world one Pope would not deign to pray for" is certainly repre- 
sented by both Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel. That Pio Nono "would 
not deign to pray for" such a world, when he actually did pray for two 
of its foremost personalities, certainly seems a bit out of character. 

Yes, the "optic" has shifted in a century. "There would be today," 
wrote Pius XI in Divini Redemptoris, March 19, 1937, "neither Socialism 
nor Communism if the rulers had not scorned the teachings and maternal 
warnings of the Church. On the basis of liberalism and laicism, they 
wished to build other social edifices which ... all too soon revealed the 
weakness of their foundations, and today are crumbling one after another 
before our eyes, as everything must crumble that is not grounded on the 
one cornerstone which is Christ Jesus." Nor is the progress, liberalism 
and civilization condemned by Pius IX the "arena of service" loved by 
Paul VI. At a general audience in St. Peter's, April 29, 1964, His Holiness 


reminded his hearers that "The Church and the papacy can and must be 
loved, . . . even if their countenance be dimmed by human infirmity. The 
testimony of fidelity and of charity will then be greater, more intelligent, 
more deserving. This is perhaps a lesson that is not well understood by 
many of our contemporaries, also said to be Catholic, with their almost 
passionate eagerness to search out faults in the Church and in the Roman 
Curia, expressing criticisms that are not always clear and at times not 
objective." In a radio address to the Spanish Eucharistic Congress, July 
21, 1964, the Holy Father said: "There can be differences in the judg- 
ments and attitudes of groups, but within the discipline of the Church 
and without breaking unity and social harmony; always subject to the 
supreme law of charity that marks out the necessary limits on the tone 
that must govern an exchange of ideas in search of truth in all its richness. 
Only thus will we have a sign of maturity that will be a prelude to 
improvement, an eagerness for genuine continuity, a projection toward 
new goals. ..." 

Pio Nono does not need this or any other apologia; rather, to appre- 
ciate him, we need an integrated understanding of that complex series 
of crises, both political and religious from 1846 to 1878, which com- 
prised his pontificate. Such a genuine understanding not only precludes 
the absurd impression that "a successor" has embraced what the pope of 
a century ago censured, but also positively increases our gratitude for a 
much maligned Pontiff whom The Catholic Review has hailed as "the 
creator of the modern Papacy." 

Dogmatic Theology 

Jesus Christ — The Great Sacrament 

Cronan Regan, CP, STD 

Recent writings in sacramental and liturgical theology refer to Christ 
as the Great Sacrament. While the expression may take a bit of "getting 
used to," it is not really an innovation, nor is it simply an additional 
bit of jargon to encumber the clerical mind. It has deep roots in the 
holy scriptures and the patristic writings, and it conveys a special theo- 
logical richness. 


Traditional Basis of the Expression 

The Good News proclaimed by the Apostles was designated the mus- 
terion by St. Paul, a word which the Vulgate text often rendered as 
sacramentum. For Paul, "mystery" does not denote a truth difficult or 
impossible to perceive; the mystery is the object of God's revelation, it 
is His plan to save all men in Christ (1 Cor 2:7-10; Rom 16:25-26; 
Eph 3:3-12). In fact, it is Christ Himself Who is the Mystery-Sacrament 
(1 Tim 3:16). 

The writers of the patristic era, particularly the Alexandrines, saw the 
mystery like Paul did — the object of a revelation. But in addition, they 
came to see that the mystery has the character of being a sensible thing, 
which concealed and communicated a divine reality, as well as revealing 
it. There was concealed in the thing seen with natural eyes, the saving 
divine reality which was manifested to the vision of faith and communi- 
cated to him who was disposed for it. The scriptures, the Church, the 
ecclesiastical observances and rites were all mysteries; but, above all, the 
man Christ was the Mystery. In His flesh is concealed, manifested, and 
communicated the Divine Person of the Word. As Origen wrote: "One 
thing is seen in Him and another is believed. Flesh is perceived, God is 
believed." (In Ro Com 4,2; PG 14.968). 

To this common possession of the patristic era, St. Augustine brought 
the clarification that the sensible reality which is the mystery has a sym- 
bolic character, it is a sign. And St. Augustine used "mystery" and "sac- 
rament" as practically synonymous. 

The marvelous development of sacramental theology during the Middle 
Ages resulted in narrowing the use of the term "sacrament," to designate 
the seven efficacious symbolic rites of the Christian religion, which the 
Church confesses she has received from the Lord. However, the medie- 
vals did not lose sight of a certain interchangeability of mystery and 
sacrament, nor did they ever forget that the whole meaning and efficacy 
of the seven sacraments stems from Christ, with Whom they link the 
believer who celebrates them, and through Whose irreplaceable mediation 
the saving love of the Triune God is communicated. 

The modern usage by which Christ is called the Great Sacrament has 
been given its fullest development in the work of Father Shillebeeckx, 
OP. It brings together in a single concept, the theological riches con- 
tained in the consideration of the redeeming Incarnation, the Capital 


Grace of Christ, the priestly mediation of Christ, and the notion of Christ 
as the conjoined instrument of God. Its utility consists in showing the 
homogeneity of the Christian Mystery of salvation, the universality of the 
law of sign in Christianity, and the personalism of sacramental theology. 

Significance of the Expression 

Redemption is fundamentally an act of the Blessed Trinity — it is the 
divine agape or God's self -giving love that reaches out to sinful mankind 
and efficaciously calls man to reestablish his severed union with God. 
God invites man to enter into a person-to-person relationship with Him, 
and God's invitation is not really different than the eternal self -giving 
love by which the Divine Persons commune with one another. 

But God adapts Himself to man's condition. Since this condition is 
one of bodiliness, the reality of the divine agape was communicated to 
men through the visible actions, events, and things that are the stuff of 
salvation history — culminating in the definitive event of the sending of 
the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity in the visible form of man. 
("God so loved the world that he gave his only-begotten Son. . . ." 
Jn 3:16). Henceforth and forever, the sacred humanity of the Word is 
the supreme manifestation of God's saving love or grace, its very visi- 
bility, and the efficacious vehicle communicating this love — there is no 
other way of salvation (Jn 14:4-6; 1 Tim 2:5). In Schillebeeckx' ex- 
pression, "a sacrament is a divine bestowal of salvation in an outwardly 
perceptible form, which makes the bestowal manifest; a bestowal of sal- 
vation in historical visibility" (p. 15). The man Jesus is, then, the Sacra- 
ment — not only in a way that reflects the "sacrament-mystery" of St. 
Paul and the Fathers, but also in a way strictly analogous to the seven 
ritual actions of the Church, which are efficacious signs of grace. 

As our seven sacraments are efficacious signs of grace, Christ is the 
sign and cause of grace. He is not a sign of something that would be 
present even without the sign; rather, He is a sign by being the embodi- 
ment of what He signifies. God's gracious agape is given perfect expres- 
sion and embodiment, it is symbolized and made visible in the man Jesus 
— in His actions as well as in His theandric being. Christ's human love 
for man manifests God's love for men by actually bestowing it — for it 
is God's redeeming love in human form. 

As our seven sacraments are sign-acts of man's worship as well as 
causes of grace, so too the human actions of Christ's life are sign-acts of 


man's worship. Our representative, a creature, the man Jesus is the su- 
preme worshipper. The human acts by which He manifests the bestowal 
of God's love are simultaneously the perfect expression of man's adoring 
response to that love. 

Both these aspects achieve their fulness in the Paschal Mystery. As 
Jesus passes through death to life, the divine agape is perfectly sacra- 
mentalized in the human love by which He lays down His life, and in 
the exaltation of the man Jesus as Son of God in power; while man's 
worship is given definitive total expression in the sacrifice of Calvary. 


It would seem that this conception of the sacramental character of 
Christ's sacred humanity and of all the things He did and endured should 
have a special reference for the Preachers of the Passion. There is no 
need for acrimonious debate over whether the Passion or the Resurrection 
is that which accomplishes our redemption. Both are essential to the car- 
rying out of the merciful design of the saving love of the Blessed Trinity. 
But if we would convey to the Christian people the depth and sincerity of 
this divine self -giving love, how can it better be done than by bringing 
them to perceive in faith, the very visibility of God's redeeming love 
made almost palpable in the human love, by which the man Jesus lays 
down His life for His brethren. Is not this the core of our mission in 
the Church? Someday, perhaps, this aspect of the Passion will be given 
adequate scholarly treatment, as Father Lyonnet once urged: "You Pas- 
sionists should work on studies that present the Passion of Christ as the 
expression of God's love" (cf. Fonti Vive, Sept. 1962, n. 31, p. 372). 


E. Schillebeeckx, OP, Christ the Sacrament of the Encounter with God (N.Y., 

J. H. Miller, CSC, Signs of Transformation in Christ (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 

C. Davis, Theology for Today (N.Y., 1962) pp. 121-138. 

"The soul is not fattened out of frying pans!" 

— St. Bernard {Letters) 


Pastoral Theology 

Matrimonial and Other Trends* 

Nicholas Gill, CP, JCD 

The Canon Law Society of America held its 1964 annual convention 
at San Francisco. Discussions were lengthy and spirited. The following 
are some of the topics debated. 

(1) Should the canonical form be retained for the validity of marriages? 

An affirmative answer would mean that, the Church should continue 
according to the present law. A negative answer would mean approval 
of another acceptable manner — e.g., all marriages performed by any 
clergyman or civil official, provided no impediment exist. 

Affirmative: Intervention by the Church is needed today, more than 
ever before — for instruction, counsel, preparation through Pre-Cana, for 
dealing with the manifold problem of mixed marriages before the cere- 
mony. Change the law, and these benefits would, in many cases, be lost. 
Those who wish to marry hastily or at a very early age can now be 
persuaded to change their minds, or at least receive some instruction, 
because of the fact that they must face a priest. Were the proposed change 
approved, the teen-ager would be married for life. Divorce is excep- 
tionally high among those who contract marriage in their teens. Benefits 
derived from the present law far outweigh ecumenical and other alleged 
pastoral advantages. 

Negative: Recognize any legal form acceptable to the state. This would 
give sufficient guarantee against clandestine marriages, the source of so 
many evils prior to 1908. 

Furthermore, people are scandalized when someone is married within 
the Church, after two or more invalid civil marriages. 

Were marriage in any legal form valid, it would be much easier to 
reconcile fallen-aways to the Church. As it is, we must first convalidate 
a marriage before we can hear the confessions of those involved. 

* This column is a digest, headlining the full report of the Canon Law Con- 
vention. Its significance is based upon its indication of prevailing trends among 
professional canonists of this country. 


Today, in the Netherlands and Switzerland, almost 75% of the mixed 
marriages are contracted outside the Church. With the elimination of the 
present required form, a great number of people would be saved for the 

It is against the canonical spirit to regard a mixed marriage as invalid, 
when performed with reverence by a non-Catholic minister. 

As to the retention of the present form for validity, 91 voted affirma- 
tively; 62, negatively. 

(2) Cautiones: Should they be retained, or not? 

Reminder: In the 18th century, the Church demanded four promises: 
i) that the Catholic strive for the conversion of the non-Catholic party; 
ii) that there be only one religious ceremony; iii) that the non-Catholic 
not interfere with the Catholic's practice of religion; iv) that both strive 
for the Catholic education of children. In 1918, the Church dropped the 
first two. It could do so inasmuch as the promises are not of divine law, 
but only means unto the accomplishment of divine law. Hence, it is con- 
tended, promises iii and iv could be eliminated. Should that be done? 

In favor of retention: Divine law requires Catholic baptism and up- 
bringing. The role of the Church demands that she help members attain 
this goal. To create good will is not sufficient reason to weaken the faith 
of Catholics. As pointed out by Card. Bea, there is a difference between 
true and false ecumenism. 

Present benefit from promises, coupled with policy of marriage prepa- 
ration, should not be discarded in favor of dubious advantage. 

In favor of rejection: It was alleged that Promise iii does not create 
much difficulty. Promise iv does, but it should be dropped. Giving due 
consideration to religious liberty, how can we ask a man to act against 
his conscience? The ecumenical spirit demands that, we do not force the 
non-Catholic to promise against his conscience. With the waiver of Prom- 
ise iv, the Church would give practical proof of its sincerity and willing- 
ness to push for unity. 

The arguments just alleged did not answer satisfactorily the questions 
dealing with the conscience of the Catholic. How can the Catholic act 
against his conscience? We should be concerned as much with him as 
with the non-Catholic. 

(3) Five questions were put to the members of the Canon Law Society: 


(a) Must the Church, in advance of the marriage, safeguard the reli- 
gion of the Catholic party in a Disparity of Cult marriage? (Substance 
of Promise iii) Yes: 143 No: 16. 

(b) Must the Church safeguard the Catholic religion of the offspring 
of this same DC marriage? Yes: 144 No: 26. 

(c) Must the Church safeguard the religion of the Catholic party in 
a mixed religion marriage? Yes: 129 No: 35. (Promise iii) 

(d) Must the Church safeguard the religion of the offspring in a mixed 
religion marriage? (Promise iv) Yes: 122 No: 48. 

(e) What should the form of the safeguard be? Written promises: 80. 
Oral promises: 24. Left to judgment of priests: 58. 

(4) Cremation: 

In 1963, the Holy Office sent a letter to the hierarchy in re cremation. 
The text is not recorded in AAS. The letter encourages the traditional 
burial. Cremation is permitted, with the approval of the local Ordinary, 
provided there be no irreligious motivation. Burial rites are to be held 
prior to cremation, and not at the same place. Thus, allowance is made for 
customs in Japan and Africa, and for other circumstances. 

(5) Matrimonial Impediments: 

It was recommended that some be eliminated, such as spiritual rela- 
tionship; that others be reduced, such as the degrees of consanguinity, 
affinity; that others some be changed from diriment to impedient. Con- 
sideration was given to the advisability of new impediments, covering 
psychopaths, homosexuals, et al. 

Microfilming: Acceptable for canonical records. 

Privilege of the Faith Cases: Could the Holy See (in this case, the 
Pope) allow the bishops to dissolve the natural bond of marriage, or is 
it so proper to the Pope that he must exercise this power himself, directly ? 
The opinion was expressed that, it would be possible for the Pope to 
state the conditions for the privilege, and if the bishop — after investi- 
gation — formally declared the conditions to be verified, the bond would 
be dissolved by the Pope himself operating through the law, though not 
by personal action. 



The Liturgy and Christian Teaching 

Victor Hoagland, CP, STD 

A long tradition of religious art has favored picturing Christ teaching 
his apostles and the crowds from a mountain, or on a seashore or in the 
fields, aloof from official Judaism. This may be our own idea of the way 
Christ generally taught while He was on earth. Yet this picture must be 
tempered by a somewhat different description of his teaching activity 
given by our Lord himself. After He had been apprehended by the soldiers 
and brought before the High Priest, Jesus tells him: "I have always 
taught in the synagogue and in the temple where all the Jews gather, 
and in secret I have said nothing." (Jn. 18:20) A large measure of 
Christ's teaching activity, therefore, must have taken place in the syna- 
gogues of Palestine and in the temple area at Jerusalem. St. Matthew gives 
a similar resume of the Lord's preaching: "Jesus went about all Galilee, 
teaching in their synagogues and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, 
and healing every disease and every sickness among the people." (Mt. 

Far from being aloof from official Jewish life and worship, Jesus seems 
to have been immersed in it. From the indications we possess, we may 
conjecture that He regularly taught in the normal context of the synagogue 
and temple services, basing himself on the Scriptures read at these services, 
and departing from the current feasts and ritual to show that He was their 
fulfillment. St. Luke provides an interesting sketch of what must have 
been ordinary procedure in our Lord's teaching ministry: "And He came 
to Nazareth, . . . and according to his custom, He entered the synagogue 
on the Sabbath and stood up to read. And the volume of Isaias the prophet 
was handed to him. . . ." (Lk. 4:16 ff.) He read the selection from the 
prophet, undoubtedly marked for the day's liturgical reading, and sitting 
down He began to teach what it meant. Snatches of his remarks that day 
and the hostile response they provoked are preserved by St. Luke. The 
summary of his theme is found in verse 21: "Today this Scripture has 
been fulfilled in your hearing." 


Above all the other gospels, that of St. John seems to emphasize the 
liturgical context in which Jesus taught. He has carefully noted the litur- 
gical feasts and the places of the Lord's teaching. The long discourses of 
Jesus are like sermons, which we must often see as related to these feasts 
and places. John seems to present Jesus as the preacher who completes 
and explains the signs and rites and readings of Jewish worship and who, 
to his words, joins miracles as signs pointing to the fulfillment of Jewish 

The context of the liturgy was a normal context in which Christ taught 
while He was on earth. This much the Scriptures clearly show. He pre- 
sented himself as the "Today" of these rites, and feasts, and readings. 

The recent Constitution on the Liturgy issued by the Council has but 
affirmed that the liturgical framework Christ once used, He uses now. 
Principally through rites and signs and feasts He works salvation and 
teaches his Church. The liturgy of the Church brings Christ, his words 
and works to us today. 

For accomplishing the work of salvation, the Constitution says "Christ 
is always present in his Church, especially in her liturgical celebrations. 
He is present in the sacrifice of the Mass, not only in the person of his 
minister, 'the same now offering through the ministry of priests, who 
formerly offered himself on the cross,' but especially under the eucharistic 
species. By his power He is present in the sacraments, so that when a 
man baptizes it is really Christ himself who baptizes. He is present in 
his word, since it is He himself who speaks when the holy scriptures are 
read in the Church. He is present, lastly, when the Church prays and 
sings. . . ." (# 7) 

The liturgy remains central in the teaching mission of the Church, 
"for in the liturgy God speaks to his people and Christ is still proclaim- 
ing his gospel." (#33) Therefore the Council Fathers have asked that 
participation in the liturgy be made easier and more meaningful for the 
faithful. The reform of the rites will assist to this end. Likewise, the 
Council Fathers have called for a renewed effort in preaching, for a 
constant and actual exhortation is ever necessary, if we are to enter this 
demanding world of signs. A deepened awareness of the Scriptures has 
been urged upon us, for as He once did, so Christ uses these today to 
speak to us. In fact, the Scriptures find their natural setting in liturgy. 
More than in the classroom, or in discussion clubs, or in private reading, 


the Scriptures are enlivened by the presence of Christ and the signs of 
the sacraments in the liturgy. 

Christ is the great teacher of the Church. He has established his presence 
and activity especially in the liturgy. There we are to bring ourselves 
and there we are to direct our apostolate to others, that we may all learn 
from Him. 


Lay Participation in the Mass and the Priest 

Alfred Duffy, CP 

November 29, 1964 was the first Sunday of Advent. A radical change 
took place in the churches of the United States. For the first time, the 
people of the Latin rite heard a considerable part of the Mass said in 
English, in which they actively participated with the celebrant, in offering 
the holy Sacrifice. 

This change pleases some greatly, both among the clergy and the laity. 
Others seem to be indifferent about it. Still others oppose it. However, 
the Church has spoken in the Constitution on the Liturgy, promulgated by 
Pope Paul VI at the closing session of the second session of Vatican Coun- 
cil II, December, 1963. The extent of the use of the mother tongue was 
determined by the hierarchy of the country. 

The changes actually made in the manner of celebrating the divine 
Sacrifice, bring out in bold relief the need for both good speaking and 
good reading on the part of the priest. For in no small measure will the 
success or the failure of the entire movement, prescinding from God's 
grace, rest on just how well or how poorly the celebrant performs his 
part of the new form of holy Mass. The priest is the one who must set 
the standard. It should be a lofty one. 

Radio and television have made the people of many countries through- 
out the world very much aware of the cardinal principles of correct speak- 
ing and reading. People of education or of little education hear the same 
announcers, the same advertisements, the same messages. Statisticians tell 
us that actually millions of hours are spent listening to the scientific 
marvels, which we now take for granted, that bring the spoken word 


into homes, automobiles, into practically everywhere. All listeners have 
one quality in common. They wish to hear with a minimum of effort. 
If the speaker be good, he commands attention. If he be poor, a dial is 
turned to hear someone else or to get another picture. 

Back in the mid-thirties, in what was called the golden age of radio, 
when television was as yet undreamed of by the average man, the Colum- 
bia Broadcasting Company accepted just six new announcers, one year, 
out of 1000 applicants for such positions. Waldo Abbot, in his Handbook 
of Broadcasting, gives the requirements the company demanded: "that 
the voice be natural, a universal voice, not one tied down to any locality 
or sectional dialect; that the announcer have the ability to be formal 
without being stiff, to be informal without gushing; that he be versatile 
in his ability to handle names, musical terms, and foreign words. The 
voice should be masculine and mature." 

V. R. Sutton of the National Broadcasting Company, in his booklet 
on The Selection and Training of Radio Announcers, states: "An an- 
nouncer in the NBC is expected to average well in the following: a good 
voice, clear enunciation, and pronunciation free from all dialect or local 
peculiarities; ability to read well; sufficient knowledge of foreign lan- 
guages for the correct pronunciation of names, titles, etc. ; some knowledge 
of musical history, composition, and composers; facility in extempore 
speaking; selling ability in reading commercial continuity; ability to mas- 
ter technical details in operating the switchboard; a college education. 

Abbot sums up the aims of both of these large company demands thus: 
"The qualities that make the best announcers are personality, charm, nat- 
uralness, sincerity, conviction, enthusiasm, spontaneity, accuracy, culture, 
and salesmanship, to which add a dash of voice with an excellent vocabu- 
lary and you have the ideal radio announcer. To be accepted by the radio 
listener the announcer must avoid all forms of affectation, such as gush- 
ing evangelical exhortation, pleading sweetness, aggressive overemphasis, 
spiritual ecstasy, and the overly precise pronunciation that results in an 
obvious division of a word into its syllables." 

These are very high standards, and we might question the number of 
announcers in our own range of recollection who possessed all of these 
attributes of perfection in the spoken word. But we are forced to admit 
that the characteristics demanded do express a lofty idealism, so that 
near approximation to them has given the listening public a good idea 
of just what good speech really is. 


Correct enunciation should be the chief concern of the celebrant, since 
his first objective after the honor and glory of God, is to be heard by 
the people. As the Constitution on the Liturgy says: "Mother Church 
earnestly desires that all the faithful should be led to that full, conscious, 
and active participation in liturgical celebrations which is demanded by 
the very nature of the liturgy. Such participation by the Christian people 
as 'a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a redeemed people,' 
(1 Pet. 2:9 cf. 2:4-5), is their right and duty by reason of their baptism." 

Enunciation should be clear-cut and definite. The common fault against 
it is not lack of loudness but lack of distinctness. A whisper clearly enun- 
ciated can be heard in a large church. There must be distinctness in 
sounding consonants, proper but not overdone separation of syllables, 
and proper spacing of words. 

There must be flexibility of voice. Lack of variety in pitch wearies the 
listeners. Fine distinctions in thought cannot be expressed properly without 
a variety of tones. There must be color in the voice, that is, the reader or 
speaker must feel what he is saying or reading and express it. A voice of 
color is one that responds to the emotions which the text normally would 
inspire. If holy Scripture and the sacred prayers are to have the desired 
effect of impressing the hearers, the reader or speaker must seek to com- 
municate the fullest meaning of the passages read or the words spoken. 

God has not given the same type of voice to all men. Some are tenors, 
some baritones, some bass. Some have full orotund tones, others what is 
termed a thin voice. But whatever the voice may be in tonal range, it 
must be used in such a manner that it be clear, flexible, and colorful. 
Otherwise a passage read or a homily preached will lack the essential 
qualities that appeal to an audience. 

If for making money by selling time on the airwaves, both broadcasting 
companies for radio and television are so careful in the matter of proper 
presentation and voice, with what almost infinite concern should the priest 
act to make effective the word of God, giving to it the reverence due to 
holy Scripture and the profound respect that alone is worthy of the holy 
Sacrifice of the Mass! 

Among us the custom has been longstanding that, a student prepare 
his public reading — not to show off before his brethren, or to seek to 
impress them by his intellectuality or fine voice. It is out of respect for 
his audience, and to do justice to the author whose work he presents to 
the community. Much more so should the priest prepare, who is to read 


a public Mass. Then it will be said the better, impress the congregation, 
and help them realize that spiritual magnificence of the sacred Sacrifice 
being accomplished on the altar. Their appreciation of the privilege of 
participation will be enhanced immeasurably. 

Mission Source Material 

Neil Sharkey, CP, STD 

Death in Christ: 

C. Duquoc, "La Mort dans le Christ," Lumiere et Vie (Mai-Juin, 1964), 

During the episcopacy of Bishop Dupanloup (1849-78), the diocese 
of Orleans issued the following regulation for parish missions: "Preachers 
must speak on these subjects: Mortal Sin, the Delay of Conversion, Death, 
the Last Sacraments, the Eternal Pains of Hell, the Parable of the Prodigal 
Son." The immediate purpose of such missions was to restore the people 
to the practice of religion. The subject matter chosen for preaching stressed 
the weakness of man before the fact of death and incited a holy fear. 
The sermon on death, itself, emphasized the certainty of death and the 
tragedy of dying unprepared. But people hardly noticed. The prevalent 
ideas of the time came from outside the Church. 

In contrast, modern man has been giving serious thought to the problem 
of death. Present interest centers on this question: Does death have any 
meaning or is it the supreme absurdity of human life? Two themes are 
associated with the question: (1) death and the problem of self -fulfill- 
ment; (2) death as an absence from others. 

1. Death and the Problem of Self-fulfillment. Solon (638-C558 BC) 
maintained that it is impossible to judge the meaning and value of any 
person before he dies. Only at death does a man finish his work. Only 
then does his history come to a close and he can be judged by his past. 
As long as a man lives he can change the meaning of his past: at any 
moment, he can give a new direction to his life. The Confessions of St. 
Augustine explain his past; but his life did not have the same meaning 
before the moment of his conversion as it did afterward. The past be- 


comes fixed in a final objectivity only at the moment of a man's death, 
when he makes his final ultimate decision. 

Yet, no matter when one dies there remains the problem of personal 
self -fulfillment. Sartre observed that if Balzac had died before he wrote 
his Human Comedy he would have been a mediocre writer. In any man's 
life, any event can mean the difference between mediocrity and high 

To many, the death of the young is a scandal and even the OT writers 
noticed the element of the tragic in the death of the young. Modern 
thought notices the element of the tragic in the death of the old, for who 
can say when a man reaches self-fulfillment, no matter how old he 
becomes? Man is an historical being and caught up in an endless process 
of self -fulfillment. Every man, at any moment, no matter how old he is, 
can redefine the meaning of his life, change the meaning of his past. 
As a consequence, the death of everyone has its elements of ambiguity, 
scandal, and the absurd. 

To the Christian, however, only faith, as an obedient fidelity before 
God, gives genuine self-fulfillment. In a life in Jesus Christ, he experi- 
ences the full meaning of his life, at each instant, no matter where he 
has been, where he is, or what he has become. Death, for such a person, 
no matter when it approaches, is the consummation of his life: a passing 
over to the perfection of life in God. When faithfulness to the mystery 
of Jesus Christ is present, self-fulfillment is present. Each man must ex- 
perience his own death at some future moment but the meaning of his 
life consists in a personal union with Jesus Christ encountered through 
obedient fidelity. 

2. Death as an Absence from Others. Death is not only the destruc- 
tion of one's possibilities on earth; it is, at the same time, an absence 
from others. No man can be a solitary being. He is the center of many 
personal relations. He belongs to a particular family, lives close to others 
and is united to them through bonds of work, affection, and friendship. 
For the most part, a man experiences his deepest joys and sorrows with 
others. Death destroys these incarnated relations: he can no longer see 
his friends, talk to them, share in incarnated expressions of joy and hap- 
piness. Because of this, death seems an absurdity to one in love with his 

For the Christian, however, death is not a total absence. Death may 
concretize physical absence but not the loss of friendship. Only sin can 


destroy the deepest bonds of true friendship. In not loving God, one truly 
cuts himself off from others and becomes absent, for in sin a person seeks 
himself, rejects love, chooses personal solitude in a world of selfishness. 
Death in Christ is not only a passing over to the perfection of life in God 
but to a perfection of life in God's kingdom. Death, it is true, cuts one 
off from an incarnated communion with those loved on earth; but it is 
a passing over to a more perfect life with others, a passing over toward 
the perfection of life. 

Thus, in death, the Christian experiences the perfection, the consum- 
mation of his life. He experiences, in some real way, the meaning of the 
perfection and consummation of our Lord's sacrifice — His passing over 
to the Father. 


(1) Karl H. Schelkle, The Epistle to the Romans (Herder and Herder, 
1964). In this book, Father Schelkle, Catholic professor of NT theology 
at the University of Tubingen, offers his theological reflections on St. 
Paul's epistle to the Romans. He states and illumines St. Paul's themes 
on sin, redemption through Jesus Christ, the history of salvation, and 
the Christian life. At a time when a new danger arises, where Christian 
preaching may be reduced to bible reading, followed by words without 
content, the burden of finding the life in the words of Sacred Scripture 
falls on the person of each priest. It is by reading and studying such a 
work as this that, one experiences a truth he learned going to school: the 
most valuable education is the one which a man gives himself. 

(2) Karl Rahner, SJ, The Eternal Year (Helicon Press, 1964). This 
book contains the personal reflections of Karl Rahner on the liturgical 

Retreat Source Material 

Cronan Regan, CP, STD 

Constitution on the Church — Second Vatican Council (NCWC, Wash- 
ington, DC), pp. 82. [Translation the same as that which appeared 
in NY Times.] 

The most important recent item of "retreat source material" is the 


dogmatic constitution by which the Council undertakes to "unfold more 
fully to the faithful of the Church, and to the whole world its own inner 
nature and universal mission." (#1, p. 1). The document supplies indi- 
cations of the Church's thinking which should find an echo in all preach- 
ing of Christian renewal, and special points of interest to those who 
preach laymen's and religious retreats. 

General: The Church as the covenanted People of God is described in 
the biblical framework of salvation history (#9, pp. 10-11). The nature of 
the common priesthood of all the baptized is taught and its role indicated 
(#10, p. 12; #31, p. 34; #34, p. 37). The sacramental activity of the 
Church is clearly treated (#11, pp. 12-14), with significant orientations 
on Baptism as a commitment to worship (p. 12) ; Eucharist as sign and 
cause of the unity of the Church manifest in charity (p. 13) ; Penance 
as reconciliation with the Church (ib.) ; Matrimony and the role of 
parents as "first preachers of the faith." (ib.) Paragraph 12 (p. 14) pro- 
vides a number of seed thoughts on that witnessing to Christ which is 
a share in Christ's prophetic office. 

Laity: The Constitution sets out to examine the foundations of the the- 
ology of the layman in the world, in Chapter IV (the layman in religion 
being considered in Chapter VI). It emphasizes the point that the specific 
characteristic of the laity is their secular nature. The layman's vocation 
is to "seek the kingdom of God by engaging in temporal affairs and by 
ordering them according to the plan of God." (#31, p. 35) As members 
of a missionary Church, everyone has a duty to engage in the apostolate 
(which is given a broader definition than was often the case in the past) 
(#33, p. 36) ; and the Constitution indicates its dimensions in its orga- 
nized and unorganized form, in the purely secular realm as well as in the 
sacral and ecclesiastical (#35 & 36, pp. 37-40; cf. also #17, p. 19). In 
Chapter V, on the universal vocation to holiness, the Fathers of the 
Council emphasize that all holiness in the Church must be a following 
of the "humble and cross-bearing Christ in order to be worthy of being 
sharers in His glory" (#41, p. 44). Likewise they reaffirm the enduring 
value of the way of the evangelical counsels in the pursuit of holiness 
(#39, p. 43; #42, p. 48). 

Religious: There is nothing revolutionary in the chapter on Religious, 
unless it be the fact that the traditional values of our state are given clear 


statement, in an era when so much had been called into question. The 
vows of religion are recognized as means of consecrating the religious to 
God "under a new and special title," and of freeing him from "those 
obstacles" hindering the "fervor of charity and the perfection of divine 
worship." (#44, p. 51) Like every other member of the People of God, 
the religious, it is clearly taught, has the duty to be concerned for the 
welfare of the entire Church, and to work for its extension. But for each 
institute the apostolate is to be "in keeping with the proper type of their 
own vocation," and the Council even uses the disjunctive: "This can be 
realized through prayer or active works of the apostolate." (#44, p. 51; 
cf. #17, p. 19) The Council teaches that the religious state does not 
exist primarily to supply apostolic laborers, but for God — "to free its 
members from earthly cares" and thus more fully manifest the presence 
and value of other-worldly goods "already possessed here below." (#44, 
p. 51) The Council teaches a paradoxical brand of personalism and 
Christian humanism which is entirely in harmony with the traditional 
values of separation from the "earthly city" and "renunciation" (#46, 
p. 53). It can be especially reassuring to disturbed religious, to show that 
the renewed vitality of religious life hoped for by the Council does not 
at all envision its dismantling. 

The Homily 

Preaching the Liturgical Renewal (The Liturgical Conference, Wash- 
ington, DC, 1964) pp. 96. $1.95; spiral-bound. 

A retreat, in 1965, practically demands that a homily be preached at 
the daily Mass in addition to the conferences. This book provides twenty 
samples of the peculiar literary genus: homily. There is a three-page 
introduction to the homilies, and an eleven-page appendix on liturgical 
preaching, or the homily. The homily is not defined by its content — i.e., 
it need not be a commentary on the gospel text; it is defined by its situ- 
ation as an integral part of the eucharistic celebration. It summarizes the 
liturgy of the word and announces the liturgy of the eucharist. It may 
have kerygmatic or catechetical elements, but these do not determine what 
the homily does, nor how it is constructed. The real function of the homily 
is to make the liturgy of the word a very personal invitation to this 
present congregation, and thus to mobilize their faith, hope and charity 


so that the congregation will be better disposed to enter into personal 
contact with the living Christ in the mystery of the eucharist in which 
they are to participate. 

Quaestiones Disputatae 

Can a priest reciting any little office in place of the Divine Office omit 
Prime and choose one of the little hours? 

Since the above question has given rise to considerable pros and cons, 
I would like to present both views. 
"No, he cannot.'' 

The short offices are referred to almost casually in both the conciliar 
Constitution and the Pope's Motu Proprio. Their composition is said to 
be modeled on the structure of the Divine Office {"in modum Officii divini 
confectum," Const., n.98; "instar divini Officii compositum," Motu 
Proprio, n.8). The main purpose of the references cited is to depute 
members of Institutes of Perfection who recite these offices by rule as 
being henceforth engaged in the public prayer of the Church. Since the 
make-up of these short offices is based on the composition of the Divine 
Office, they will undoubtedly have to be revised when the Divine Office 
has been revised by the post-conciliar commission. Whether in addition 
to following the make-up of the Divine Office, these short offices will 
also follow the manner of recitation permitted for the Divine Office (i.e., 
omitting Prime and giving the option of reciting one of the three little 
hours, which will belong to the integrity of the revised offices) — on this 
the Church has said nothing. 

The present permission, shortening the breviary obligation, does not 
flow directly from the conciliar constitution; it is rather a personal grant 
of the Pope given in the sixth paragraph of the Motu Proprio. The Pope 
expressly begins his grant with the affirmation that, the composition of 
the Divine Office has not yet been revised in accord with the decree of 
the Council. ("Quamvis divini Officii or do nondum sit .... recognitus 
et instauratus.") Nevertheless, he personally gives permission to a certain 
segment of clerics, which will lighten their daily obligation. It is a 
permission. ("Facultatem facimus .... possunt omittere . . . eligere. 
Concedimus," etc.) It is not given to all clerics, but only those who "chori 
obligatione non astringuntur." As a favorable permission, it is capable 


of broad interpretation within the permitted matter — and this matter is 
the Divine Office. It is not per se capable of extensive interpretation to 
another matter. And the short offices, while structurally similar in com- 
position to the Divine Office, are other realities. Exemptions permitted 
in one are not ipso facto permitted in the other. 

In conclusion, the permissive norm graciously granted by the personal 
act of the Pope concerns nothing but the Divine Office — i.e., it does not 
apply to offices similar in structure to the Divine Office, nor to prayers 
granted in commutation of the Divine Office. Neither does the fact of 
the grant of a mitigating permission in the Divine Office imply that it is 
a defect of law in the sense of Canon 20, when a like mitigation is not 
given in every other office composed in analogous fashion. It is rather 
a privilege and, therefore, there is no warrant for using the permissive 
norm of the Motu Proprio, in the little offices we recite as commutations 
of the Divine Office. 

"Yes, he can." 

The little offices are not only similar in composition to the Divine 
Office, but also similar in the manner of their recitation, or the mode of 
fulfilling the obligation — e.g., both must be recited vocally, integrally, 
in the order of the hours, etc. Furthermore, in all the previous recent 
changes of the Divine Office (structural or otherwise), the little offices 
subsequently have been changed in harmony with the Divine Office — and 
it is worthy of note that, these changes were made without any promul- 
gation other than their appearance in approved liturgical books. (Cfr. 
Decree of S.C. of Rites, simplifying the rubrics of the Divine Office, 
23 March 1955 [AAS, XLVII, 1955, p. 218] ; Decree of S.C. of Rites, 
21 January 1961, in Pustet-Ratisbon breviary; Decree of S.C. of Rites, 
23 March 1961, in Benziger edition of the breviary). It is moreover 
clear from paragraph 98 of the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy that 
sometime in the future the short offices will be drawn up after the pattern 
of the Divine Office — indeed the little offices have already been raised 
to the level of "public prayer of the Church," when they are recited by 
those who, in virtue of their constitutions, are bound to perform this 
function. (Cfr. also Motu Proprio, no. 8; AAS, LXIV, 1964, p. 97.) 

While it is true that neither the Divine Office nor the little offices 
has yet been revised, the norms for revision are explicitly given in the 
Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy (paragraph 89 seq.), and the subse- 


quent permission given in the Motu Proprio to omit Prime, and to choose 
one of the three small hours is certainly based on these same norms: 
"Quamvis divini Officii or do nondum sit, iuxta art. 89, recognitus et 
instauratus, tamen iam nunc Us qui chori obligatione non astringuntur 
facultatem facimus, ut . . . Horam Primam omittere possint," etc. The 
argument that the permission given in the Motu Proprio does not flow 
directly from the conciliar Constitution seems gratuitous, since the Pope 
himself makes repeated references to this document. Hence the old juridic 
axiom, "ubi eadem est ratio, eadem debet esse iuris dispositio," can be 
brought to bear. By analogy of law, since there is no express provision 
made for the recitation of the little offices, a norm of action may be taken 
"from laws enacted in similar matters" (cf. canon 20). The rubrics for 
saying the little offices are not proper to these offices, but are adapted 
from the Divine Office. Therefore, it is not a misapplication of the prin- 
ciple of analogy of law, to take as a norm for saying the little offices 
today, the permission granted by Pope Paul VI in his Motu Proprio. To 
call this permission a privilege and therefore to restrict its application 
to the Divine Office alone, is to beg the question. For while it is true 
that the permission to omit Prime and to choose one of the short hours 
is a privilege in the wide sense, more exactly, it is a special law granted 
to a certain group — and therefore a true law, comparable to the privi- 
leges contained in the Code — e.g. the privileges of clerics (cc. 119-123), 
of Cardinals (c. 239), etc. As such, interpretation of the permission is 
made according to the principles of canons 15-21 incl., not according 
to canons 50, 66-68. (cf. Coronata, Inst. Iuris Canon ici, I p. 94; Cico- 
gnani, Canon Law, p. 780; Abbo-Hannan, The Sacred Canons, I, p. 92). 

Therefore I submit the proposition that it is perfectly in accord with 
the Motu Proprio of Paul VI for a priest to use these permissions when- 
ever he enjoys the faculty of reciting the little office, and I maintain that 
// such an interpretation of the Motu Proprio is "extensive," then the 
Pope himself has made the extension. 

— Damian Towey, CP, JCD 


From the Celian Hill 

Timothy Fitzgerald, CP, STD 

Some interesting works on preaching have appeared recently in Roman 
bookstores. E. Fournier has set forth his ideas on the Sunday sermon in 
the light of Vatican II: L'Homelie selon La Constitution de la Sainte 
Liturgie (Brussels: Lumen Vitae, 1964). As usual his insights are rich, 
especially when he discusses how the homily unfolds the mysteries of the 
Faith and provides norms for true Christian living. The eagerly awaited 
Guide de I'assemblee chretienne (Tornaci: Casterman, 1964) by Thierry 
Maertens and Jean Frisque is a splendid handbook for the Sunday 
preacher in 1965. The 1st volume of a projected five-volume work covers 
from the 1st Sunday of Advent to the 6th Sunday after Epiphany. The 
Guide is meant to be used in collaboration with the St. Andrew Bible 
Missal. Each Sunday's Mass is developed in the following way: a modern 
exegesis of the epistle and gospel; a liturgical analysis of the formulary 
which includes history, thematic development, and a suggestion of how 
to fit the homily into this Mass; development of the biblical theme; a 
doctrinal analysis of the theme. The Guide is not as thorough as the 
Assemblies du Seigneur to which it often refers. But while it wears its 
scholarship lightly, it is, nonetheless, a profoundly spiritual study of the 
Sunday Masses and will certainly be a standard work until the new Missal 
appears. We can only hope for a quick translation. 

Initiation des enfants a la liturgie dominicale (Bruges: Biblica, 1964) 
follows the same general outline as the Guide, but it is geared for children 
11-13 years old and has many suggestions for acquainting them with the 
scriptural and historical background of the Church's year. The work is in 
three volumes and can easily be adapted by the preacher to adult audiences. 

Varia: On Oct. 22, the Roman Americans gathered at the Atonement 
Sisters' convent behind St. Peter's, to honor His Excellency, Cuthbert M. 
O'Gara, CP, on the occasion of his Golden Jubilee of Profession. At the 
dinner Father General read a personal letter from His Holiness, Pope 
Paul VI — a message of congratulation and eloquent commendation of the 
Bishop's work in China. His Excellency received also a spiritual bouquet 
as a token of the veneration of the brethren. 




Guest Editorial 1 

Editorial 3 

Passiology 3 

! Fundamental 5 

Dogmatic 12 

Pastoral 16 

Liturgy 19 

Homiletics .21 

Annotated (Mission Source Material .... 24 

Bibliography )_ _ AT „. 

(Retreat Source Material .... 26 

Ouaestiones Disputatae ........ 29 

From the Celian Hill 32 

"The primary duty of a literary man is to have clear conceptions, and 
to be exact and intelligible in expressing them." 

— Card. Newman {Grammar of Assent) 

"The most pressing duty of Christians is to live the liturgical life, 
and increase and cherish its supernatural spirit." 

—Pius XII {Mediator Dei) 

". . . The word of the cross . . . is . . . to us . . . the power of God." 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

lertmm Crurta 

Vol. Ill April, A.D. 1965 No. 2 

Iferbum (Cruris 

Vol. Ill April, A.D. 1965 No. 2 

A Quarterly Review of Clerical Literature 
Published by the Passionist Fathers 
Province of Saint Paul of the Cross. 

Cum Superiorum permissu 

Ad instar manuscript* 

For private circulation only 

Opinions expressed by contributors do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the editor. 


86-45 178 Street 

Jamaica 32, N. Y. 

Telephone: AXtel 7-0044 

Cable Address: Veecee New York 


The tidal wave of Johannine aggiornamento augurs to continue through- 
out the remainder of the twentieth century. Its influence is felt within 
every diocese and parish, by every religious community. Updating bespeaks 
a more efficient adaptation of means to end, on the part of clerics and lay- 
men, seculars and religious, superiors and subjects. Especially in the case 
of religious institutes which are wholly or partially contemplative, problems 
can arise in an endeavor to balance apostolic efficiency, and those monastic 
features which are a community's reason for existence as a canonical entity. 

The lectures and discussions of the latest Canadian Religious Conference 
point up the manifold problem of adjustment. 1 From both the sociological 
and hierarchical viewpoints, the necessity for community flexibility is em- 
phasized. In outlining the spiritual viewpoint, the Prior General of the 
Little Brothers of Jesus indicates four areas where improvement is called 
for. (1) The necessity for intelligence and knowledge, and — most of all — 
contemplation based on them. "Prayer is a basic essential for all — even the 
busiest. Liturgical piety has its values and advantages, but also its disad- 
vantages, and should not be the only form of prayer to be cultivated." 

(2) Asceticism, in conformity with the gospel and the history of monas- 
ticism. "Religious life without strict discipline would be unthinkable." 

(3) To preserve a fine and delicate chastity under the more or less pagan 
conditions of our present milieu. In choosing candidates for the religious 
life, more highly exacting standards are called for — there have been too 
many mistakes in the past. "Many excellent young people have all the 
qualifications for a priestly or religious vocation, except this one — fitness 
to lead a perfectly celibate life." (4) Principally, there is charity, with 
its various and, at times, apparently conflicting demands. The great means 
to this end is contemplation. 

It was John XXIII who, on July 1, 1959, approved our revised Rules 
and Constitutions as "adapted to the necessities of modern times." (p. 9) 
The reasonable flexibility of our apostolate is clearly stated in the very 
first chapter of the revised text. (I: #2) The dominant note of that apos- 

1 Review for Religious; Jan. '65; p. 105. (Annual, full-text publication of 
Canadian Religious Conference: Donum Dei.) Cf. "Priestly and Religious Voca- 
tion, R for R, May '62. 

tolate is sounded by our fourth, "family" vow, which symbolizes our 
personality among the religious communities of the Church. 

Over the years, the flexibility of our specialized apostolate has been 
exemplified throughout the Congregation at large, and within the Ameri- 
can provinces, at home and abroad, by the spoken and written "word of 
the Cross." In retrospect, we have reason for gratification. In prospect, we 
have reason for aggiornamento. 

However, the updating of our apostolate should be always within the 
framework of our Rules, Regulations, and customs. It would be a case of 
pseudologic to contend that, there is any incompatibility between our 
adaptation to "the necessities of modern times," and the monastic features 
of our religious life. Poverty is the specific antidote against the enervating 
"cult of household gods." Chastity bespeaks a cloistered, undivided mind 
and heart, and the recompense of the sixth Beatitude. Without obedience, 
a Church Militant would be impossible. 2 By the dedicated observance of 
our Rule and of our unique vow, we fit ourselves as suitable instruments 
in the nail-punctured hands of the Divine Passionist. We ambition His 
infallible commendation: "Bene laborasti pro me!" — AMcD 


The Devotion of the Lord's Passion 

Gerard Rooney, CP 

"... Our Congregation has for its special purpose, and this is reinforced 
by our fourth vow, the constant determination to spread abroad the devo- 
tion of the Lord's Passion. . ." (Revised Regulations: 1: #2) The vitality 
of our Congregation requires that we continuously explore the meaning 
of this tremendous devotion. 

A provocative place to begin a theological examination of the meaning 
of this devotion is found in the revised captions to the chapter of the 
Rule dealing with our fourth vow. 

The Rule of 1736, the first revision, has this caption: On the Observ- 
ance of the Vow to Promote among the Faithful the Devotion of the 
Most Holy Passion and Death of Jesus Christ. 

2 "Psychological Aspects of Obedience," by Conrad W. Baars, MD; Cross & 
Crown; March '65; p. 13 S. 

In the Rule of 1741, the reading is almost the same, but changes the 
devotion of the Passion into devotion to the Passion. 

The Rule of 1746 expands the chapter on the vow and adds another 
nuance, reading: On the Vow to Promote among the Faithful the Religious 
Cult and Loving Remembrance of the Passion and Death of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. This reading remains in the subsequent revisions of 1769 and 
1775, and also 1930 and 1959. 

The present English translation does not seem to be quite satisfactory 
in this respect. There is really a distinction between "devotion to" some- 
thing and "the devotion of" something. "Devotion to" something or some- 
one, puts emphasis on our subjective dispositions and, indeed, this aspect 
of our fourth vow is well indicated in the captions from 1746 onward, 
when they speak of "a grateful remembrance" of the Passion of our Lord. 
This surely is part of our vow and actually to teach it to others we must 
first promote it in our own hearts, even by reason of the vow. 

In revising the Rule of 1746 and onward, apparently some translator saw 
the need for avoiding any false impression that the fourth vow consisted 
in promoting devotion to the Passion simply as a "grateful remembrance." 
This impression might have been more easily taken from the Rule of 1741, 
where the caption speaks of "devotion to the Passion." At any rate, the 
new reading from 1746 onward speaks distinctly of promoting "the devo- 
tion of the Lord's Passion" in addition to "a loving remembrance" of 
the same. 

The question arises: What is "Religiosum Cultum Passionis DNJC?" 

This is a question which deserves far more attention than it is receiving 
in this brief article. However, the purpose of this article is simply to open 
up the way to fruitful research. 

"Cult" pertains to the worship of God. Thus, Part III of the Code of 
Canon Law is entitled "On Divine Cult," and obviously embraces the 
whole liturgical life of the Church. Primarily concerned with the worship 
of God, cult also pertains to special mysteries of the Faith and to sacred 
persons and things — for example, the cult of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
of the Saints, of relics, etc. 

The nature of a particular cult and the norms governing its proper 
expression giwe it a certain objective nature. 

Devotion, on the other hand, places the emphasis on the subjective 
dispositions. Thus St. Thomas defines devotion as "A will to give oneself 
readily to the things that pertain to the service of God." (II-II, Q. 82, 

a.l) He describes it as the chief act of the virtue of religion, acquired 
by earnest meditation on the love of God for his creatures, particularly 
as manifested in the Incarnation and Passion of His Son. 

More specifically, a devotion may be an attraction to a particular mys- 
tery or personage. In this way devotion is joined to such cults as the Way 
of the Cross, our Blessed Lady, etc. 

We can describe the objective nature of such cults as the Way of the 
Cross, the Blessed Virgin Mary, the relics of the saints. What do we mean 
by "religiosum cultum Passionis et Mortis DNJC?" 

The cult of Our Lord's Passion, like every cult, must have doctrinal 
foundations. In practicing the cult, there is demanded an awareness of this 
great mystery of faith, an appreciation of its import, an attraction to its 
excellence, and a desire to share in it. 

The cult of our Lord's Passion surely begins with knowledge, through 
Faith, of Who He is and what and how and why He suffered and died 
for us. But even more personally, it requires a knowledge of its relevance 
to our daily lives. Our Lord said He is the Way. He said we must take 
up our cross daily and follow Him. He taught us that, like the grain of 
wheat dying in the ground in order to spring up to new life, we too must 
be reborn, learn to die to our egoism, to renounce self and follow Him, 
if we would be His disciples. He told us God's Providence would treat 
us like the master of the vineyard who prunes the branches that the vine 
may be more fruitful. 

The Apostle Paul, particularly, wrestled with the great problem posed 
by our newness of life in Christ, the divine outpouring of the Holy Spirit 
into our hearts, with a promise to make us ultimately like to Christ in His 
Resurrection — yet a newness of life that coexisted here on earth with our 
egoism, our disordered concupiscence. He pointed out that we are baptized 
in Christ's death, and are constantly to die to our own egoism in order 
to live unto God. In this way, each Christian has his passion to fulfill 
before his final glorification. "With Christ, I am crucified to the world." 

This is the Christian life which Saint Paul of the Cross preached to 
the people of his day, constantly meditating aloud for them the lessons 
of the Lord's Passion, living the Passion himself, and encouraging the 
people to rejoice in their newness of life by conforming their hearts and 
minds, their daily deeds to the life of Christ, patiently and humbly accept- 
ing their adversities, from within and without. 

This newness of life and true liberty of the Christian is witnessed by 

the unanimous tradition of the great masters of the spiritual life such as 
Augustine, Gregory, Thomas Aquinas, Theresa and John of the Cross. 
Per Crucem ad Lucem is the commonly accepted motto. 

The life of man is constantly subjected to pressing crosses — poverty or 
at least the struggle for economic sustenance; ignorance, disease, war, and 
worldly social pressures. Above all, there are the multitudinous betrayals of 
our emotions by our disordered concupiscence, the results and horrors 
of which have been graphically unmasked by modern techniques of 

The cult of the Passion of our Lord is based on awareness of what our 
Lord suffered and why He suffered and how He continues to suffer in the 
members of His Mystical Body. Whatever happens to one of His least 
brethren, whether good or evil, happens to Himself. 

It is thus the glorious destiny of the Christian to aid Christ in continu- 
ally redeeming the world. It is the even greater destiny of the Passionist 
to practice this cult in his daily life and to teach and preach it professionally 
to the entire world. Our fourth vow marks us among men for this. Our 
monastic life is based on it. The Sign we wear on our religious garb pro- 
claims it for everyone to see. Our special apostolate is infused with a 
realization of the tremendous relevance of this devotion to the daily lives 
of the people. For we are not only brought to the final glory of our own 
resurrection through the Passion and Cross of Jesus Christ, but even here 
on earth, the eternal life begun with Baptism progresses only on the cross, 
vivified by the glorious presence of the Risen Christ pouring forth His life- 
giving Spirit into our hearts. The tremendous relevance of the cult of the 
Passion of Christ deserves constant probing and practice by every Passionist. 

Fundamental Theology 

Christological Miracles 

Norman Demeck, CP, STL 

Fundamental Theology, like other branches of Sacred Doctrine, has 
changed profoundly because of recent scriptural, liturgical, and patristic 
studies. Often the Fundamental theologian finds that he must abandon 
former positions — e.g., the parallel-text procedure for Messianic prophecies 

is now replaced with a synthetic portrayal; 1 or, that he must revise and 
transform considerably a good portion of previous insights. This last pro- 
cedure is especially true of miracles and their apologetic purposes. It is 
not a matter of maintaining that miracles do not have an apologetic func- 
tion but, rather, of understanding in depth their confirmative role by 
relating them to other functions performed in the scriptural accounts of 
the life of Christ. 

Today, miracles are considered polyvalent revelatory signs — i.e., they 
have many roles to perform in revealing God's plan of salvation for us. 
In the miraculous deeds of Christ, many elements combine to make the 
wonder a complex sign heavily charged with supernatural significance. By 
examining the context of each miracle story one will discover the precise 
function that a miracle is here and now performing. 

One must note that the New Testament uses no word that should be 
accurately translated miracle, even though translators do use the word. 2 
The words most commonly used in the inspired writings are dynamis 
(power), semeia (signs) and ergon (works). 

We may enumerate the revelatory functions of the miracles of Christ 
as the following: 

1. They are signs of the Agape of God. Miracles manifest God's com- 
passionate love for men in their human miseries; they are His response 
to the appeal of human distress. So in Luke 7:13 we read: "When the 
Lord saw her (the widow of Nairn) his heart went out to her, and he 
said, 'Weep no more.' " 

2. They are signs of the advent of the Royal Redeemer. The Old 
Testament prophets announced not only the messianic era, but also the 
signs of that time. The messianic age was to be a time of wondrous events 
(Is. 35:5) ; it was to be a time in which miracles comparable to the event 
of the Exodus would be repeated. This theme seems to have guided John 
in his choice of miracles: signs of living water, of manna, of light, of life 
— all resonant with O.T. significance. Thus it is, the miracles are used to 
signify that the kingdom of God foretold by the prophets has finally 
arrived (cf. Luke 4:16-22). 

1 Vawter, "The Use of Messianic Prophecies in Apologetics, CTSA Proceedings, 
1959, p. 97ff. 

2 Cf. McKenzie, "Signs and Power: the New Testament Presentation of Mira- 
cles, Chicago Studies, 3:1; 5-18. 

In another way, the miracle stories are used to reveal the impact of 
Christ's presence. In the ancient mind, behind sin, sickness, and death 
stands Satan, whose kingdom Christ came to destroy. Satan reigns by sin 
and he extends his kingdom even to the body by sickness and death. The 
cures and exorcism performed by Christ signify that the kingdom of Satan 
is now being destroyed and that the Kingdom of God has come. The 
miracles express visibly the invisible and spiritual renovation begun by 
Christ, the Royal Redeemer. 

3. Signs of Christ's Divine Mission. The miracles of Christ are His 
credentials as the envoy of God: they authenticate for men the mission 
of Christ. The Jews demanded a sign (I Cor. 1:22) ; this is a very human 
demand. Before making a total commitment, one seeks support for his 
reason. So Christ appeals to His miracles as the guarantees of His power 
and mission. (Cf. Jn 11:41; 2:23, Mk 2:10) Fundamental theologians 
have always insisted upon this important function of the Gospel miracles. 

4. Signs of the Glory of Christ. Miracles must be connected with the 
consciousness Christ had of his divine filiation and the revelation of this 
mystery. Through miracles one is led to know that Christ is the very 
Son of God. Christ stands among the men of the world with the power of 
Jahweh — the miracles are the sparkling display of this power. They are 
the deeds of the Word of God made flesh (cf. Jn 1:14; 2:11). 

5. Revelation of the Mystery of the Trinity. Through the miracles of 
Christ we gain an access to the very mystery of the Trinity. They are works 
common to the Father and to the Son, thereby revealing the profound 
unity that joins them. "As the Father raises the dead and gives them life, 
so the Son gives life to men as he determines" (Jn 5:21). "The works 
that the Father gave me to do and finish are precisely the works that I 
do" (Jn 5:56). In short, miracles reveal the perfect alliance in action and 
love between Christ and his Father in Heaven (Jn 14:10-12). 

6. Symbols of the Sacramental Economy. The advent of Christ inaugu- 
rated a new era — the world of grace and the sacraments. Miracles let us 
see, as through a transparency, the transformation operating within men's 
hearts and souls. The wondrous deeds of Christ are images expressive of 
the spiritual gifts offered to men in the person of Christ. The marvels 
accomplished on the physical plane are figures, symbols of the marvels of 
grace. Here are some concrete examples of this function of a miracle. In 
Lk 5:10, the miraculous catch is a sign of the spiritual expansion of the 
Church by evangelization: "From now on you will be catching men." The 

cure of the paralytic (Mk 2:5) attests to Christ's power to forgive sins. 
The cure of the lepers (Mk 1:40-45) symbolizes the return of the sinner 
to the society of the kingdom of God — a sign most expressive, for as 
leprosy separates men from human society, so also sin excludes us from 
the divine society. Even if Christ did not always underline a relationship 
such as these, the entire context of the miracle pericope suggests it 

7. Signs of the final transformation of the world. Miracles prefigure 
the transformation that will take place at the end of time in the human 
body and the physical universe. Redemption is not limited to the world 
of the spirit; it must envelop the entire universe with its light and power 
— it must renovate everything. The miracles of Christ allow us to glimpse 
in anticipation the glorious order of the resurrection of the body and the 
ultimate transformation of the world. The victories performed by Christ 
over bodily illnesses disclose the triumph of life. And life, suddenly re- 
stored, is a sign of that life which Christ will give in abundance at the 
end of time. Miracles also announce the redemption of the universe. The 
cosmic miracles of Christ (Mk 6:49; 4:39) are signs foretelling the 
eschatological transformation, the renewal that will affect even the physical 

From the above discussion we can see the great theological content of 
the Gospel miracles. Like other Christian realities they point in many 
directions, they act on many planes of reality. By realizing this multi-value 
of miracles we gain insight, and understanding of what is certainly a most 
essential part of the original proclamation of the message of Christ. 

For further reading: 

Brown, "The Gospel Miracles," The Bible in Current Catholic Thought, ed. by 

McKenzie, SJ, Herder and Herder 1962. 
Gleason, "Miracles and Contemporary Theology," Thought, Mar. 62. 
Latourelle, "Miracles and Revelation," Theology Digest, XII: 2. 
Taymans, "Miracles, Signs of the Supernatural," Theology Digest, V:4. 

"Far be it from me to belittle loyalty, but I'd rather have someone 
give me an argument. When two men in an organization think exactly 
alike, we can get along without one of them." — G. H. Coppers, 

President, National Biscuit 

Sacred Scripture 

The Ministry of the Word 

Kevin McCloskey, CP, MA, STL, SSL 

Our times are characterized by a return to the "word," a recovery of 
the "word." We call the first part of the Mass the Liturgy of the Word. 
We have detailed and impressive instructions from the Bishops on the 
proper reading of the Word of God, for praying and speaking aloud in 
church. Sacred preaching is undergoing a marked renewal. Important studies 
by Mircea Eliade and Gerardus van der Leeuw have drawn attention to 
the importance and nobility of myth and symbol as instruments of knowl- 
edge and vehicles of truth. Father Karl Rahner alerts us to the danger of 
the "great words" being abased in a technological world. Martin Buber 
describes life as meeting and dialogue. This review is aptly entitled Verbum 

Much of the to-do about the "word" may strike us as bizarre, more 
"mere" words, simply talk, until we realize that in our Christian vocabu- 
lary, Word is the proper name of the Son of God, the Second Person of 
the Holy Trinity, and our sublime vocation is that of the "ministry of 
the Word" (Acts 6:4), and saving faith "comes from what is heard, and 
what is heard comes by the preaching of Christ" (Rom 10:17). Heirs of 
a "written-read" tradition of the book, we may not appreciate the validity 
of the "spoken-heard" word. We may even look upon the poet (to whom 
also the word is entrusted) as a man who, in superfluously pleasing rhymes, 
in a sentimental flood of words, says in a more complicated way what 
philosophers and scientists say more clearly, more prosaically, more intel- 
ligibly. The word may be for some, nothing more than the clear word of 
a formula or of a definition, forgetting that words are signs, not replicas 
of thought, and thoughts are likenesses of things: words refer to things 
indirectly through thoughts. Words mean reality, but reality is always 
greater. Words evoke reality. 

In the Bible, "word" is not merely light, declaring something, signify- 
ing something. It is power, effectively bringing about what is said. What 
is spoken is here. This dynamic word does not merely repeat or talk about, 
but presents, enacts, realizes, achieves. It has objective reality. It is sent 
by God as a messenger to perform His work: 

For, as the rain and the snow come down from heaven, 

and return not thither but water the earth, 

making it bring forth and sprout, 

giving seed to the sower and bread to the eater, 
So shall My word be that goes forth from My mouth; 

it shall not return to Me empty, 

but it shall accomplish that which I purpose, 

and prosper in the thing for which I sent it. 

(Is 55:10-11) 
He sends forth His command to the earth; 

His word runs swiftly. 
He gives snow like wool; 

He scatters hoarfrost like ashes. 
He casts forth His ice like morsels; 

who can stand before His cold? 
He sends forth His word, and melts them; 

He makes His wind blow, and the waters flow. 

(Ps 147:15-18) 

The present revival of the "word" should be of great interest to us 
Passionists, for we are by profession dedicated to the "ministry of the 
word." We "preach Christ crucified." We should be stimulated to con- 
tinue our fine preaching tradition by recalling that we share so closely in 
the prophetical aspect of the Priesthood of Christ, Who is the fulfilment 
of Old Testament Prophecy: 

In many and various ways God spoke of old to our fathers by the 
prophets; but in these last days He has spoken to us by a Son. 

(Heb 1:1-2) 

Sacred Scripture presents God as One Who Speaks. He speaks through 
creation, through events, through His prophets, through His Son Who is 
the Word, the living message, the full expression of the Father. His entire 
Person is Word. The speaking of the Father through the Word is con- 
tinued by the Holy Spirit speaking through the Apostles and their suc- 
cessors, through the Sacred Liturgy. 

The priesthood of Christ unfolds itself in the world through the Church 
and the Sacrament of Orders. In this priesthood, preaching is of capital 
importance. It may prove surprising to us that St. Thomas calls preaching 
the principal and proper function of the bishop {Sum. theol. Ill, q. 67, 


a. 1 ad 1 et a. 2 ad 1; q. 71, a. 4 ad 3). Sacred Scripture characterizes 
the essence of the priestly office from the aspect of service of the Word 
(Acts 6:4). Baptism is the means by which people become disciples of 
the teaching of Christ (Mt 28:19). St. Paul puts his mission of preaching 
before that of the command to baptize (1 Cor 1:17). During the rite of 
ordination the bishop admonishes those called to participate in the priest- 
hood of Christ: "Sacerdotem oportet praedicare." So St. Paul charges 
Timothy "in the presence of God and of Jesus Christ, Who is to judge 
the living and the dead, and by His appearing and His kingdom: preach 
the word, be urgent in season and out of season, convince, rebuke, and 
exhort, be unfailing in patience and in teaching . . . always be steady, 
endure suffering, do the work of an evangelist, fulfill your ministry" 
(2 Tm 4:1-5). Some of the great apostle's last words were an exhortation 
to his disciple to devote himself to preaching. 

The Christ of St. John is preeminently a prophetic figure. The prophet 
is one called and sent by God to speak in His Name. He is a mediator 
between God and men. Whereas the priest presented Israel to God, the 
prophet presented God to His people. For St. John, Christ is God's final 
utterance: the Word-made-flesh (1:14). He reveals God to us and His 
plan to make us His adopted sons: Filii in Filio (1:18; 14:9; 15:15; 
16:25; cf. Mt 11:27). Christ is sent by the Father to give the Father's 
words (Jn 5:17-24; 9:7; 17:3-25). St. John emphasizes that Christ is 
the Prophet: John the Baptist is the voice, whereas Christ is the Word. 
His entire Person is Word. So St. Augustine would say: "Etiam factum 
Verb/, verbum nobis est." The death of Christ as sacrifice is related to His 
priestly ministry as Victim; as martyrdom, it is related to His prophetic 
ministry as Witness to the Truth (Jn 18:19-38). 

What a sublime dignity is ours as preachers of the Passion! We are 
sharers in the prophetic ministry of Christ our High Priest. Like the 
prophets of old we are men by vocation responsible for our people. Here, 
loving our neighbor consists in doing everything possible to put the people 
in touch with the Word of God. And so St. Paul exhorts us: "Do your 
best to present yourself to God as one approved, a workman who has no 
need to be ashamed, rightly handling the word of truth" (2 Tm 2:15). 
We can do this and our words will be effective, provided we have first 
said the word of the priest: "This is My Body, My Blood." All the other 
words are interpretations, variations of this. 



Passionists and the Liturgy of God 

Robert O'Hara, CP, MA 

In the January, 1965 issue of Verbum Cruets, Most Reverend Father 
General, in a guest editorial, adverted to the fact that some Passionists 
suspect that current movements within the Church have created grave 
problems for Passionists. He wrote: "Some have voiced the opinion that 
our proper apostolate is finished, now that devotions have been demoted 
and the emphasis in preaching shifted to the Mystery of the Resurrection." 

It must be admitted that noticeable changes are taking place in the 
devotional life of the faithful. In this Province, for instance, there has 
been a great falling off in the popularity of novena devotions, which 
brought out huge crowds thirty years ago. However, it might be noted 
in passing that, those devotions were not wholly without contact with the 
liturgy, through countless confessions and communions. Furthermore, while 
recognizing the fact that the Passionist Congregation does not have as its 
specific purpose the fostering of devotion to the saints, yet we must be 
convinced that veneration of the saints will never be phased out of the 
Church's life, nor is it necessary, as certain contemporary "agnostics" 
assert, to limit that veneration to praying with the saints, not to them. 

Moreover, we Passionists may and must preach the mystery of the 
Resurrection, but that must not mean that, unlike the Apostle, we must 
give up preaching "Christ and him Crucified." 

It would appear that one aspect of the current uneasiness that some 
Passionists experience is polarized about the liturgical movement. One 
gets the impression that they feel that, this very vital renewal creates a 
corporate crisis for us, when it actually affords us a great opportunity, and 
this is so, not in spite of the fact that we are identified with the Passion, 
but precisely because of that identification. The Passion of Christ is at 
the heart of the Liturgy. Centuries ago, St. Cyprian wrote: "The sacrifice 
which we offer is the Passion of Our Lord." 1 

Central to the problem is the truth that Christ is essentially the "one 
mediator between God and men . . . who gave himself a ransom for all 

1 Ep. 63, 17. 


men, bearing witness in his own time," as St. Paul wrote to Timothy. (1 
Tim. 2,5) 

In the Old Dispensation, a priest was consecrated to the divine service 
by being anointed with oil. In the New Dispensation, men are ordained 
by the act of receiving a character which empowers them to offer sacrifice 
to God. Their priesthood is a participation in the priesthood of Christ. 
However, unlike the priests in the Old Dispensation, Christ as man needed 
no anointing with oil; He was anointed by the divine Being itself. Nor 
did He receive a character of priesthood as do other priests. He is the 
archetype of the priestly character. In the words of the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, He is the "Son . . . being the brightness of His glory and the 
image of His substance." (Heb. 1,3) 

Thus, through the mystery of the Incarnation, the Son of God became 
the ontological mediator, reconciling in His very being "summa et imzs," 
in the patristic phrase. In the hypostatic union, the divine and the human 
became reconciled in an unbreakable marriage, although previously sepa- 
rated by an infinite gap and the positive factor of human sin. 

This ontological priesthood of Christ strongly appealed to the Greek 
Fathers ; they stressed that God became man that man might become God, 
and this great transformation was accomplished even in the very fact of 
Incarnation. The philosophy of Plato and its conception of "that which is 
truly real," in contrast with that which is real only by way of participation, 
obviously furnished a background to this emphasis. 2 

It is also true that all the mysteries of Christ's life were capable of 
redeeming the world, and each of them has its own lessons and energies 
for us. The French school of spirituality, in the light of this principle, 
has taught that "all the mysteries of Christ are our mysteries." 

However, it is the constant teaching of the Church that, through the 
will of the Father, the redemption of the world was accomplished in a 
formal and explicit sense, through the Passion, Death, and Resurrection 
of Christ, these events being seen as incidents in one continuous action. 
Our Lord referred to this triumphant ending to His life as His "hour," 
the decisive moment for the redemptive activity of God. Moreover, the 
redemptive process was a sacrifice in the strictest meaning of the word. 

St. John begins his account with the words: "Now the Passover of the 
Jews was at hand." (Jno. 11, 55) The note in the Jerusalem Bible for this 

2 Richard, L., Le Mystere de la Redemption, 106, passim. 


text points out: "John does not cease to underline the relationship between 
the death of Jesus and the Pasch." Similarly, St. Thomas describes the 
last events of Christ's life as an "exitus" with obvious reference to the 
Exodus and Pasch of the Jews. 3 As St. Paul expressed it, "He delivered 
Himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God to ascend in fragrant 
odor." (Eph. 5,2) The Liturgy of God was performed on Calvary where, 
in ascending current, man's adoration, petition, and satisfaction were of- 
fered to God and where, in descending current, God's mercy and pardon, 
love and life, came to man. In that fateful hour, Calvary became the center 
of the spiritual universe. The cosmic dimensions of the Liturgy of God 
found expression in the words of St. Irenaeus: "By the Word of God, all 
things are under the influence of the economy of redemption, and the Son 
of God has been crucified for all, having traced the sign of the Cross 
on all things." 4 

Not only was Christ's death on the Cross a sacrifice but, in His infinite 
wisdom, He ordained that the whole sacramental system have its source 
in the Crucified. St. John relates that one of the soldiers "opened His 
side with a lance, and immediately there came out blood and water." (Jno. 
19,34) St. Thomas sums up the traditional understanding of this mys- 
terious incident in these words: "Wherefore it is manifest that the sacra- 
ments of the Church derive their power especially from Christ's Passion, 
the virtue of which is in a manner united to us by our receiving the sacra- 
ments. It was in sign of this that, from the side of Christ hanging on 
the Cross there flowed water and blood, the former of which belongs to 
Baptism, the latter to the Eucharist, which are the principal sacraments." 
(3, qu. 62, a. 5, c.) Hence, each of the sacraments is related to the 

This symbolism is, of course, most formal in the sacrifice of the Mass. 
Precisely because some of our contemporaries were losing sight of this 
relationship, Pope Pius XII explained: "Since, indeed, Christ's bitter 
sufferings constitute the principal mystery from which our salvation arises, 
the universal agreement of Catholic Faith requires that this mystery should 
be placed in the fullest light; indeed, it is as it were the center of divine 
worship, since the Eucharistic sacrifice represents and renews it daily, and 
since the Sacraments are joined by the strictest bond to the Cross." 5 

3 3, intro. qu. 27 ; intro., qu. 46. 

4 Demonstration of Apostolic Preaching, n.34. 

5 Mediator Die, n.194. 


There still remains an area of dispute about the precise relationship of 
the Resurrection to the sacramental economy. In the context of the Mass, 
Journet, recently made a Cardinal, dissociates himself from Suarez and 
certain other modern theologians, and follows the teaching of St. Thomas. 
The Cardinal takes up the problem in many places, but the following is 
a typical expression of his view: "For Berulle, as for Suarez and a number 
of theologians, the Passion of Christ cannot continue to act upon the 
generations of men, because it no longer actually exists; Christ is now 
fully glorified but retains the memory and the marks of His Passion, which 
is now passed away, and it is Christ glorified who acts directly upon us. 
For St. Thomas, Christ is now fully glorified and retains the memory and 
the marks of His Passion, but, as at the very moment of His offering on 
the Cross, He continues to reach men living throughout time through the 
very act of His bloody Passion, although the act itself has passed away." 6 
Again: "One must consider the act of the Passion as the point of contact 
by which Christ in heaven continues to touch the present time. It is ob- 
jected: the Passion is past and can no longer operate in the present time: 
that which no longer exists can no longer operate. The answer consists 
in separating the permanent (his emphasis) value from the transitory (his 
emphasis) act of the Passion. Without doubt, the act was transitory; 
Christ as pilgrim was involved in the irreversible course of time; His 
suffering had only a momentary duration. But this passing action was 
made to set up effects throughout the length of history, like a star which 
continues to shed its light even after its disappearance." Again: "The act 
of the bloody Passion recapitulates (emphasis, his) in itself beforehand 
all the history of salvation which is actualized in successive generations. 
Its virtue touches us with marvellous richness in the sacraments which, as 
it were, come forth from the wound of Christ on the Cross." It is most 
important that Passionists be aware of this Thomistic view of the relation- 
ship of the Passion to the sacramental economy. 

In this connection, it is also worth noting that F. X. Arnold, the re- 
nowned teacher of Pastoral Theology at Tubingen, also goes back to St. 
Thomas for doctrine that will meet contemporary needs. Arnold insists 
that the true perspective is contained in St. Thomas' frequent statement 
that all depends upon "fides et Passio Christi." The emphasis upon faith 
involves that personal commitment so dear to contemporary thinkers: 

6 Journet, L'£glise du Verbe Incarne, pp. 176-177; p. 180; cf. especially note 1, 
p. 180; p. 182; cf. also La Messe, pp. 82, ff. 


and, "this connection of the sacrament with the real Christ of Calvary 
is understood by St. Thomas in an extremely realist sense . . . one can 
therefore say that 'the Passion of Christ' and 'faith in the Passion' are 
the realities which determine, '/» concreto,' the efficacy of the sacraments." 7 

It seems to me, then, that Passionists who experience misgivings about 
their relationship with the liturgical movement because of doctrinal rea- 
sons are unduly exercised. Not only may we in all truth preach the Passion 
of Christ alongside the liturgical movement, but also within its very center, 
for the relationship of the Passion to the liturgy is not factitious but 

Historians are increasingly wary about assigning fixed dates to the begin- 
nings of movements. However, the pastoral phase, at least, of the liturgical 
movement has frequently been traced to a paper delivered by Dom Beau- 
duin of Mont Cesar in 1910. But the whole liturgical movement — 
and this should not be without meaning for Passionists — goes back to the 
Passion, when the Crucified "inaugurated the Rites of the Christian 
Religion." 8 

Canon Law 

Principles of Religious Aggiornamento 

Fintan Lombard, CP, JCL 

The Conference of Major Religious Superiors of Men sponsored a 
meeting of canonists from religious houses in the Eastern States, at Our 
Lady of the Angels Seminary, near Albany, N.Y., March 22-2 3. Among 
the nearly fifty priests at the meeting were five Passionists: Fathers Paul 
Boyle, of Holy Cross Province, President of the Canon Law Society of 
America; Nicholas Gill, Fintan Lombard, Columkille Regan and Cronan 

The purpose of the meeting was to supply proposals on the revision of 
Canon Law concerning religious. Similar meetings were held in California 
last fall and in Detroit last winter. The suggestions of these regional meet- 
ings will be coordinated and studied further at a meeting of the Canon 

7 Arnold, F. X., Pour une Theologie de VApostolat, p. 51; S.T., 3, qu. 62, a. 5 
ad 2, quoted p. 50. 

8 3, qu. 62, a. 5, c. 


Law Committee of the CMSM in Lemont, 111., April 22-23. The Com- 
mittee will present a full report to the Major Superiors at their annual 
meeting at Dupere, Wis., in July. As a result of this work, the American 
religious will be able to present common and coordinated suggestions for 
the revision of the Code of Canon Law. For this reason, among others, 
it is expected that the July meeting of the CMSM will have the largest 
attendance of any meeting yet. 

At the Albany meeting, Father Cronan Regan delivered the first of 
eleven papers which were read and discussed. His topic was "Reflections 
on Principles of Religious Aggiornamento." As background material for 
his talk, Father Cronan presented to the gathering a summary of prin- 
ciples belonging to the irreplaceable "deposit," that must be preserved in 
any modification of the law and structure of religious life. These principles 
were formulated in harmony with two recent authoritative documents of 
the magisterium: the dogmatic Constitution "De Ecclesia" of Vatican 
Council II, and the Allocution "Magno Gaudto" given by Pope Paul VI 
to religious on May 23, 1964. 

1. The religious state has a permanent and necessary place in the 

Paul VI: "... the true notion of religious life as it has traditionally 
flourished in the Church . . . ." 

". . . the special function and immutable importance of 
the religious state within the Church . . . ." 

2. The religious state is constituted by a special commitment to the 
evangelical counsels. 

Vatican: "The evangelical counsels of chastity dedicated to God, pov- 
erty, and obedience are based on the words and example of 
the Lord." (#43) 

"Thus the state which is constituted by the profession of 
the evangelical counsels, though it is not the hierarchical 
structure of the Church, nevertheless, undeniably belongs 
to its life and holiness." (#44) 

"By his profession of the evangelical counsels, then, he 
is more intimately consecrated to divine service (than by 
Baptism alone)." (#44) 

Paul VI: "This stable way of life, which receives its proper char- 


acter from profession of the evangelical vows, is a perfect 
way of living according to the example and teaching of 
Jesus Christ. It is a state of life which keeps in view the 
constant growth of charity leading to its final perfection." 
"Hence it follows that the profession of the evangelical 
vows is a super-addition to that consecration which is 
proper to Baptism. It is indeed a special consecration which 
perfects the former one . . . ." 

3. The religious state is always subordinate to the Church and should 
be lived as an ecclesial life. 

Vatican: "The counsels are a divine gift, which the Church received 
from its Lord and which it always safeguards with the help 
of His grace. Church authority has the duty, under the in- 
spiration of the Holy Spirit, of interpreting these evan- 
gelical counsels, of regulating their practice, and finally to 
build on them stable forms of living." (#43) 

"The evangelical counsels which lead to charity join their 
followers to the Church and its mystery in a special 
way. ... It is the duty of the ecclesiastical hierarchy to 
regulate the practice of the evangelical counsels by law, 
since it is the duty of the same hierarchy to care for the 
People of God and to lead them to most fruitful 
pastures." (#45) 

4. The religious commitment is to the sacral order, not to the temporal. 

Vatican: "By their state in "life, religious give splendid and striking 
testimony that the world cannot be transformed and offered 
to God without the spirit of the beatitudes. But the laity, 
by their very vocation, seek the Kingdom of God by engag- 
ing in temporal affairs and by ordering them according to 
the plan of God." (#31) 

"The religious state, whose purpose is to free its mem- 
bers from earthly cares, more fully manifests to all be- 
lievers the presence of heavenly goods already possessed 
here below. . . . The religious state clearly manifests that 
the Kingdom of God and its needs, in a very special way, 
are raised above all earthly considerations." (#44) 


Paul VI: "The more it is stressed that the role of the laity demands 
that they live and advance the Christian life in the world, 
so much the more is it necessary for those who have truly 
renounced the world to let their example radiantly shine 

"In other ways of life, though legitimate in themselves, 
the specific ends, advantages and functions are of a tem- 
poral character." 

"The very necessities of the times demand that the fervor 
of Christian life should inflame souls and radiate in the 
world itself. In other words, the needs of the times demand 
a 'consecration of the world' and this task pertains pre- 
eminently to the laity." 

5. The religious state exists first for the sanctity of its members and 
'ex consequent?' for the active apostolate. 

Vatican: "In order that he may be capable of deriving more fruit 
from this baptismal grace, he intends, by the profession of 
the evangelical counsels in the Church, to free himself from 
those obstacles, which might draw him away from the fervor 
of charity and the perfection of divine worship." (#44) 

"The spiritual life of these people should then be de- 
voted to the welfare of the whole Church. . . . This duty is 
to be undertaken to the extent of their capabilities and in 
keeping with the proper type of their own vocation. This 
can be realized through prayer or active works of the 
apostolate." (#44) 

Paul VI: "In bringing about this renewal of your Institutes, your 
primary concern must be always the spiritual life of your 
members. Wherefore, among yourselves and among all 
other religious whose duty it is to devote themselves to 
works of the sacred apostolate, We would be entirely op- 
posed to see anyone espousing that false opinion which 
claims that, primary concern must be given to external works 
and only secondary attention devoted to the interior life of 
perfection, as though this were demanded by the spirit of 
the times and the needs of the Church." 

6. The Church wants to preserve the distinction of Institutes within 


the religious state, both as regards their spiritualities and their proper 

apostolic works. 

Vatican: "It is for this reason that the Church preserves and fosters 
the special character of her various religious Institutes." 

"The hierarchy also aids by its vigilant and safeguarding 
authority those Institutes variously established for the 
building up of Christ's body, in order that these same 
Institutes may grow and flourish according to the spirit of 
the Founders." (#45) 

Paul VI: "Moreover, with respect to undertaking new projects or 
activities, you should refrain from taking on those which 
do not entirely correspond to the principal work of your 
Institute or to the mind of your Founder. . . . Every 
religious family has its proper function and it must remain 
faithful to this role. The fruitfulness of the Institute's life 
is based on this fidelity to its specific purpose. . . . There- 
fore no innovation of discipline is to be introduced which 
is incompatible with the nature of the Order or Congre- 
gation and which, in any way, departs from the mind of 
the Founder." 

"With regard to the exercise of the sacred apostolate in 
various dioceses, religious are also under the jurisdiction 
of Bishops, to whom they are bound to give assistance, 
always without prejudice to the nature of their proper apos- 
tolate and the things that are necessary for their religious 

Library Science 

Emmanuel Gardon, CP, MSLS 

Today, with all the current developments in theology, liturgy, scripture, 
and practically everything else linked with the Church, and therefore of 
interest for the priest, there is particular urgency for us to be well in- 
formed. Most of us lack enough time to read all the books which would 
be helpful, and even if we had the time, developments in many fields of 


ecclesiastical interest are moving so rapidly that, books are outdated rela- 
tively quickly, and we still need to find our way to the latest materials. 
Our preaching apostolate lays heavy demands upon us. The upsurge in 
theological and liturgical development increases that burden. We need 
access to material which is up-to-date, informative and reliable, so we 
can keep our preaching in time with what is going on right now. 

The purpose of this article is to indicate one way in which we can 
gain quick access to the latest material. Magazines contain much infor- 
mation that never appears in books; and, information which is too recent 
to have been published in book form. This is true of newspapers, too. . 
The number of volumes in a given title varies yearly, but each has an 

Searching for information through indexes, in individual volumes of 
magazines is, a tedious and time-consuming task. One might compare it 
to the process of going to shelves and searching among thousands of 
books to discover whether the library has the one which you need. Just 
as a library has an index to the book collection — the catalog — so too, 
there are indexes to magazine material. These are just as necessary for 
the intelligent and fruitful use of magazines, as the catalog is for the 
book collection. There are general indexes and specialized ones, and 
through them one may find articles on any subject, by any author. 

These magazine indexes are arranged alphabetically. Many are published 
monthly. At intervals during the year, there are issues which will include 
not only the current month's index, but will reprint in one alphabet, the 
indexes of the issues for two to six months previous. This is called a 
cumulation. Once a year each index cumulates for the whole year. For 
our further convenience, some indexes publish a two or three-year cumu- 
lated volume. For instance the Index to Religious Periodical Literature is 
now published annually, and the Catholic Periodical Index is issued quar- 
terly. Both of these cumulate every two or three years. 

Every entry in an index gives the name of the article, the author, the 
name of the magazine in which it appeared, the volume, page, and exact 
date. Obtaining an article desired, simply means copying down the full 
name of the magazine, the volume number, date and the inclusive paging 
of the article. 

There are periodical indexes for almost any imaginable subject-field. 
What follows is a selection of a few of help in the priests' work. The 
selection of the indexes has been limited to what is currently available 


and to what covers present-day developments. There are available in most 
cases, indexes which cover periodical literature for years back. 

Of special interest to us as Catholic clergy is the Catholic Periodical 
Guide, published by the Catholic Library Association. This publication 
started in 1930 and is up-to-date. It is a cumulative author-subject index 
to a selected list of Catholic periodicals, and is international in scope. 
The index is published quarterly: April and October cover three-month 
periods ; July and December cover six months, replacing the two quarterly 
issues. The bound volume cumulates for two years, and is all in one 
alphabet. This index is the quickest way to reach material on almost an) 
subject of Catholic interest, printed in Catholic periodicals. 

Somewhat of a companion publication is the Guide to Catholic Litera- 
ture, published presently by the Catholic Library Association. Though 
this is not a magazine index, it seems a good idea to call attention to it 
at this point. The guide is an annotated author- title-subject index in one 
alphabet, to books and pamphlets by Catholics, or of particular Catholic 
interest. It covers both domestic and foreign publications, both Catholic 
and non-Catholic authors. 

For non-Catholic periodical publications there is available the Index to 
Religious Periodical Literature, published at Princeton, NJ, by the Ameri- 
can Theological Library Association. This began in 1949 and is running 
to date. This index is a general one to periodical resources in the areas 
of religious and theological scholarship, as well as related subjects. The 
publication is essentially Protestant, but it does include selected Roman 
Catholic and Jewish journals. It is ecumenical on both the scholarly and 
popular levels; it is international in scope. Present publication policy 
issues an annual publication with cumulation every three years. The index 
is an author-subject arrangement, all in one alphabet. Articles by an au- 
thor are followed by articles about him. Subdivisions of subjects are 
underlined. Both annuals and cumulated volumes have book reviews in- 
dexed by author in the second part of the volume. 

The Catholic Periodical Index and the Index to Religious Periodical 
Literature are the most useful for the priest at present. There are other 
smaller and more limited indexes in the religious periodical field, but 
these are either not easily available, or cover years that are not of current 

Also of use to the priest are a couple of general periodical indexes. 
There is the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, published by the 


Wilson Company. This index covers the period from 1900 to date. It is 
the most useful general periodical index. Covering all subjects, it indexes 
magazines from 1900 to the present date. More than 100 popular maga- 
zines are indexed. The Reader's Guide is published twice a month. 

For the more serious-minded, there is the International Index: a quar- 
terly guide to periodical literature in the social sciences and humanities, 
also published by Wilson. The index covers from 1907 to date. Presently 
the International Index is an author-subject index to the more scholarly 
journals in the social sciences and the humanities, including religion and 
philosophy. It is issued quarterly and cumulated every two years. 

The above mentioned periodical indexes will be of most service to the 
busy priest, who is searching for up-to-date information. In addition to 
these, there are indexes for almost every conceivable area. Space does not 
allow for detailed consideration, but in the local public library, the librar- 
ians will be happy to explain the value and particular use of each one. 

Mission Source Material 

Neil Sharkey, CP, STD 

The Existence of God 

I. Mack B. Stokes, "The Nontheistic Temper of the Modern Mind," 
Religion in Life (Spring, 1965), 245-57. 

The past three hundred years have seen a gradual change towards 
atheism. This shift in the modern mentality is so far-reaching that lan- 
guage seems unable to express it. The change has taken place so gradually 
and subtly that even educated men are not fully aware of what is happen- 
ing. The intellectual conviction that the universe and man are the handi- 
work of God — with all that this implies — has receded into the background. 
In its place has emerged the belief that natural laws and processes are 
ultimate. This is not to say that everyone has abandoned belief in God, 
or that most men have done so ; nevertheless, the more sophisticated mem- 
bers of the community are apt to be atheists. 

The important consequences, for theology and preaching, of this vast 
shift in the modern mentality concerns the added abandonment of five 
beliefs which have been the foundation of Western society: (a) a personal 


God; (b) order or cosmic teleology; (c) the moral order; (d) the 
divinity and redemptive mission of Jesus Christ; and (e) personal im- 
mortality. It is obvious that such changes in thought on God, nature, and 
man are bound to affect man's life in the most far-reaching way. Theo- 
logians and preachers cannot ignore the issues. 

Four Types of Nontheistic Thought 

Without referring to particular individuals we may set down four per- 
spectives which have had wide influence during the twentieth century. 

(i) Naturalism. It means any philosophy according to which physical 
or material things and processes are alone ultimate. Nature is uncreated 
and eternal. The naturalist urges that physical processes are the final bases 
of everything else. There is no central intellectual control in the universe. 
Mind and any other 'emergents' are the unpredictable resultants of nature. 
Impersonal evolutionary process is a sufficient explanation for all living 
things, including personal beings. 

(ii) Communistic modes of thought. Even though dialectical material- 
ism is an economic interpertation of history, it implies the hypothesis of 
materialism. According to Marxist philosophers, mental activities are 
secondary emergents; and ultimately they are the resultants of material 
events. Marxists are not as sophisticated as the most able naturalists, but 
they maintain with them that, physical processes are ultimate and that all 
things and events in the universe come out of unconscious evolutionary 

(iii) Logical empiricism. Its approach is unique in that it excludes 
from the start — by rules of grammar and logic — any propositions or state- 
ments about God. Man knows only sense data. Metaphysical statements 
— statements that go beyond sense data — are to be rejected from the start 
as having no real meaning. This rules out metaphysics, natural theology, 
revelation. In recent years empiricism repudiates any knowledge of God 
and nurtures skepticism. 

(iv) Certain forms of existentialism. Existentialism may or may not 
be atheistic. For the most part, however, existentialists are not metaphysi- 
cians. Heidegger is an exception. They look with suspicion upon any at- 
tempt to answer the question: How must we think about reality? They 
concern themselves with the question: How must we live in this alien 
universe? They assume that any intellectual effort to understand an objec- 


tive order does more harm than good: destroys man's will to live, to 
rebel, to be free defiantly, creatively, and with abandon. 

Theological Reactions 

Theologians and preachers have been reacting to this situation, some- 
times without knowing it. 

(a) Some, following Kantian skepticism, insist that we can gain no 
understanding of God by way of philosophy. All that we know of God 
is through Christ and through Christian revelation of which He is the 
center. Some insist in preaching this way. They proclaim that Christ is 
God. They bear witness to the truth of revelation by proclaiming it. Yet, 
underneath, there is a philosophical skepticism wedded to a biblical 
fideism. Thus there is no meeting point for conversation over atheism. 
Further, this position assumes — at least in practice — that there is no strong 
rational foundation for theism. It abandons the whole field to atheists 
whose arguments float primarily on unfounded preconceptions of the 
modern mind and not on any convincing argument. 

(b) Another group of theologians and preachers suggest that we must 
go beyond the traditional understanding of God by thinking of Him as 
the ground of being. God is not "out there," "up there," or "above it 
all." He is the ultimate depth and ground of being. The chief difficulty 
with this attempt is that it is vague. Moreover, it ignores the fact that 
we cannot think reasonably about the ground of being without recognizing 
that this ground is personal. And here one is back to the infinite personal 
God: the traditional understanding of God. 

(c) Another group of theologians and preachers speak only in terms 
of man: man's psychology, man's desperate needs, his struggles and re- 
sponses. This position ignores God and the implications of objective 
reality. It never comes to the basic problem. 

(d) Another approach — the Thomist approach — brings together philo- 
sophical and biblical theology. By means of philosophy, atheistic world 
views are carefully examined and their arguments refuted on intellectual 
grounds; on the other side, the intelligible order in the universe and its 
intelligible relations are affirmed. This enables the thoughtful person to 
realize that the existence of God has not so much been refuted as aban- 
doned, because of sophisticated fads which cannot stand before careful 
scrutiny. In addition, philosophical theology also serves to develop a meta- 


physical theism which can commend itself to people who are willing to 
pay the price of thinking things through. Against this background . of a 
basic theism, biblical revelation takes on a renewed plausibility. Since 
God is, it is reasonable to believe that He reveals Himself. He reveals 
Himself in everyone and in everything. What He did not disclose through 
the physical universe, general history, culture, man, He has revealed 
through the vast patterns of affirmations and events in the Bible which 
come to fulfillment in Jesus Christ. 

Within the context of philosophy, and natural theology, biblical reve- 
lation retains its meaning for those who require today an intellectual 
orientation. Within this context it can continue to be the chief instrument 
for recovering in the masses the sense of the reality and presence of the 
personal God. 

II. Daniel Jenkins, The Christian Belief in God (Philadelphia: West- 
minster Press, 1964). 

This is a book written by a Protestant defending the traditional proofs 
for God's existence and basic Christian apologetics. It deserves attention 
because of its familiarity with contemporary university agnosticism. 

Retreat Source Material 

Cronan Regan, CP, STD 

1. Pope Paul VI "Address to the Lenten Preachers of Rome" March 1, 
1965. Transl. The Catholic Messenger— Davenport 3/25/65, p. 5. 

The Pope exhorted the preachers to priestly holiness, and to confident 
obedience to ecclesiastical superiors. "Know how to keep your mind open 
to spiritual renewal. . . . But know also how to defend yourselves from 
the headiness of arbitrary innovations, from the suggestion of the current 
fashion in ideas not approved by the Church and in no way tested by 

He commissioned the preachers to a liturgical apostolate, recognizing 
that "It means disturbing the pious and good faithful by proposing to 
them new forms of prayer which they will not immediately understand. . . . 
It is a question of fostering a more active school of prayer and worship 


in every assembly of the faithful ... a religious activism that is still not 
habitual with many." 

He spoke of the need of effective speaking, free from artifice and 
jargon, responsive to "the present-day demand for plain, simple, brief 
and intelligible language." 

Concluding: "The religious life of our time, it should be remembered, 
can to a large extent depend on this human and at the same time mysterious 
efficacy of sacred preaching." 

2. J. J. Reed, SJ, "Natural Law, Theology, and the Church" Theological 
Studies 26 (1965) pp. 40-64. 

Is the concept of "natural law" still a valid theological concept? Is the 
Church competent to teach norms of natural law morality? Does her 
charism of infallibility extend to these matters? R. discusses these points 
in an article that is a model of clarity. 

R. notes four attitudes or positions whence arises the opposition to 
natural law. But "for the Catholic moralist natural law belongs to the- 
ology not only by reason of its material object, because it forms part of 
the pattern by which the Christian conforms his life to the will of God, 
but also by reason of his method, because he comes to the knowledge of 
it through the instrumentality of authentic teaching as well as by natural 
reason." He demonstrates that: 

a. The Church teaches natural law with authority. 

b. It does this because it is convinced that the natural law belongs to 
the total deposit of truth entrusted to the Church by Christ. Cf. 
Paul VI, allocution 3/27/65: "As the custodian of God's law, 
natural and positive, the Church will not permit. ..." 

c. Rational investigation is of great importance to assist the Church 
in formulating her teaching. 

d. The value of what the Church teaches as natural law depends on 
her authority to teach rather than on the cogency of the reasons 

e. The Church may teach the natural law infallibly, or in a non- 
infallible way that is still authentic and binding. 

f. The teaching authority of the Church in these matters extends to 
the applying of principles in the concrete, and not only to their 
abstract formulation. 


3. C. Davis, "The Thought of Hell" America 3/20/65 p. 394. 

Where does hell fit into the Good News? Damnation is not related to 
the Christian message in the same way as salvation. The message is a mes- 
sage about God's love by which He calls us to personal union with Him- 
self. The refusal of God's invitation is sin, and final sin is the necessary 
condition of damnation. The teaching on hell is a warning that our decision 
for or against God is real, personal and free. To refuse a relation of love 
is to enter a relation of justice. The gift of salvation would be meaningless 
without heaven and the final achievement of God's plan. The invitation 
to personal love would not be real without freedom and the possibility 
of a damning refusal. 

4. J. E. Corrigan, SJ, Bless Me, Father (America Press Pamphlet, 1964) 
pp. 28. 150. 

Excellent on the perennial problem of using the Sacrament of Penance 
in an adult way that avoids the pitfalls of routine and formalism. C. sets 
the sacrament in the context of integral Christian living and has valuable 
suggestions on making a truly self -revealing examination of conscience and 
accusation — with concrete examples for different classes of penitents. 
Should be valuable in our retreat houses. 

5. J. J. Evoy, SJ, & V. F. Christoph, SJ, Maturity in the Religious Life 
(S & W, N.Y., 1965) pp. x, 310. $4.95. 

Built into religious life are pitfalls to personal maturity. In their unique 
"interruptive" style, E. & C offer the substance of a seminar they have 
conducted for thousands of religious women, applying the insights of a 
developmental psychology to the problem of becoming an integrated per- 
son in religion. The work reflects a wide experience and can be very 
helpful to the preacher of sisters' retreats. The human components of 
fraternal charity — the need for human affection and friendship in com- 
munity, the emotional resonances of such love and its balanced handling 
— are beautifully treated (pp. 46-69, 80-90). In a rambling, but very 
practical way, the authors discuss the difficulty of integrating wholesome 
ambition and initiative into the regime of obedience (Ch. 8 & 9). 

6. Sr. Bertrande Meyers, DC, Sisters for the 21st Century (S & W, N.Y., 
1965) pp. xix, 364. $5.00. 

The book is the best presentation available on how American sisters 
in active communities see their vocation, what changes can be contem- 


plated to make their life and work more relevant to real needs of the 
apostolate. The picture she paints is beautifully balanced. Ch. 10, "The 
Essence of the Religious Vocation," is very well done and has a gentle but 
sage warning to priests, on how unwelcome is any heckling of the sisters 
about certain archaic rules and customs. Her approach to aggiornamento 
as a means to holiness (Ch. 5) is solid and pertinent. The final chapters 
on the Sister-Teacher, Sister-Nurse, and Sister in Social Welfare provide 
observations that should help the retreat preacher to confront the sisters' 
problems and aspirations even more realistically. 

Quaestiones Disputatae 

In the March issue of The Priest (p. 230), a religious cleric expresses 
perplexity in connection with the stand taken by some of his brother priests, 
who maintain that attendance at a participated Mass is more efficacious 
than the personal offering of Mass. 

From under "The Liturgy and Rubrics" (a column edited by W. J. 
Schmitz, SS, STD), the following very brief excerpts are salient. "It is 
difficult to reconcile such an idea with ... the first admonition of the 
ordination ceremony to priesthood: % Sacerdotem . . . oportet offerre. . . .' " 
Father Schmitz then quotes from public statements of Pius XII: ". . . The 
conclusion was reached that the offering of one Mass, at which a hundred 
priests assist with religious devotion is the same as a hundred Masses 
celebrated by a hundred priests. It must be rejected as an erroneous 
opinion." "... The actions of Christ are as many as are the priests cele- 
brating, not as many as are the priests hearing the Mass; those present at 
the Mass, in no sense sustain or act in the person of Christ sacrificing, 
but are to be compared to the faithful layfold who are present." 

Despite the clarification quoted above, I am confused by the article on 
the Sacrifice of the Mass, featured in the January issue of Worship. How 
would you come to grips with that one? 

— XYZ 

The thesis advanced in Worship is known as the Casel-Rahner theory 
on the nature of the Sacrifice of the Mass. Pope Pius XII answered the 
general theory on Nov. 2, 1954 (cf. The Pope Speaks, vol. 1 (1954), 375- 


85) and again on Sept. 22, 1956 (cf. The Pope Speaks, vol. 3 (1956-7), 
273-286). Perhaps the best answer offered by a living theologian is to 
be found in Charles Journet's explanation of the Sacrifice of the Mass, 
given in his work La Messe, Presence du Sacrifice de la Croix (Desclee 
de Brouwer, 3rd ed., 1961). The fundamental problem is this: The Sac- 
rifice of our Lord on the Cross is but one sacrifice, offered once ; yet, at the 
same time, each Mass is also a true and proper sacrifice. How can we 
reconcile these two truths of revelation? Cardinal Journet resolves the 
difficulty by maintaining that each Mass is a sacramental presence of the 
Sacrifice of the Cross. 

1. The Sacrifice of the Last Supper. The Last Supper was a true 
sacrifice. The words of transubstantiation spoken by our Lord did not 
create another sacrifice than that of the Cross but effected a mysterious 
sacramental presence of the sacrifice to be offered in the near future in 
a natural bloody manner. At the moment when the bread and the wine 
were changed into His body and blood — the change did not affect Him but 
the underlying substance of bread and wine — Christ was not doubled but 
His presence was. There were not two distinct Christs in the room but two 
kinds of presence of the same Christ: one presence was his natural presence; 
the other presence was sacramental under the strange appearances of bread 
and wine. 

2. Substantial and Operative Presence. When we come to speak of 
the Sacrifice of the Mass our attention centers on two kinds of presence: 
substantial presence and active, efficient, or operative presence. Substantial 
presence is a presence in being and pertains to the underlying order of 
being, the ontological order, not the order of outward appearances. Oper- 
ative presence is a presence in action and pertains to the dynamic order. 
At the Last Supper Christ was present in these two ways: substantially 
(both naturally and sacramentally) and operatively, by His action of unit- 
ing the disciples to His sacrifice. 

3. The Numerical Oneness of each Sacrifice of the Mass with the 
Sacrifice of the Cross. Each sacrifice of the Mass is not a numerically 
different sacrifice than that of the Cross but a numerically distinct sacra- 
mental presence of His bloody sacrifice. At Mass there is, under the appear- 
ances of bread and wine, a substantial presence (a presence in being) of 
the glorified, risen, ascended Christ. And there is also, under the same ap- 
pearances, an operative (efficient) presence of His one unique redemptive 
sacrifice. Thus the Mass is not another sacrifice than His one redeeming 


sacrifice, but another presence — an operative presence — of His one sacrifice. 
We can say: Just as each consecrated host is Christ substantially because 
transubstantiation multiplies the real substantial presence of Christ, so 
each Mass is a true and real sacrifice because it multiplies the real operative 
presence of the one redeeming sacrifice. 

4. Consummation in God. Does this mean that our Lord — He who 
died, arose from the dead, and ascended into glory — lives in an eternal 
sacrificial state, as some theologians maintain, following the French school 
of thought? No. The God-man redeemed us in the historical past by dying 
on the cross. He merited for us, satisfied for our sins, redeemed us by His 
death: a transitory act. His priesthood is eternal in the sense that He eter- 
nally presents, confirms, ratifies, before God the Father — as the risen glori- 
fied Christ — the one unique sacrificial act ; and He dispenses the riches of 
this act of redemption to the world. Thus the consummation of our Lord's 
Sacrifice of the Cross in God is a continuation of his mediatorial function 
of intercession and dispensation. 

5. The Eternal and Transitorial Acts in Christ. Jesus Christ is God 
and, as God, possesses the one infinite eternal Act of God. At the same 
time, from the first moment of the Incarnation, His human nature has 
been in the immediate presence of the divine essence and Person of God 
the Son: He is God the Son. This is the eternal beatific vision of our 
Lord's human nature. These are eternal acts in the mystery of Jesus Christ 
for they are and will always be in Him. The sacrificial act of our Lord 
was, however, a transitory act specified by His redemptive passion and 
death on the cross. This sacrificial act was animated and vivified by these 
two eternal acts; but it, itself, was not an eternal act of Christ. It ended 
with the moment of His death. In this sense, His redemptive sacrificial act 
was an historical event specified by its object: death. 

6. The Individual Sacrifice of the Mass. Each time the sacrifice of 
the Mass is offered, the priest does not multiply the sacrifice of the Cross 
but its sacramental presence. If each host is truly and really Christ, because 
the mystery of transubstantiation multiplies — not the one Christ — but the 
real substantial presence of Christ ; in like manner, each Mass is truly the 
sacrificial act of Christ because transubstantiation multiplies — not the one 
sacrificial act of Christ — but the real operative presence of the act. 

7. The Ascending and Descending Priestly Mediation of the Priesthood 
of Christ. In the priestly mediation of Christ there are two distinct but 
inseparable movements: an ascending movement by which He offers the 


world to God; and a descending movement by which He brings God to 
the world. In the order of ascending mediation each Mass is, in its own 
proper manner, a sacrifice of adoration, expiation, intercession, and thanks- 
giving. It gives us, under the veils of a sacramental sacrifice the glorified 
Christ as He comes to unite us to His sacrifice. Each Mass becomes an 
incomparable sacramental presence, a supplication of infinite value. It is 
from this point of view that each Mass has an efficacy ex opere operato, 
that is to say, independent of the good or evil dispositions of the priest 
offering the sacrifice. In the order of descending mediation each sacrifice 
of the Mass brings us the saving efficiency of our Lord's passion and death, 
though not independently of the free dispositions of those whom it saves. 

8. Who Offers the Sacrifice of the Mass? In so far as He is God, 
Christ is the first principal cause of the sacrifice. In so far as He is man, 
He is the conjoined instrumental cause of the sacrifice, without which 
transubstantiation could not take place, nor could the sacrifice of the Mass 
be offered. At the moment of transubstantiation the Church offers the 
sacrifice through her priests acting in persona Christi. The sacrifice of the 
Mass, then, in the act of transubstantiation, is a privilege belonging to 
the priest alone. But before and after the moment of transubstantiation 
the Church acts by her priests in her own name, in propria persona. Thus 
the Sacrament of Baptism, unlike the Sacrament of the Priesthood, does 
not confer power on the Christian to intervene in the act of transubstan- 
tiation, but confers power to intervene before and after the act of transub- 
stantiation in the liturgical cult of the sacrifice. 

9- The Infinite Value of the Sacrifice of the Mass. Since each Mass 
is a new sacramental presence of the one sacrifice of the Cross, one must 
speak of the Mass as he speaks of the Cross and say that in the line of 
ascending and descending mediation the value of each Mass is infinite, 
but that the Church participates in it in a finite manner, according to 
the intensity of each person's faith and love. 

—Neil Sharkey, CP, STD 

"In writing and speaking, it does not suffice to be clear enough to be 
understood — we have to be so clear that we can't be w/junderstood." 

— Alexis Cunneen, CP 
Lector, Sacred Eloquence 




Editorial 1 

Passiology 2 

Fundamental Theology 5 

Sacred Scripture . 9 

Liturgy 12 

Canon Law 16 

Library Science 20 

Annotated (Mission Source Material .... 23 

Bibliography )„ _ _, . 

\ Retreat Source Material .... 26 

Ouaestiones Disputatae ........ 29 

"How can hearts be united in perfect charity, where minds do not 
agree in faith?" — Leo XIII (1894) (Praeclara Gratulationis) 

"Holiness and learning must be the distinctive characteristics of Christ's 
minister to the world." — Paul VI: Sutnmi Del Verbum 

". . . The word of the cross ... is ... to us ... the power of God." 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

Unburn (Untria 

Vol. Ill July, A.D. 1965 No. 3 

Iferiwm drurta 

Vol. Ill July, A.D. 1965 No. 

A Quarterly Review of Clerical Literature 
Published by the Passionist Fathers 
Province of Saint Paul of the Cross. 

Cum Superiorum permissu 

Ad instar manuscripti 

For private circulation only 

Opinions expressed by contributors do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the editor. 


86-45 178 Street 

Jamaica 32, N. Y. 

Telephone: AXtel 7-0044 

Cable Address: Veecee New York 


It is consoling that the Church Militant is only a temporary structure. 
It is only a means to an end. That end is the Church Triumphant. If 
our faith and hope be normal, we share with the Apostle "a desire to be 
dissolved and to be with Christ, a thing by far the better." (Phil.: 1:23) 
Logically, because the Church Triumphant is so important, so essential to 
our eternal peace of mind and heart and to our physical well-being, the 
Church Militant is correspondingly important. It is the divinely established 
means for the attainment of our eternal ambition — the Church Triumphant. 

As means to end, the Church Militant is the embodiment of what is 
requisite and sufficient — of divine competence to teach, to rule, to sanctify. 
Within the ambit of the Church Militant, teaching and ruling are related 
to sanctification as means to end. The ratio between our relative status 
in the Church Triumphant and our sanctity in the Church Militant will 
be startlingly precise. Just as the Church Triumphant is the reason for 
existence of the Church Militant, so too, the Ecclesia Sanctijlcans is the 
reason for existence of the Ecclesia Docens et Regens. 

It goes without saying that, the Church Militant must sanctify us in a 
way commensurate with our status as intelligent, free agents. Hence, the 
psychological priority of the Church Teaching. N/7 volhum n't praecogni- 
tum. Unless, and until our human intellects are convinced, our human 
hearts cannot be persuaded. Hence, to be ruled intelligently, to be sanctified 
intelligently, we must first of all be taught. 

Were we to enlarge upon this thumbnail sketch, we might seem to 
belabor the obvious. Since our days as embryonic theologians, we have 
understood and admired the overall strategy of Divine Providence, in 
establishing a Church Militant so adapted to the Church Triumphant. 

With due emphasis on the analogy of proportion, the reminder outlined 
above applies in a special way to a religious community. Resembling a 
diocese in relation to the Church Universal, a religious community approved 
definitively by the Vicar of Christ is entitled to additional teaching, ruling, 
and sanctifying — commensurate with its reason for existence as a canonical 

A religious community bespeaks a refinement of Christianity in general, 
of Roman Catholicity in general. That our holy Rule is conducive to that 

refined modus vivendi — with its bearing upon our share of the Church 
Triumphant — is an indirect object of the Church Militant's infallibility. 

To guide our response to, and our cooperation with that infallible 
Rule, we have — in addition to the hierarchy of the Church Militant at 
large — our own teachers, rulers, and sanctifiers, in the persons of our 
canonical Superiors. Theirs is the lofty and delicate duty to teach us by 
word and example, to exemplify the Rule and to encourage our fidelity, thus 
stabilizing our lifelong endeavors for sanctity as religious, as Passionists. 

What is the upshot of this reminder of the relationship between the 
Church Militant and the Church Triumphant? Of the relationship among 
the Ecclesia Docens, Re gens, et Sanctificans? Of the analogical application 
of that relationship to the Passionist Community ? It is a concrete reminder 
of several items of personal importance. For us of today, our tomorrows 
are numbered, as we "press toward the mark, to the prize of the supernal 
vocation of God, in Christ Jesus." (Phil.: 3:14) Just as we cannot afford 
to be inactive members of the Church Militant, so too, we cannot afford 
in any way or to any extent, to disregard the additional commitments to 
which we are vowed, or the additional aids with which we are graced — 
by way of the teaching, ruling, sanctifying competence of our Passionist 
hierarchy. The theory, we know. But only realized knowledge is influential. 



Implementing the Passion 

Emmanuel Sprigler, CP 

By the inscrutable Providence of God, we are members of this Congre- 
gation: we are vowed to promote devotion to the life-giving Passion 
and death of God's Son. But in these days of aggiornamento — "exciting 
times," according to the late Cardinal Meyer — a great deal of stress is 
being placed on the mystery of the Resurrection. Some Passionists report 
having been charged with fuddy-duddyness in adhering to the "old way" 
of the Cross; that they have been practically taunted because of our 
reiteration of the price paid for our redemption — in spite of all the 
scriptural, theological and liturgical manifestoes in favor of the same — 

and all amounting to: "Get with it!" Weighty scribes in our professional 
journals make note of the overstress which has been laid upon the Passion 
and death; that there has been a losing sight of the fact that, if Christ 
were put to death in the flesh, He was made alive in the spirit. 

Granted! Beyond doubt, the mysteries of the Crucifixion, Resurrection 
and Ascension climax all that God has done for the human family, and 
we are not to emphasize one element to the detriment of the overall pres- 
entation. But as even Durwell, CSSR, author of the fabulous work, The 
Resurrection, admits in his other opus In The Redeeming Christ: "His 
existence is fixed forever at the moment of the Redemption. The five 
wounds . . . are . . . the wounds of a death from which He will never 
recover. . . . The life of glory is a perpetuation of His death; . . . The 
Lamb of God stands in glory and is surrounded by hymns of triumph, 
but He is still slain." (Apoc. 5:6; italics ours pp. 7, 8.) In the following 
paragraph, Durwell does join death and resurrection in one: "He remains 
fixed in the act itself, in the unrepeatable moment of His death and glorifi- 
cation." Truly, "His sepulchre shall be glorious." (Isaias 11:10) However, 
other experts remind us that, according to the Gospel of John, the definitive 
glorification of Jesus begins, not with His Resurrection, but with His 
Passion ! 

For the balanced explanation of all this, we turn to the account of the 
disciples' journey on the afternoon of that first Easter day: their encounter 
with a stranger, their woebegone looks, the jeremiad they voiced over the 
crushing of their hopes for the redemption of Israel, and the meaningful 
question of their chance companion — "Ought not Christ to have suffered 
these things, and so to enter into His glory?" The "ought" and the "so" 
are the key words, both reminiscent of the "must" quoted at the grave. 
Our Lord had prophesied: ". . . that the Son of man must suffer many 
things, . . . and be killed, and after three days rise again." (Mark 8:31) 
The angels at the tomb echoed those very words. (Luke 24:7) The "so" 
indicates the mind of God from the very beginning: that He had no other 
plan whereby we might be saved than, that His Son should suffer the 
mystery of the passion and death. Nothing was out of order. "For I say to 
you, that this that is written must be fulfilled in me: 'And with the wicked 
was he reckoned.' (Isaias 58:12) For the things concerning me have an 
end." (Luke 22:37) The joy of Easter is not because the Place of the 
Skull is only a memory, and we are now concerned only with a Garden of 
Joy. God's plan embraced and still contains both elements — life and death 

— only in this case, life comes forth from death! Again, the experts 
remind us, Luke is very careful to allow the Easter light to shine upon 
his account of the Passion, and likewise he takes pains to show the con- 
nection between the glory of Easter and the pain of the cross. Luke was 
evidently pointing out that the Good Friday experience of the disciples 
was the foundation of their Easter faith and joy. 

Human nature being what it is, the chances are that people are more 
likely to relish the thought that their sins have been blotted out, atoned 
for, than that they have been justified! And here we have the kernel of 
our vocation, plus the Fourth Vow. Our glory is to have been invited to 
help Christ take possession of His kingdom. It had been said to Him: 
"Ask of me and I will give you the Gentiles for your inheritance, and 
the uttermost parts of the earth for your possession." (Psalm 2:8) He 
did ask, "with a strong cry and tears" (Heb. 5:7), but it is up to us to 
aid in making good His claims. "How beautiful upon the mountains are 
the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, . . . that preacheth salvation." 
(Isaias 52:7) "I will teach transgressors your ways, and sinners shall 
return to you." (Psalm 50:14) As members of an active community, we 
are to share the fruits of our contemplation. We are mightily concerned 
with the great virtue of zeal, and to foster and protect it we take that 
Fourth Vow. A vow involves the offering of a sacrifice, a victim, such as 
we have done by the "vows of religion." And it concerns the consecration 
of an effort, and in this case it is the helping Christ take possession of His 
kingdom, the gathering of the fruits of the Passion. The Rule specifies the 
technical scope of this vow, and then allows leeway for many adventures 
into the realm of God's love for promoting such a salutary work. It 
would be difficult to measure the obligations of this vow: e.g., claiming 
that to preach a mission or retreat without at least one sermon on the 
Passion would constitute grave matter. But here is a field of endeavor 
where it is certainly the spirit that counts. Our cue comes from Christ 
Himself: "For them do I sanctify myself." (John 17:19) Or the pro- 
phetic result of His death: "If he shall lay down his life for sin, he shall 
see a long-lived posterity, and the will of the Lord shall be prosperous 
in his hand" (Isaias 53:10); which being interpreted is: "God . . . 
will have all men to be saved." (I Tim. 2:4) Paul would do all things for 
the Gospel's sake. And what better news than, that God so loved the 
world as to send his only-begotten Son, and that that Son finished the 
work given him to do — our redemption. 

The Acts of the Apostles contain much mention of the Resurrection: 
that the Apostles were the official witnesses of this crowning event 
in the history of salvation. But nevertheless, Paul, the hardest worker 
of them all (I Cor. 15:10), could profess himself to know nothing 
but Christ and him crucified. The ceremony of Baptism, the making 
of a mere human into a Christian, and concerning which the Constitu- 
tion on the Liturgy and Pope Paul VI make a great deal, still retains 
the application to forehead and breast of the sign of the cross, with 
the words: "Receive the sign of the cross, both in your mind and in 
your heart." The coat of arms of the Congregation of the Resurrection 
has the banner of Easter victory crossed with the wood whereon hung 
our Salvation! 

Some may think of our days as one of those eras to which might be 
applied the words of Oscar Wilde: "The old believe everything, the 
middle-aged suspect everything, and the young know everything." Of 
course it goes without saying that such an aphorism needs to be qualified ! 
Let us not be dismayed. Apart from the theology of the redemption, there 
is always that matter of God's love. Again the words of the great Apostle : 
"With us Christ's love is a compelling motive, convinced as we are that 
one man died for all." (II Cor. 5:14) Our business is to make the 
people ever mindful of a love that led a God to suffer such great things for 
us and because of us; that they in turn cherish a love for and imitate a 
heart ruptured by rapture at the thought of what death on the cross would 
accomplish: "All the ends of the earth shall remember, and shall be con- 
verted to the Lord: and all the kindreds of the Gentiles shall adore in his 
sight. For the kingdom is the Lord's; and he shall have dominion over 
the nations. There shall be declared to the Lord a generation to come: 
and the heavens shall show forth his justice to a people that shall be 
born, which the Lord hath made." (Psalm 21:28-29, 32) Our Lord 
knew this as He hung dying on the cross, and it comforted Him to the end. 

The Paschal mystery is one. His being "lifted up" refers both to the 
crucifixion and the resurrection. We will always be true Passionists if the 
Tercian versicle for Paschaltide is always ours: "The Lord has risen from 
the tomb. Alleluia, Alleluia! Who hung for us upon the cross. Alleluia, 

"A monastery without a library is like a fortress without weapons." 


Spiritual Theology 

Reflections on the Principles 
of Religious Aggiornamento* 

Cronan Regan, CP, STD 

Since World War II there has been a growing sentiment among religious 
men and women for change and adaptation. As religious looked out at 
the needs of the Church and the world, and compared the promise offered 
by the vowed life with the reality they experienced, they came to wonder 
whether the light of the Gospel was not indeed in danger of smothering 
under the bushel. They had to admit honestly that many of the forms and 
restrictions of religious life were quite artificial and were experienced as 
perf ectionistic rather than as leading to the perfection of charity ; f ormalistic 
and legalistic rather than imbued with the spirit of Christ. 

All this has led to a crisis. In the hearts of many religious today there 
is real anguish. They fear that the forms of separation from the world 
have brought with them apostolic absence from the world rather than a 
saving presence in God. They worry about the possibility that a rigid 
obedience structure is leading them to sinful omissions of charitable in- 
volvement. They are uneasy with the appearance of corporate wealth and 
the comforts of the good life that seem to belie the poverty of Christ. They 
feel that the spirit of the Holy Founder and the glory of the Order are 
sometimes invoked to rationalize a narrow-minded particularism. Those 
who profess the mixed life often see themselves as neither truly contem- 
plative nor thoroughly at the service of the apostolate — and hence irrele- 
vant. In many there is no longer any conviction of the real worth of the 
apostolic ideal: contemplari et contemplata aliis tradere. 

The fact of this questioning and general turmoil among men of good 
will is evidence that the Holy Spirit is stirring the Church to action. For 
the work of the Spirit is peace; and when men who are honestly seeking 
His light and guidance are in anguish, it is clear that the Spirit is nudging 
the Church to make the readjustments that will favor the restoration of 
peace. Their questioning must not be allowed to degenerate into bitterness 

* Paper presented at Albany, to the 1965 regional meeting of the Canon Law 
Society of America. (Cf. VC; Apr. '65; pp. 16, 17) 

because nothing is done, nor can it be allowed to be the occasion of ill- 
considered adaptations. 

The movement for readjustment has taken Pope John's word, agg'wr- 
namento, as its slogan. In the 50's the concern for an updating was called 
by a less ambiguous formula: accommodata renovatio. The substantive was 
renovatio. The accent was (as it must be) on renewal. For, of itself, 
adaptation has no value. Its worth lies in stripping away useless accretions 
that prevent the vitality of ecclesial realities from flourishing in all their 
richness. Updating is for the sake of renewal, not revolution. 

In all adaptation of religious life, two realities must be kept in mind as 
complementary aspects of the problem of renewal: the nature of the 
religious state, and the signs of the times. 

By the nature of the religious state, I mean the immutable theological 
core of the state of perfection. The religious state is not just the creation 
of the arbitrary decision of an ecclesiastical lawmaker (howsoever wise 
and holy). There is incarnate in every religious institute a core reality based 
on the teachings of Christ and modeled on His life, as these are interpreted 
for Christians by the ecclesiastical tradition and the Magisterium of the 
Church. 1 This is a "given." The work of theology is to recognize it and 
to penetrate ever more deeply into its mysterious depths. No adaptation of 
the common and particular laws, that give structure to institutes of religious 
life, can be a wholesome renewal if it does not conserve these theological 
elements, and embody them even more perfectly. 

In the ferment that is the occasion of the movement for renewal, it is 
not surprising that some questionable formulations will come to the fore. 
For example, Cardinal Suenens has been in the vanguard of the drive for 
the updating of religious life. His zeal for the apostolic effectiveness of 
religious is beyond question. But his expressions have given many the 
impression that he views religious life primarily as a manpower pool for 
the pressing demands of the external apostolate. 2 In a paper delivered 
last July at the Seventh Annual Assembly of Major Superiors of Men, 
George Tavard rejected "the theological concept of 'state of acquiring per- 
fection' " as "unfortunate"; indicating that the notion of various "states" 
within the Church was a static freezing of something that is essentially 
elusive and dynamic, and that the "so-called counsels" of the New Testa- 

1 Vatican II, Constitution on the Church, #43. 

2 SVD News Service, Davenport Catholic Messenger 12/17/64, p. 19. 

ment are not distinct from the precepts and cannot be the basis of a 
"settled way of life" in which individuals follow the Spirit within "a set 
pattern of laws and regulations." 3 He concluded with a description of 
religious life that one hesitates to accept: "a fraternity of equals devoted 
to a common purpose according to the specific traditions of a religious 
order." 4 

Yet, the traditional theology of the religious state of perfection is still 
in possession. In fact, during the past year the abiding validity of its key 
concepts has twice been reaffirmed authoritatively, through the personal 
teaching of Pope Paul VI and the collegiate act of the Vatican Council. 5 

The Vatican Council has invited us to use the analogy of "sacrament" in 
viewing the mysterious reality of the Church. We might accept the invita- 
tion in examining the forms of the religious state which "undeniably 
(inconcusse) belongs to its life and holiness." 6 

Just as in our seven sacraments there is the sensible sign (sacramentum 
tantum), the symbolic reality (res et sacramentum) , and the ultimate 
reality (res tanturri) — so also a similar three levels can be discerned in 
religious life. We may say that the vows, the common life, and the institu- 
tional and social elements of religious life constitute a "sacrament"; i.e., 
they stand as a sign and instrument that signifies and communicates a sacred 
saving reality. The symbolic reality is the new consecration by which the 
baptized Christian is handed over to serve God alone and to bear witness 
to the hoped for realities of the end time. The ultimate reality is the 
perfection of charity which is the evangelical reality that the religious 
life is to signify and communicate to the religious himself. 

As in the case of the sacraments, there can be no modification of the 
substance of the sign, nor of the realities signified, so also with the 
religious life. The realities signified by the sign of the religious state 
are immutably given, and so also are those elements that belong to the 
substance of the religious "sacrament" — these things are discovered in the 
Gospel by the Church as she ponders the deposit, and they are offered 
to her sons. There is, however, a whole tissue of accessory elements, acci- 

3 G. Tavard, AA, Liturgical Renewal and the Meaning of Religious Life. (Re- 
stricted circulation publication of CMSM) pp. 8-9. 

4 Ibid. p. 10. 

5 PP. Paul VI, Allocution "Magno gaudio" May 23, 1964, AAS 56 (1964) 
565-571. NCWC pamphlet, transl. Silvan Rouse, CP. 

6 Vatican II, Constitution on the Church, #44. 


dental to the religious "sacrament." Their whole purpose is to enrich 
the sign-value of religion, to make religious life more transparent to the 
Gospel realities, to make it a more eloquent witness. All this is mutable. 
And all agree that some changes and adaptations are needed here, because 
changed conditions have deprived some of these elements of their sign- 
value — they are no longer meaningful to Christians in or out of the 
state of religion. 

But these changes must not be made lightly. One must be certain of 
several factors before he can prudently embark on change. 

1. There must be certainty concerning the theological elements that must 
be given expression in institutional religious life. 
Foremost among the core elements of the religious state is, of course, the 
need for a stable commitment to the evangelical counsels in a Church- 
approved religious family. From this there follow four elements which 
are similarly necessary: 

a. Contemplative Orientation. 

The purpose of the vows (and consequently of the entire apparatus of 
religious life, for the religious state is constituted by the vows and the 
whole of religious life shares in their dynamic) is, first of all, to conse- 
crate the person who professes them; to make him one handed over in 
worship; to make him sacred, separated from the earthly and terrestrial 
and placed in a state that reflects the eschatological dimension of the 
Kingdom. This has as its consequence and its goal, the creating of condi- 
tions that foster and facilitate the acquiring of the perfection of charity, 
with its dual object, God and man. Evidently, then, it belongs to the 
core reality of the religious state that the style of life reflect a wholly 
God-ward direction, that the principal area of involvement of the religious 
transcends the merely temporal affairs of this world, that concern for the 
welfare of the neighbor through an active apostolate reflect the order of 
charity: God, self, neighbor. 

To say that the direction of religious life is God-ward is to say that the 
fundamental orientation of all religious life is contemplative. St. Thomas 
is categoric on this point, and Archbishop Paul Philippe amasses abundant 
documentation to this effect from the Angelic Doctor. 7 It is to foster an 

7 P. Philippe, OP. "Les fins de la vie religieuse selon Saint Thomas" Angel/cum 
39 (1962) 315-316: transl. The Ends of the Religious Life (Athens-Rome, 1963) 
pp. 46-48. 

authentically contemplative spirit that, the religious life provides the 
vows and structures that will liberate its members from the preoccupations 
of the earthly city. By the contemplative spirit of its members the religious 
state stands as a witness to the eschatological dimension of the Church, 
manifesting "to all believers the presence of heavenly goods already 
possessed here below. . . . (foretelling) the future resurrection and the 
glory of the heavenly kingdom." 8 For the contemplative life is a true 
participation of eternal beautitude. 9 

b. Dimension of the Cross. 

If religious life is to bear witness to the eschatological dimension 
of the Kingdom, then inevitably it must bear the stamp of the Cross. 
For, since the realities of the heavenly kingdom are contacted by members 
of the Pilgrim Church, who live in the passible flesh of the old Adam, 
they bring with them the experience of a mystic, dying for those who are 
passing over with Christ. Aggiornamento cannot be authentic if it seeks to 
spare the religious the pain inherent in this essential renunciation — though, 
of course, neither should it try to intensify the tension with picayune re- 
quirements that smack of an un-Christian radical distrust of human nature. 

c. Dimension of Community. 

If religious life is to mirror the charitable fellowship that is the formal 
bond uniting the people of God, aggiornamento must foster the conditions 
that permit the religious house to be experienced as a true brotherhood of 
adults working side by side in a common endeavor. 

d. Apostolic Orientation. 

Just as the Church herself is essentially a missionary Church, so the 
spiritual life of those of the People of God who are specially joined to 
the Church by the profession of the evangelical counsels is necessarily 
swept into an apostolic direction. Theirs is the real duty of working to 
plant and strengthen the kingdom of Christ in souls — always in keeping 
with the proper type of their own vocation. 

2. There must be certainty that new laws and formulae will be able to 
express these core realities as well as the old. 
The pressure for change comes principally from the fact that good men 
experience great difficulty in assimilating a particular law or observance 

8 Vatican II, Constitution on the Church, #44. 
» S.Tb. Ia2ae, q.5, ad 1. 


interiorly, in a way that really helps them to achieve the goals of religious 
life. In a perceptive article, V. Walgrave 10 reminds us that before we 
change a law or observance that seems ineffective, we should be very sure 
of what we are doing. And he offers a valuable criterion for those charged 
with updating: examine carefully the source of the difficulty. 

If the difficulty comes from the fact that a prescription originates in, 
and takes its meaning from a well-intentioned but faulty understanding 
of the nature of the religious state (and hence has only an artificial and 
unrealistic connection with its theological essence), then it should be 
changed. Similarly, if the prescription is rooted in circumstances that are 
merely historical and that no longer obtain. But we must remember that 
the difficulty can originate in the passing insufficiencies of modern man 
himself. In this case, the question is not: "How can we modify this pre- 
scription? How much can these men presently assimilate?" But rather: 
"How can we form religious who will understand and assimilate practices 
of this kind? How can we develop the spiritual attitudes that correspond 
to them?" If we act otherwise, we run the risk of jettisoning elements that 
connaturally belong to the consecrated life; elements that are not merely 
time-conditioned, purely arbitrary safeguards, but which flow from the 
very nature of the life by an inner logic. Some things appear to have lost 
their sign-value, their ability to speak to our contemporaries; whereas a 
close examination might manifest that the trouble lies in the fact that, 
many of our contemporaries are closed to the inner spiritual realities them- 
selves, and to the whole world of the symbolic. To accommodate to this 
situation is to destroy something of "immutable importance to the 
Church" 11 in the guise of eliminating the outmoded or ineffective. 

Certain changes that have been made in particular institutes do not seem 
to have measured up to this criterion, and they bear the appearance of miti- 
gations with no great gain for the vitality of the institute. It would be 
unfortunate if similar steps were taken in the revision of the common 

It is a fact that some of these mitigations do seem to bring in their 
wake a more vibrant spiritual life and greater apostolic effectiveness. 

10 V. Walgrave, OP. "L'avenir des orders actifs a base monastique par rapport 
a leur vocation contemplative" La vie spirituelle — Supplement #65, Mai, 1963: 
transl. "The Contemplative Vocation of Active Monastic Orders" Review for Reli- 
gious 23 (1964) 281-282. 

11 PP. Paul VI, allocution "Magno gaudio." 


Walgrave suggests that this is not because the life has been enriched, 
but because formerly there was a "lack of receptivity and of humble re- 
spect for those things that are ritual or for observance." 12 

3. There must be certainty that the new formulae will be better able to 
speak to men and women of today. 

Up to this point, we have been concerned with the necessity for the 
reviser of the laws and forms of religious life to be wholesomely conserva- 
tive. He must be sure that those things that belong to the essence of the 
religious commitment are clearly perceived and truly embodied in any 
change. For this he must be responsive to the Word of God contained in 
the Scriptures and Tradition as interpreted by the Magisterium. 

But there will be no renewal unless he also has the theological per- 
ception to hear the Word of God as it sounds through the persons and 
events that are contemporary. He must be able to read the "signs of the 
times" with responsibility and docility — for herein, too, God speaks. 
Salvation history is still unfolding. The Spirit is working and manifesting 
His designs in the NOW of the world of Vatican II. A theological work 
of discernment of spirits is necessary, if the adaptation of canonical forms 
is to communicate the Gospel values of the state of perfection, in a way 
that is more relevant to religious, and more eloquently a witness to the 
People of God in our century. Among these "signs of the times" I sug- 
gest three: 

a. The principal fact which leaps out of a growing library of books, 
studies, workshops and personal pleas is that, our dedicated adults want 
to be treated like adults. Particularly is this need felt by religious women. 
Recently Sister John Marie Riley of Fontbonne College, St. Louis, Mo., 
was reported as saying: 

"(If nuns were to) unite to demand their rights of Holy Mother 

Church, I think our first request would be that we be treated as 

adults." 13 
I emphasize the feminine viewpoint, because it is the nuns who are the 
most vulnerable to any excess of paternalistic legislation in the Code. 
Seldom are their superiors as ready as men are to view the law broadly as 
being in the service of the end of the law. And is it not a fact that male 

12 Op. tit. p. 277. 

13 NC news release — Providence Visitor 3/12/65, p. 13. 


legislators have seemed to be overly protective, in the detailed legislation 
for sisters' confessions, need of a companion when out of the convent, 
details of cloister, etc. ? 

Is not the present evolution of society and the increasing competence 
of women in it, together with their respectful pleas to be given broad 
legal guidelines which are appropriate for prudent adults, a sign wherein 
we can read the Voice of God ? 

b. A second fact that is a sign of the times is this: the attitude of 
dialogue is a felt need among Christians everywhere. As Pope Paul indi- 
cates, this dialogue belongs to the delicacy of charity and is an expression 
of respect for the dignity of the human person. 14 It is almost a corollary 
of the desire to be emancipated from the artificial state of being treated as 
incompetent minor children. It is totally in harmony with the religious 
ideal of true communal living, and the Christian meaning of authority as 
a service to the brethren. Shouldn't our legislation effectively counsel the 
establishment of institutional forms that will foster dialogue in actual 
fact — between subjects and superiors at every level? 

c. One last fact that I will mention as a sign of the times is the fact 
of a general revival of zealous apostolic concern. The dialogue of charity 
must extend effectively to those who are outside the cloister. Members of 
communities of active life have sometimes been made to feel that their 
involvement with others should be "official" and impersonal — and this 
they see as opposed to the Law of Christ. Those in communities of contem- 
plative life are too often kept unaware of the real spiritual need of the 
real people for whom they sanctify themselves — with no real gain for a 
spirit of self-giving and recollection. In formulating the restrictive laws 
expressive of the dimension of the Cross, and of separation from the 
earthly (which things are, of course, essential to religious life), religious 
beg that these be not allowed to separate them from Christ in their 


The aggiornamento of religious law must be a renewal for the sake of 
relevance. While perfectly preserving everything that belongs to the 
essence of religious consecration, the renewed law must serve to permit 
religious institutes to be more perfectly sacramental. They must more per- 

14 Ecclesiam Suam, #61 & 66. 


fectly signify and communicate the realities of evangelical perfection to 
all who profess the vows of religion, and they must contribute to making 
religious institutes and persons more eloquent and attractive signs to the 
world, of the eternal realities of the Gospel. 

The practical details implementing these hopes must be left to the practi- 
cal men. I would suggest that their task can be greatly facilitated if, at 
every stage of revision, the canonists call upon the lived experience of 
the various categories of religious, to guarantee the appropriateness of 
their formulations. I have in mind especially a much fuller use of women 
religious consultors. And, perhaps superfluously, I suggest that a climate 
favorable to the blossoming of Christian adulthood and responsible charity 
will better be fostered, if the law reflects greater flexibility and greater trust 
of the People of God than has hitherto been the case. 

Moral Theology 

Natural Law Today 

Sebastian MacDonald, CP, STD 

One of the most fundamental dictates of natural law, that of self-preser- 
vation, is flaunted when anyone enters the realm of natural law. For some 
guard this realm with a "No Trespassing" sign, while others consider 
it their primary target of attack. While not wishing to violate sacred 
precincts, I would like to make an approach toward it, in order to get a 
better look at this coveted prize. I hope my approach is not taken for an 

I am optimistic about the condition of natural law today. I believe it is 
on the verge, not of a revival (as of a cadaver of another age), but of a re- 
birth, and this new life is to be of great service and relevance to the oncom- 
ing Christian. 

Certainly, from the theological point of view, the existence or presence 
(in answer to the question: "An est?") of natural law has been established 
frequently in these modern times. John J. Reed, SJ, in an article entitled 
"Natural Law, Theology and the Church" (Theological Studies, March 
1965, pp. 48-51) cites each of the Popes, from Pius X to Paul VI, as 
witnesses of the highest significance to the presence and influence of natural 


It is not so much the existence of this law which is under current discus- 
sion. The numerous writings of the past three years on the subject of sexual 
and marital morality all pay homage to the presence of this law. Rather, 
it is the meaning ("Quid est?") that is being examined and scrutinized 
today. I will devote the remainder of this article to the question of mean- 

Jacques Maritain describes natural law as ". . .the ensemble of things 
to do and not to do which follow therefrom (the preamble and principle of 
natural law) in necessary fashion, and from the simple fact that man is 
man, nothing else being taken into account." (The Rights of Man and 
Natural Law, p. 63) 

Points of special significance for modern discussion of natural law are 
found in the above definition. First, mention is made of the necessity in 
natural law. Some necessity must reside in law — the moral necessity called 
obligation. But the various kinds of law give rise to various kinds of obli- 
gation. Natural law is a divine law, promulgated by God in the act of cre- 
ating. It is thus implanted in our very hearts (Rom 2: 14-16) as an unwrit- 
ten law. The obligation flowing from this law likewise proceeds from with- 
in us, becoming known to us through the inclinations of our nature (5T, 
I-II, 94,2). To the extent we are attuned to these inclinations, we are in 
a position to know the law in our hearts. But a discrepancy is quite possible 
between our knowledge and the law, especially if the inclinations of na- 
ture are notably hampered by opposing tendencies to sin (ST, 11-11,136,3, 
ad 1). Knowledge, therefore, is a problem peculiar to natural law, be- 
cause it depends not so much on the speculative awareness of a written 
code, as upon a connatural affection for the inclinations of nature and, 
even more, for that order or plan of bona finalizing these inclinations. 
We Christians identify such a plan with God's will, (cf. Reed, op. cit., 
43) which we strive to know as best we can. 

Another significant point in Maritain's definition is his reference to 
"man as man." This emphasizes the fully human characteristic of natural 
law, and thereby helps to offset two excesses. First, an overly rationalistic ap- 
proach, which would measure natural law more by the inherent capacities 
of reason reasoning than by the human nature to which it belongs. Such 
an excess is charged to a legalism that has overrun law from time to time. 
But currently, it is more evident in the cult of technology spreading over the 
land, and fostering the principle that what is technically possible is mor- 
ally permissible. 


A second excess (more properly, a deficiency) to be guarded against 
concerns the extreme opposite to rationalism and might be termed biologism. 
It would beget a natural law confined to the lower quarters of man's na- 
ture, to the biological and vegetative inclinations he experiences. Some mod- 
ern critics assert that this excess has dominated Catholic natural law reason- 
ing in sexual morality. Accordingly they have endeavored to inject a 
strong element of personalism into their presentation of natural law, so 
as to regain the place of prominence for the human element in man's nature, 
by way of the person who brings to completion and perfection the 
humanity in which he subsists. 

These remarks about the properly human quality of natural law are 
correspondingly observations pointing to a nature (human), whose func- 
tions bear upon this law. For the nature of anything is fashioned for but 
one purpose (5T, 1,41,2), and never lacks what is needed for its goal 
(5T,I,76,5), though such sufficiency may often be in a potential state only 
and not yet actual (Contra Gent. IV, 55). This is important because it is 
a basis for change in nature and, accordingly, in nature's law. This is the 
change from potency to act, which we might describe as change through 
addition. It leaves no room for change through subtraction which would 
imply that nature becomes less conducive for her purposes. 

On the basis of these observations we can speak of natural law growing, 
but not diminishing, much as we might speak of the plausibility of a pro- 
gressive evolution of man, but not a regressive evolution. But is this so ? Is 
man always improving, structurally, biologically, intellectually, culturally, 
morally? We might hesitate to say so when we recall periods such as the 
Dark Ages or the post-war years, when human nature seems to have suf- 
fered a reversal. But such setbacks are probably of minor significance ; hu- 
man nature is not thereby essentially changed. 

What is of more interest is the change human nature undergoes, not 
from its own intrinsic principles, but from outside itself, from the supernat- 
ural. We need only recall the loss man sustained in naturalibus when orig- 
inal sin deprived him of his supernatural gifts. Catholics and Protestants 
have disagreed about this loss. (cf. Denz.-Schonmetzer, 1555) Charles 
Journet, in The Wisdom of Faith, pp. 124-133, discusses this point, and St. 
Thomas has already been cited as to the impact of sin on man's inclinations. 
(ST, II-II, 136, 3, ad 1) 

But an even more significant change occurs in human nature from the 
supernatural gains won by Christ's Redemption. Gregory Baum (cf. "The 


Christian Adventure: Risk and Renewal," Critic, April-May, 1965, pp. 
49-50) is but one of the many today who believe that nature is so deluged 
by the supernatural that ". . .we may never be able to separate in the con- 
crete order that which is of nature and that which is of grace, healing 
and elevating nature." From Baum's words we need not conclude, of course, 
that there is no natural law today, as J. Fuchs is at pains to point out in his 
article, "De Valor e Legis Naturalis in Or dine Redemption}" Periodica de 
Re Morali. . ., v. 44, pp. 52-54. Rather, they serve to emphasize the fac- 
tual changes that human nature undergoes in the supernatural dispensation. 
Such changes influence our understanding of the law based on this nature, 
and our acknowledgment of such influence puts us in a position where we 
can better cope with modern proposals about changes in natural law. 

For today we are rapidly approaching the point (in fulfillment of the 
divine command cited in Gen 1:28-30), where our dominion over nature 
(including human nature) entails not merely repairing individual deficien- 
cies in nature (as in medicine), or faithfully imitating nature (as by some 
synthetic products), but even improving on nature. We have grown accus- 
tomed to preventive medicine, whose goal is no longer the confined area 
of the sick, but the universal sweep of mankind; inoculations are given 
healthy persons to make them healthier. We are currently in a dither about 
anovulatory pills, one of whose effects is to improve an already "rather" nor- 
mal ovulatory cycle. How far can we go in improving our own human na- 
ture — not only biologically, but perhaps even psychologically ? What if the 
day comes when organic transplantations from the dead to the living, in 
order to better an already adequate organ, becomes standard procedure? 
Or how do we evaluate a situation where the ingestion of drugs, to heighten 
our emotional, intellectual or volitional responses (which may function suf- 
ficiently without such stimulation), is the national pastime? Undoubtedly, 
science fiction could furnish us with more and better illustrations of things 
to come. But these suffice to awaken us to the challenge of change, aimed at 
self-improvement. Technology can make Hitler's dream of a superrace come 
true. If such a dream is expunged of its racist ideology, does it merit our 
approbation? Would our commitment to natural law set us against such 
proposals ? Or might not such proposals be a boon to natural law, an invita- 
tion to a new life and significance for it? When the development of human 
nature occurs on the basis of the benefits accruing to it rather than of the 
disadvantages removed from it, nature's law can reflect this change, thereby 
becoming a norm for the kind of helpful change that is according to na- 


ture, yet beyond it. In this function, natural law more adequately fulfills its 
goal of leading man to the good life which, for us Christians, is life with 
God. Though such a goal is totally beyond the inner capacities of natural 
law, yet the disproportion is lessened when this law points forward, dic- 
tating actions to be performed in accordance with nature's reasonable in- 
clinations, to satisfy her needs and desires for improvement. 

But we must not expect too much of this law or, rather, we must not ex- 
pect to profit from the full services afforded in this law, unless someone 
helps us. So often a knowledge gap separates us from some of the bene- 
fits this law has to offer. (Denz. 3004-3005) Fortunately, we Catholics 
can turn to the Church, whose concern for natural law is witnessed in every 
age. We can rejoice that in our own day, when natural law is facing enor- 
mous responsibilities and opportunities, the voice of the Church reassures 
once again in the person of Paul VI: 

". . . the Church must. . .affirm her areas of competence — that is to 
say that of the law of God, which she interprets, teaches, promotes and 
defends; and the Church will have to proclaim this law of God in 
the light of scientific, social, psychological truths which have lately 
had new and very extensive studies and documentation." (Cath. Mind, 
v. 62, 58-59). 

Pastoral Theology 

Toward a Renewal of the Parish Mission 

Jerome Stowell, CP, MA 

A. Historical Background 

Any sword will become dulled with use. Pastoral methods which are not 
renewed from time to time can eventually take on the aspect of arms in a 
museum — relics of the past which we admire, but which no one would 
care to use as weapons of defence in our atomic age. For a missioner to 
attempt to preach today as did St. Vincent Ferrer or St. Paul of the Cross 
(or even a Father Robert McNamara) would be to present the spectacle 
of soldiers marching to the front with weapons borrowed from the Smith- 
sonian Institute. 

Our missionaries of the past preached very effectively because they were 
men in tune with their times. Their sermons brought about a real pentecostal 


renewal of fervor "because each heard them speaking in his own tongue." 
(Acts 2:6) However, not everything we have received in our mission tradi- 
tion is so sacred that it merits to be preserved in perpetuity. On the other 
hand, it would be merely sophomoric to reject everything just because 
it belongs to the past. An effort at renewal is called for today by the Vati- 
can Council. 

The parish mission of an earlier century was so eminently successful be- 
cause it was so admirably adapted to the specific needs of the age. In 
fact, it was a very specific problem of an era which is responsible for the 
development of the parish mission in the pastoral activity of the Church. 
On January 25, 1617, St. Vincent de Paul preached a remarkable sermon 
in the village church of Folleville, France, on the benefits of a good confes- 
sion. It produced astonishing results. So many of the villagers desired to go 
to confession that is was necessary to obtain the aid of two Jesuits from a 
nearby village. Impressed by this incident, Madame de Gondy asked her 
Cure, Vincent, to give a series of sermons for the villagers near her estates. 
These courses were called "missions" and soon became very popular. 

And the Jesuit fathers were not slow in seizing upon a good thing. So 
when they began preaching in the areas where the big problem was not 
the threat of heresy but the slow erosion of morals, they too, stressed the 
importance of a good confession. They found a ready-made guide for their 
sermon topics in the "Exercises" of St. Ignatius. Acting on a directive of 
their founder in his eighteenth addition, the Jesuit preachers treated only 
the topics of the "First Week." The object of this "Week" was to help 
the penitent to make a good confession and amend his life for the future. 
(cfr. W. H. Longridge, The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, 5th ed. 
London, 1955, p. 18) 

The seventeenth century might be called the "Golden Age" of the mis- 
sion. It was the time of such apostolic men as St. John Eudes, St. Leonard 
of Port Maurice, St. Paul of the Cross and St. Alphonsus Liguori. At the 
risk of over-simplification, and with no intent to criticize, the type of mis- 
sion they preached was mainly a "confession-directed" mission. In the 
words of St. John Eudes, "if preaching is the soul of the mission, the gen- 
eral confession is its heart." In his study of the missionary spirit of St. Paul 
of the Cross, Father Cajetan writes: "The saint chose and arranged the mat- 
ter of his sermons, with the object in view of promoting the worthy re- 
ception of the sacrament of Penance." {Saint Paul de la Croix, Apotre 
et Missionnaire, Tirlemont, Soeurs Passionistes, 1933, p. 171) And St. 


Alphonsus states: "The superior should take care that in each mission there 
should be a sufficient number of missionaries to hear the confessions, ac- 
cording to the population of the place; for it should be borne in mind that 
the principal fruit of the mission. . .consists in repairing many of the sac- 
rilegious or invalid confessions." (St. Alphonsus Liguori, Preaching, Com- 
plete Ascetical Works of St. Alphonsus, Ed. Rev. Eugene Grimm, New 
York, 1890 xv, p. 80) 

Thus the tradition of the mission outline as it has come down to us is 
basically a framework for the sacrament of Penance. The subjects of the 
major sermons, the catechism on the commandments, the instructions on 
confessions — all are organized to that specific objective. By a forceful pres- 
entation of the meaning of eternity, the inevitability of death, the threat 
of God's judgment, the sinner is urged to make his peace with God and 
to return to the full practice of his religious duties. 

Now it would be certainly an impertinence to question the good which 
has been accomplished by this traditional mission plan. Certainly it has 
been used to great effect by mission preachers over the past three hundred 
years to bring the faithful back to a renewed fervor in the practice of their 

But what is open to question is whether this confession-directed mission 
answers the need of the present time. Certainly no priest who has heard con- 
fessions during a mission would presume to say that no one ever makes a 
bad confession today. But is this problem of bad confessions the major one 
today ? 

What is more, is it not somewhat superficial to hold that, in order to re- 
new the life of a parish, the main thing is to get the people to make a good 
confession? To speak too glibly about "getting to confession" and to say 
little about the meaning of a sincere conversion, would contribute further 
to a de-personalizing effect in the practice of one's religion. 

Finally, it is open to question whether this confession-directed mission 
is really in the full tradition of Christian preaching. Is it not just possible 
that something of the Horatio Alger legend has crept into our mission 
preaching? Where the secularist urged the individual to "get ahead," to 
"make good," the preacher varied the theme to "save your soul, provide now 
for your eternity." It would seem there has been a shift of emphasis in 
preaching. The shift has been away from the Magnolia Dei, as revealed in 
salvation history, towards the importance of the individual's personal striv- 
ing to seek salvation through his own strenuous efforts. Have we not felt 


more secure, in quoting the arguments developed by the scholastics, than the 
message of the evangelists? And in our presentation of the Christian 
faith have we not tended to follow the catechism rather than the outline 
given by the history of salvation ? 

And so it can happen that Christianity begins to appear simply as 
a system of truths or a code of morals. The presentation of the Christian 
message tends to become one-sided. The stress is almost entirely on obliga- 
tion. Man is threatened with horrendous consequences if he neglects his 
religious duties, with the result that people no longer attend missions as 
they used to. There are many sociological reasons also for this decline of 
the missions. But unless there is some adaptation in mission preaching, more 
in line with the renewal initiated by Vatican II, the missionary may find 
himself swept out of the current of the pastoral life of the Church. 

B. Criterion of Adaptation 

If there is to be any adaptation of the parish mission in line with the 
a ggi ornament o, it cannot be made arbitrarily. Recent studies on the the- 
ology of preaching make it clear that, there are certain norms governing 
Christian preaching which must be followed, if the ministry of the word 
is to be a vehicle of grace. These studies indicate that there are two prin- 
cipal kinds of preaching: kerygma and catechesis. The first is concerned 
with conversion. Its purpose is to convert the hearers whether by a first con- 
version involving the begetting of faith, or by a 'second conversion' — i.e., 
the renewal of the fervor of faith. Catechesis is concerned with communion 
— i.e., the strengthening of union with Christ. It consists in a more de- 
tailed presentation of the Gospel message with the purpose of nourishing 
the Christian life of the believers. 

The purpose of mission preaching is not primarily instruction, for that 
type of preaching comes under catechesis, and belongs to the ordinary pas- 
toral care of souls. But the mission is the kairos, to use the biblical term, 
the opportune time when the grace of God works more abundantly, (cfr. 
II Cor.: 6:2.) Because mission preaching aims at the same objective as the 
apostolic kerygma, it is most properly classified as kerygmatic preaching. 
Like the proclaiming of the kerygma which leads to faith and seeks the 
conversion of the hearer, missionary preaching is concerned with the re- 
newal of faith and the deepening of conversion. It is always a conversion 
and decision-directed sermon. 

Now if missionary preaching is to be faithful to its model, as found in 


the kerygma as preached by the apostles, it will preach a person, rather than 
argue a thesis ; it will relate an event, rather than reflect on a principle ; it 
will seek the total conversion of the hearer rather than urge some religious 
practice or duty. 

The Acts gives us quite a number of examples of the preaching of the 
apostles. Thus we have St. Peter's sermon on Pentecost morning (2:14-36) ; 
his sermon at "Solomon's Porch" (3:12-26) ; his address before the San- 
hedrin (4:8-12); and his discourse to Cornelius (10:34-43). Rather than 
comment upon each one of them separately, we can collate the matter cov- 
ered and sum up the salient points as: (1) the public ministry of Christ, 
(2) His death and resurrection, (3) His glorification and sending of the 
Holy Spirit. (We have made a more detailed analysis in Chapter II of our 

The author of Acts gives eleven examples of the preaching of St. Paul. 
For the purposes of a more detailed study, the reader could be referred to 
two typical examples: the sermon to the Jews at Pisidian Antioch (13:16- 
41), and the discourse before the Gentile King Agrippa at Caesarea (26:1- 

Again, rather than comment on each of these examples separately, we can 
summarize the matter covered and find these salient points: 

1. The subject matter is God, not man. The apostles speak primarily of 
God's saving work accomplished in Christ. At times the "traditional" mis- 
sion sermon is inclined to argue a thesis: "every man wants to succeed in 
life; but there is no greater success than saving the soul; therefore, man's 
supreme effort must be directed towards saving his soul." There is certain- 
ly no fault to be found with the logic of this presentation; but it begins 
with man and is centered on the individual. But the kerygmatic sermon 
would present what God has done for man's salvation, and conclude on 
the response which man must make to this work of God. The force of 
kerygmatic preaching comes not so much from the conclusion of a syllogism, 
as from the historical fact of the intervention of God. 

2. Manner of development: the kerygma of the Apostles shows the mis- 
sionary of today not only what should be his major theme, but also indicates 
the general lines of development. Structurally, the preaching of the apostles 
followed the 'diatribe' form of development, which was in common use 
among the teachers and orators of their time. Hence, the introduction usually 
starts from the concrete situation of the audience. Thus, St. Peter takes 
his introduction from the wonder expressed by the people at the events 


of Pentecost. St. Paul — e.g., before the Athenians, refers in his introduction 
to their shrine "To the Unknown God." Or the speaker may address himself 
to some problem in back of the minds of the audience — sense of guilt, the 
insatiable longing for happiness. 

To these questions which puzzle the minds of the audience, the mission- 
ary proclaims God's answer in the "Good News" of the kerygma. This 
proclamation of the Good News is made, not by giving a doctrinal exposi- 
tion using abstract concepts, but by giving an historical account of events 
which have happened and which indicate God's plan for meeting man's 
problems. Proof is taken from the evidence of salvation history — the great 
things God has done. 

This development does not ignore the fact of sin. Preaching in a pagan 
world, the apostles were certainly under no illusion about the "power of 
sin" (Rom. 3:9). But sin was never the theme of their kerygma, but rather 
its dreadful off-beat. 

Nor does this development omit the motive of salutary fear. In his ser- 
mon before Felix, St. Paul so stressed justice and judgment that "Felix be- 
came alarmed." (Acts 24:25) Thus the preaching of the "four last things" 
which bulked so large in the 'traditional' mission is not dropped ; but they 
are related to the saving work of Christ for mankind. Because God's work 
of salvation history is still going on, man today stands under judgment. 
Man is being challenged to make an important decision. 

3. Finally, if mission preaching today is to be faithful to the criterion 
set up by the kerygma of the Apostles, then the missionary must seek the 
same object: total conversion. It could be that the traditional mission of an 
earlier age settled for too little. This confession-directed mission sought to 
get the people to make a good confession and to attend to their religious 
duties. It gave a series of instruction on how to make a good confession; 
it provided another series of instructions on the commandments in what 
amounted to a detailed examination of conscience. Now, in an age when 
there was little formal instruction for the faithful, when Catholic schooling 
was possible only for the upper classes, there was certainly a real need for 
this type of preaching. 

However, we do not presume to deny that the faithful today still need 
instruction, still need an occasional review of their religious duties. But we 
maintain that this type of preaching belongs properly to pastoral care. 
Mission preaching aims at something deeper, a complete conversion. 

Even though the missionary may be addressing an audience that is largely 


Catholic, still it does not follow that these people have no need of con- 
version. Most Catholics were baptized in infancy. It is presumed that they 
heard the good news of the Gospel when going to school. But long ago 
our Lord deplored the state of those who heard without having really 
heard (cfr. Matt. 13:13). The fact is that today, many of those who claim 
they "know their religion" have never really grasped what is demanded of 
them by way of total dedication. So there must be a point somewhere in 
their later life when the Gospel will be preached to them, in order that they 
may freely ratify their Baptismal engagement. For, unless they have really 
made a personal commitment, these "born Catholics" have never been con- 
verted. The mission (retreat, cursillo) is the time to present the Gospel in 
all its fullness, so that they are confronted with a challenge to a mature 
Christian decision. 

In summary, we have tried to show that if there is to be an adaptation 
made in the parish mission it should not be made arbitrarily. There are laws 
governing Christian preaching. These norms are found in the examples of 
early preaching in the Church. Mission preaching, we have shown, is by 
its nature kerygmatic. In line with the examples of kerygmatic preaching 
found in the New Testament, it is to be a public, forceful announcement of 
what great works God has done for man's salvation. Hence the subject of 
mission preaching should be the works of God, not simply reflections on 
"the last things." The object sought in mission preaching should be some- 
thing more fundamental than a good confession ; mission preaching should 
make its object that complete conversion to God that Christ and the Apostles 
sought in their preaching. 


Dodd, C. H. The Apostolic Preaching and Its Development. Chicago: Willet Clark 

& Co., 1937. 
Hitz, Paul, CSSR. To Preach the Gospel. Translated by Rosemary Sheed. New 

York: Sheed and Ward, 1963. 
Motte, Jean Francois, The New Parish Mission. Translated by Paul J. Oligny, 

OFM. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1962. 
Retif, Andre, SJ. Foi au Christ et Mission. Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1953. 
Kretz & Hitz, Missions paroissiales et Liturgie. Collections de pastorale Liturgique 

#29. Bruges, Abbaye de Saint-Andre, 1957. 

'To have too much to do is, for most men, safer than to have too little." 

— Card. Manning (The Eternal Priesthood) 


Mission Source Material 

Neil Sharkey, CP, STD 


1. Gerald Vann, "Symbolism in Preaching," The Thomist (Jan., 1965), 

Function of the Christian Preacher. Christ, the eternal Word of God, 
said of His preaching that the words He spoke, the message He bore, were 
not His own, but what the Father had bidden Him to speak. In turn, He 
commissioned the apostles to teach whatsoever He had commanded them. 
St. Paul declares that it was Christ who sent him to preach, and to preach 
only the gospel. His only purpose was to speak of "Jesus Christ and him 
crucified (1 Cor. 2:2) — i.e., to help his hearers enter with minds and hearts 
into God's wisdom, hitherto hidden and secret, but now made known 
through and in the Christian mystery of the Cross. 

Two Modes of Communication. The Church has two ways of opening the 
scriptures and communicating truth: and both ways are necessary to us, 
since each provides the necessary complement to the other. First, the lan- 
guage of the Bible is essentially the language of poetry and symbol: of 
imagery, parable, paradox, allegory. The Church uses the language of sym- 
bol especially in its sacramental ritual. Second, the Church restates the 
Biblical message in prose: in the formulas of the creeds, in the technical 
language of theology, and in the clarification of formulas and theological 
statements in everyday terms. 

Christ spoke to the multitudes in parables and, indeed, did not speak to 
them otherwise (Mk. 4:34). The purpose of this method of teaching was 
not, as has been supposed at times, to hide His meaning but to communicate 
His thought through an idiom which simple, unlearned people could easily 
understand and which appeals to, and evokes a response from, not merely 
the mind but the whole person. Moreover, symbol language can take us 
deeper into mystery than the language of conceptual thinking can, precisely 
because it is the property of symbol to communicate realities for which no 
concepts — and therefore no reasoned formulas — exist. But this very pro- 
fundity involves danger of misunderstanding. Scientific prose seeks to pre- 
vent misunderstanding by excluding ambiguity. Christ speaks to us in para- 


dox — finding life by losing it, being rich by being poor, attaining peace 
with a sword, being reborn through death, and finding light in darkness — 
and there is always the danger that, we may either fail to see how the two 
apparently contradictory sides of the paradox meet, and fuse in a creative 
unity; or, in our desire to have everything neatly and tidily defined and 
distinct, we may concentrate on one aspect to the exclusion of the other, 
thus distorting the truth and missing altogether the meaning of the mystery. 
But if the language of symbol involves the danger of misinterpretation, the 
clarity of exact prose involves the danger of aridity and unreality. 

Consequent Difficulties. Rationalism and scientism have taught us to rely 
solely on strictly rational, logical, scientific thought processes, and to ignore 
or repudiate as valueless all other modes of psychic experiences and avenues 
to reality. Thus, the language of symbol is for us a forgotten language. 
Or if not forgotten, it is suspect precisely because it is imprecise. Whether 
the preacher likes it or not, the fact is that God wrote His book in the 
language of poetry and symbol. The tragedy is that, for the most part, 
preachers do not like it, and therefore fight shy of symbol-language and 
in effect repudiate it. 

But if the language of symbol is meaningless because its idiom has been 
forgotten, the language of doctrinal definition and theological statement 
often seems meaningless, because to the layman its idiom is technical 
jargon which he does not understand. The preacher, whether from laziness, 
or illiteracy, or the fear of departing from orthodoxy, too often fails to 
express doctrinal concepts in contemporary language. Indeed, to put it 
bluntly, he fails to speak English. 

It is not surprising, then, if nowadays the laity often feel, and sometimes 
voice a profound disquietude concerning the preaching of the gospel. As 
Milton expressed it, "the hungry sheep look up, and are not fed." 

Suggestions. What can be done to remedy this state of affairs ? The first 
task is to restore to the Christian his rightful heritage: to help him to 
recover the lost or forgotten language of symbol, the language of the 
Bible in general and of the eternal Word in particular. This in turn means 
encouraging the hearers to gain an insight into individual symbols; and, 
in the case of the gospels, the paradoxes in which the eternal Word presents 
His message, whether in picture-language or in seemingly contradictory 

The second main task of the preacher is to present to his hearers the 


theological implications of the word of God, doctrinal and moral, in an 
idiom which will be meaningful for them, and grip their attention because 
it is contemporary, vital, concrete and vivid; and also in a manner which 
springs from a keen insight into, and sympathy with immediate and pressing 
problems and difficulties. 

All this implies a constantly renewed thinking-out of timeless truths, 
in terms of contemporary situations, problems, mental attitudes, and current 
speech. The gospel means not merely a promise for the future but a 
present beholding. The events it records are, as events, in the historical 
past, but as symbols are timeless and therefore contemporary. We are the 
cripple, the blind man, the prodigal; and Christ is here and now for us 
the vine and the wine, the living bread, the living water, the shepherd, the 
door, the living and life-giving Word. 

2. Henry D. Noyes, "Preaching and the Parish Mission," Worship 
(May, 1965), 294-7. 

Preaching is a vital necessity, a necessity stated by Pope Paul VI in 
Ecclesiam Suam, and by the Constitution on the Liturgy of Vatican II. 
Preaching is the necessary instrumental efficient cause of faith and, through 
faith, of grace and the virtues. Preaching builds the Church and leads 
men to the Sacrifice of the Eucharist. 

When we understand that preaching is completely irreplaceable, the 
question whether or not "the people are hanging from the rafters" becomes, 
in a sense, irrelevant. For while we must bend every effort to induce people 
to listen to the word of God, whether we preach to few or to many may 
be beside the point that, we must preach the Gospel. We can no more 
reckon the success of preaching by numbers than we can reckon the success 
of the Mass or sacraments quantitatively. Preaching, the Sacrifice of the 
Mass, the Sacraments make Christ present to those who accept Him 

What one must remember is this: preaching is only fully effective when 
it is really Christ's gospel. 

3. Jean Montaurier, A Passage Through Fire (Holt, 1965). 

This is a new outstanding novel on the priesthood written by a French 
priest. It interrelates the character and problems of priestly obedience 
and the role of priestly sanctity in a secular world. It is being praised as a 
new classic on the priesthood. 


Retreat Source Material 

Damian Towey, CP, JCD 

1. Andrew Greeley, "Temptation of the New Breed" {America, 
5-22-'65, p. 750) 

While not coming up with any easy answers regarding the "New Breed," 
G has some good insights into this phenomenon of modern youth: theii 
self-consciousness, especially about their "unconscious," their hypersensi- 
tivity and need to be loved, their desire to "get things done" coupled with 
their impracticality and impatience with methods. "Movements" are what 
count! G. very incisively points out that "all the picket lines in the world 
will not resolve the difficulties of segregated education in the large urban 
centers, unless the tax structures and the revenue codes under which 
these giant cities must operate are drastically reformed." He tells the New 
Breed to join the political organizations ... to acquire the knowledge and 
skills necessary to deal with the causes of social problems. Well worth 
reading for those giving retreats to high school or college students or 
young religious. 

2. There is a wealth of recent paperback material available to retreat 
preachers. To single out a few: 

M-J. Nicolas, OP, A New Look at the Eucharist (Deus-Century 
Books/Paulist Press/95c) 

In his introduction N. proposes to "bring to light all that he can . . . 
about a truth whose origin is in God Himself." He achieves this purpose 
dramatically and concisely in 122 pages, thus making his work an in- 
valuable aid, for preachers with little time to review the more detailed 
presentations of theology manuals, or to investigate the wealth of material 
contained in current books and periodicals. 

N. proceeds from faith to reason: first he treats of the actual doctrine 
as contained in Scripture and Tradition, and then he comes to grips with 
that deposit intellectually. In Part I (The Church's Faith in the Eucharist), 
he brings together in summary but complete fashion, the witness of the 
Church to her constant belief in the Eucharist: he neatly gathers the 
scriptural references to the institution and the ecclesial celebrations of the 


Eucharist. To these he brings the insights and perspectives of recent 
Biblical exegetical and hermeneutical advances. He then appeals to the 
living witness to Christian faith in the Eucharist, as found in the liturgical 
rites and writings of the Fathers. Concluding this first part with a brief 
presentation of the doctrinal formulations of the teaching Church, he 
summarizes the most important of Trent's definitions. 

Part II is an "attempt to comprehend the faith" through theological re- 
flection. Here is the substance of the book. N. treats precisely and with 
clarity the basic concepts of sacramentality, transubstantiation and the 
Real Presence, and the Eucharist considered under its dual aspect of 
Sacrifice ("not a new sacrifice in the sacrificial order") and Communion. 

Part III looks at the Eucharistic practice of the Church: worship of the 
Real Presence, participation at Mass, frequent Communion. By way of 
conclusion, N. stresses the central role that the Eucharist plays in the vital 
and dynamic living of the Christian religion. 

P. A. Liege, OP, What is Christian Life} (Deus-Century Books/Paulist 

A profound and basic study of living in Christ: what conversion — or 
better — commitment means, for the Christian striving for union with God 
in today's complex world. Excellent short treatment on prayer (chapter VII) 
and on sin (chapter IX). 

Dennis J. Geaney, OSA, You Are Not Your Own (Fides/95c) Good, 
solid, homey applications of the doctrine of the Mystical Body of Christ 
to ordinary working people in their community lives. Also by the same 
author, in a similar vein: You Shall Be Witnesses (Fides/95c) 

Gerard Sloyan, Liturgy in Focus (Deus/95c) A wonderful little sum- 
mation of recent trends in liturgical reform. The chapters are short and 
could serve almost verbatim as introductions to liturgical acts for retreat 
groups. Also provides a handy guide for answering the myriad questions 
that come up about the new liturgy. 

"Communism is the Franciscan movement without the balancing in- 
fluence of the Church.'" — G. K. Chesterton 

'It is human to err; it is devilish to remain in error wilfully." 

St. Augustine (Sermon 164) 


From the Celian Hill 

Dominic Papa, CP 

On the days of April 20-23, SS. John and Paul was host for the 
closing ceremonies, as it was for the opening, of the year of the Solemn 
Commemoration of the Eleventh Centenary of the Conversion of the Bul- 
garian People to Christianity (864). The solemn activities were under 
the direction of Father Ivan Sofranov of SS. J & P. Father Ivan is well 
known in Bulgarian circles and in Rome itself. He is the present Director 
of the Magazine, "Chiesa e Cultura" {Church and Culture) ; he was a 
Consultant on the Preparatory Pontifical Oriental Commission for Vatican 
Council II ; and he is very active in helping Bulgarian refugees in Rome. 

Father Ivan had Bulgarian immigrants and refugees, both Catholic and 
Orthodox, participating in those closing ceremonies. He had lined up a 
wonderful ecumenical program, inviting Catholic and Orthodox speakers 
to address the assembly. 

The opening ceremony exemplified the Solemn Liturgy in the Slav- 
Byzantine Rite at the tomb of St. Cyril, missionary to the Slavic Nations, 
at the Basilica of S. Clement, a short distance from SS. J & P. Father 
Ivan himself delivered the opening discourse at the Mass. 

One of the Orthodox speakers, whom Father invited, is the celebrated 
Orthodox Professor, C. Ugrnoff. He spoke on The Date of the Conversion 
of the Bulgarians to Christianity. Another noted speaker is the convert 
Dott. D. Dreikov, who spoke of the apostolic activity of the Bulgarian 
Bishop, Peter Parevitch. 

The highlight of the festivities was the special audience with His Holi- 
ness, Pope Paul VI. During the audience, three Bulgarian children, dressed 
in native costume, presented our Holy Father with commemorative gifts 
from Bulgaria. 

These days were conducted in a true spirit of ecumenism, since over 
thirty Orthodox priests and lay people participated in these ceremonies 
marking the closing of the commemorative year of the 11th Centenary of 
the Conversion of the Bulgarian people to Christianity. 


On May 11, the community at SS. Gio e Paolo celebrated Father General's 
Silver Jubilee of Priesthood. In the basilica, Father General concelebrated 
Holy Mass with all the Consultors-General, and all the Provincials of the 
Italian Provinces. 

The sermon was given by our only member of the Italian hierarchy — 
Bishop Stanislaus Amilcar Battistelli, of the diocese of Teramo-Atri. During 
the Mass, the choir of university priests sang appropriate motets. 

At noon, the Passionist Sisters outdid themselves in preparing the 
jubilee banquet. 

Among the many gifts received by Father General was a personally 
autographed photo of His Holiness. 

On May 4, Father Barnabas Ahern — recently named a member of the 
Pontifical Biblical Commission — left Rome for Japan. After a month 
of retreats and lectures, he has returned to the USA for the summer — until 
the resumption of Vatical Council II. 

The doctoral dissertation of Father Timothy Fitzgerald, The Influence 
of the Holy Eucharist on Bodily Resurrection, has been published and copies 
are due in the States by mid-July. Available upon application to author. 

Quaestiones Disputatae 

How about the growing practice among penitents of reciting the act 
of contrition before entering the confessional? May the confessor accept 
at face value, the statement of the penitent that the act of contrition has 
been duly made? — Dubius. 

Why be concerned at all as to when or whether the penitent says an act 
of contrition? The real problem is not whether a formula has been 
recited, but whether sorrow for sin is really present. According to a com- 
monly accepted opinion, the three acts of the penitent — i.e., sorrow in 
heart, confession in words, and satisfaction in work, constitute the 
proximate matter of the Sacrament of Penance. The doubt expressed above 


seems to imply that the recitation of some formula is necessary for a valid 
administration of the sacrament. 

Sorrow for sin is, indeed, a part of the Sacrament of Penance which is 
an external sign and, therefore, for validity this sorrow must be mani- 
fested externally in aliquo modo. However, the first and most important 
quality of true sorrow for sin is that it be internal. It must be an act of the 
will whereby sin is detested. Unless this act of the will is present all 
external expressions are, of course, merely fictitious and utterly useless. 
From this point of view, the external manifestation of sorrow is not at 
all an essential quality of this sorrow in se. But some manifestation seems 
necessary to verify the sacramental signification of Penance. But this is 
not the same as saying that the recitation of a formula is necessary. The 
contrition which is a part of the proximate matter of confession may be 
sufficiently externalized in the sorrowful confession of sin and petition 
for absolution. (Cf. Cappelo, De Sac, 11 n. 138) 

In view of this, I would say that it is immaterial whether a penitent 
has or has not said an act of contrition. All the confessor needs is some 
assurance that the penitent is truly sorry for his sins. And it is a commonly 
accepted opinion that a confessio dolorosa suffices for this. Personally, 
judging ex or dinar iis contingentibus, I would say that the mere presence of 
a person in the confessional clearly indicates that he is a penitent — i.e., 
someone who is sorry for his sins and wants absolution. 

As a matter of course, people will confess in the way in which they have 
been taught. And as long as this includes some external manifestation of 
sorrow there is no reason to ask them about the act of contrition. So, as to 
the question submitted by Dubius, I would say: "Yes, and don't worry 

about lt " — Bertin Farrell, CP, STD 

"The first law of history is not to dare to utter falsehood; the second, 
not to fear to speak the truth." — Leo XIII (On opening Vatican archives) 

Correction: VC, April, '65; p. 12, toward end of second paragraph, for 
"agnostics," read "gnostics." Gnostics acknowledge no nescience. 

— R. O'H. 




Editorial 1 

Passiology 2 

! Spiritual 6 

Moral 14 

Pastoral 18 

Annotated (Mission Source Material .... 25 

( Retreat Source Material .... 28 

From the Celian Hill 30 

Quaestiones Disputatae . . . . . . . . 31 

"The work of redemption is not accomplished in this world without the 
service of dedicated men. God will save men in Christ through a service 
rendered by men. That is why the call to the service of the Gospel is of 
incalculable importance; for upon it depends the whole drama of salva- 
tion." —Paul VI: The Call to the Priesthood 

(II grande rito: 11-4-63) 

". . . The word of the cross ... is ... to us ... the power of God." 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

TUt rtmm Cruris 

Vol. Ill October, A.D. 1965 No. 4 

Iferiwm GIntrtB 

Vol. Ill October, A.D. 1965 No. 4 

A Quarterly Review of Clerical Literature 
Published by the Passionist Fathers 
Province of Saint Paul of the Cross 

Cum Superiorum permissu 

Ad instar manuscripti 

For private circulation only 

Opinions expressed by contributors do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the editor. 


86-45 178 Street 

Jamaica, N. Y. 11432 

Telephone: 212-AXtel 7-0044 

Cable Address: Veecee New York 


The safe and sane mean is well denned as: "Something intermediate be- 
tween extremes." Although ancient as a formula of moderation, virtus stat 
in medio will never become threadbare. 

In these days of providential aggiornamento, there is urgent need for the 
maintenance of perspective, for avoidance of extremism. "No matter how 
well intentioned, any ultraism does more harm than good." (VC, April '64, 
p. 2) We refer, not to the finalized Acts of Vatican Council II, but to the 
reactions of clergy, religious, and secular laymen. 

This overall reaction is, obviously, a matter of anxiety to Pope Paul VI. 
Of many recent paternal admonitions, his September address to the semi- 
narians of the North American College is typical. "We know that your 
spirit rebels, at times, at what seemingly is a brake on your initiative, and 
your desire to confront the vast problems of the world. These are challeng- 
ing times ; old methods will have to be transformed, but always in the light 
of past lessons. Sometimes new solutions are proposed, but these are not 
always in keeping with Catholic teachings and principles." 

A week earlier, His Holiness had spoken to Augustinian Superiors in a 
similar tone: (There is a need) "to profess fidelity to the norms of the 
Church, avoiding certain attitudes critical and reformatory of traditional 
doctrines, of venerated usages. . . ." He warned against turning to sources 
that would "justify a spirit intolerant of discipline, subvert the teaching 
of the Church, validate certain naturalistic orientations, which would de- 
prive souls and institutions of the true spirit of Christ." 

The Pauline encyclical of September 3 — Mysterium Fidei — is an eloquent 
climax of papal anxiety. But ultra-liberals there are who will make light of 
or even disregard this admonition of the Vicar of Christ, as the alleged 
voice of ultra-conservatism. 

We can all find edification in the sound, balanced exhortation of a 
neutral voice — that of the Jew, Dr. Will Herberg, in his recent New York 
address to the National Congress of Newman Clubs. "I appeal to you who 
represent the coming generation of Catholics in this country: Do not sell 
your birthright — the great heritage of Christian truth — for a mess of 
modernistic pottage, no matter how fashionable or attractive it may seem." 
The Graduate Professor of Philosophy and Culture at Drew University 

inveighed against distorted concepts of aggiornamento. In reference to 
Church doctrine on faith and morality, he stated: "The Church must stand 
firm in its witness to the truth that is eternal and unchanging — (in that 
respect) it needs no updating." 

Because of Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders, we are men of 
supernatural character. Hence, it is timely to pray to the Divine Teacher 
and Ruler that, He may grace us with the gift of discernment, with the 
virtues of humility, patience, and obedience. The criterion of normality has 
been always and always must be: S entire cum Ecclesia. 

— AMcD 


Medical Aspects of the Sacred Passion 

Aloysius McDonough, CP, STD 

Even when considering the sufferings of Christ from the viewpoint of 
medical science, we must bear in mind that, the following are the basic 
records: Papal and Conciliar documents; Scripture, plus exegesis; Tradi- 
tion, plus exegesis. As auxiliary sources of information, we have histories, 
Jewish and Roman, of the times of Christ. Providentially, we have the 
unique Shroud of Turin, a record both revealing and reliable. Available 
also is an edifying number of writings by members of the medical pro- 
fession. Usually, such works are well indexed as to source material: thus, 
one's bibliography can be enlarged. A subsequent article will treat of the 
authenticity of the Shroud of Turin, attested to by twenty Popes, including 
Leo XIII, St. Pius X, and Pius XI. 

Short of actual experience, it is impossible to realize thoroughly the 
sufferings undergone by a crucified. Nonetheless, reliable sources enable 
us to attain an impressive notion of its poignancy. Today, medical science 
can appraise the passion of crucifixion unto death with more detail and 
much more accuracy than at the time of Christ. 

The Shroud of Turin became a post-mortem record in this way. In death 
as well as in life, the human body resembles a chemical laboratory. The 
vaporous exudation from the Corpse of Christ was such as to impress upon 

the full-length burial garment, all the features of the Victim. Thus, we of 
today can read the picture developed in the darkroom of His entombment. 

A religious order priest has experimented upon himself, in an endeavor 
to realize some of the distress peculiar to crucifixion. Many years ago, he 
lectured to our community at Union City. He was physically robust, six 
foot in height and built otherwise in proportion. By having himself sus- 
pended from a cross, with ropes, for the very few hours he could endure 
it, he experienced the distress due to muscle strain, constricted circulation, 
and what he emphasized as the worst torment of all — the paroxysms of 
pain in the diaphragm, from which there was no relief, due to the posi- 
tion and ensuing cramp. 

To consider the sufferings of Christ in any of these close-up ways is to 
envision a gruesome picture, but we can hardly afford to be squeamish ! The 
sacrifice of Christ was a passion because of what He suffered; a sacred 
passion because of Who He is. Therefore, He need not have suffered as 
extensively or as intensely as He did. But to impress and influence men 
prone to thoughtlessness, He suffered a passion that was eloquent in its 
physical and psychological dreadfulness. 

In an adapted sense, the Shroud has been referred to as a "fifth gospel." 
From this source and according to the measurements of experts, Our Lord's 
height was five foot, 10.9 inches. Crucifixion was so expertly plotted that, 
no essential organ, such as brain or heart, would be tampered with directly. 
Provided the nails were skillfully placed, the victim lost comparatively little 
blood. Hence, other things being equal, the crucified might linger for 
several days. When notified that Christ had died so soon, Pilate was skepti- 
cal. But He had been so maltreated and had lost so much blood before 
crucifixion that, a comparatively early demise is understandable. 

Christ's agony in the Garden was mainly psychological. His perspiration 
of blood was symptomatic of acute dread and grief. Perspiration is a sign 
and result of exertion or strain, either physical or psychological, or both. 
Of all symptoms of agitation, a perspiration of blood is the most acute. 
Under various circumstances, we experience a suffusion of blood called a 
blush. Grief, worry, and the like affect our blood pressure, even to the 
extent of inducing hemorrhage. 

On the Shroud, the entire Body of Christ — face and hands excepted — 
bears the imprint of scourging. The wounds are more numerous and distinct 
on the back. Dark bruises are indicated, rather than bleeding cuts. "Livore 
ejus sanati sumtis." (Isaias LIN: 5) Livor is translated as a "bluish color, a 

livid spot on the body." Lividness is due to congestion of blood vessels. 
Upon the Shroud, the wound imprints reflect accurately the structure of 
Roman scourges — two-thonged whips, weighted at the tips with blunt 
pieces of bone or metal, tending to bruise rather than cut, and causative 
of intense pain. 

To an ordeal of this kind, there is an inevitable aftermath — burning 
fever and insatiable thirst, due to the loss of body fluids. So serious is 
this privative lack that, had Our Lord partaken of the narcotic beverage 
offered Him just before crucifixion, He would have died instantly. Owing 
to the lack of normal systemic fluid, the sudden ingestion of liquid would 
have overtaxed the organs. 

The Shroud evidences that, the crown of thorns imposed upon the head 
of Christ was rather like a helmet or cap, than a mere narrow circlet. 
Whether the thorns would penetrate the skull would depend upon the 
structure of the woody points and upon the driving force of the blows. 
Only in the area of the temples could there be easy entry. But, in any 
event, the pain would be intense, since the covering of the skull is very 
sensitive. Profuse bleeding would ensue, for this part of the head is quite 

Van Duch seems to be the only artist who has represented Christ as 
nailed to the cross through the wrists. The correctness of this detail is 
certified to by the Shroud, and is suggested by the anatomy of the wrist as 
contrasted with that of the hand. The former gives better purchase than 
the latter, and lessens danger of the body tearing loose, once it is sus- 
pended. Provided the nails be properly entered, no bones need be broken. 
Yet, the pain would be acute. The Shroud reveals also that, the feet of 
Christ were fastened to the cross with one long nail, and without a foot- 

The wound in the side is on the right. It is a gash, such as would be 
caused by a broad-headed Roman spear. Dr. Barbet has traced the course it 
must have followed, judging by the point of entry. "The spear penetrated 
between the fifth and sixth ribs, bored through the right lung, and pierced 
the right auricle of the heart." 

Other aspects of the Corpse, as delineated on the Shroud, are character- 
istic of the torments of crucifixion, such as the stiff, strained appearance 
of the arms; prominence of the pectoral area and depression of the 
abdomen, due to distention of the Body. The right shoulder manifests the 
type of splotch that, under microscopic examination, indicates the bruise 

due to the weight of the cross upon an already bruised shoulder. The right 
side of the face is bruised and swollen, undoubtedly from the blow of the 
highpriest's servant, if not from subsequent blows also. The two-pointed 
beard of moderate length, and the hair of the head — parted in the middle, 
and falling in long locks to the shoulders — are matted from sweat and 

By a broken heart, a physician understands a heart that is physically 
ruptured, whether from physical or psychological causes. By a broken heart, 
in the popular sense, a layman understands a burden of grief so extreme 
as to result in death. 

We can reasonably say that Our Lord died of a broken heart in the latter 
sense. His anguish had begun in the garden of betrayal. Even at that early 
stage, He had said: "My soul is sorrowful even unto death." (Matt.: 
XXVI: 38) The culmination of this psychological suffering is found in 
His unique dereliction of the cross. Ordinary mortals have died of a broken 
heart, in the psychological sense. But only Christ was the Man of Sorrows, 
upon Him alone was laid "the iniquity of us all." (Isaias LIII: 6) 

It is difficult to determine whether Christ died of a broken heart in the 
physical sense also. Medical experts fail to agree. The heart muscle or 
pericardium is an envelope enclosing the heart proper. It could have sus- 
tained a rupture several times during the prolonged ordeal of the passion. 
But, did it — prior to death? 

The Shroud echoes the reference of Scripture to the blood and water that 
issued from the side of Christ, after the lance-thrust. The blood came from 
the heart proper as a source; the water or serum-like fluid, from either the 
pleura (the envelope of the lung) or the pericardium. Contending for a 
physically broken heart, a physician argues: Had there been no heart 
breakage before death, there would have been no blood resident in the 
pericardium, after death. Does he assume that, the lance did not penetrate 
as far as the heart proper? Another factor to be borne in mind is the time 
element — the interval between the death of Christ and the lance-thrust. 
Was the lapse of time sufficient to allow for congcalment of the heart- 
blood? For the blood to be still fluent, some time after death, it would 
seem necessary that, it had already issued during life, from a broken heart. 

Working together, churchmen and scientists can add considerably to an 
impressive realization of the dreadfulness of the Passion of Christ in such 
a way that, without morbidity, a wholesome edification will result. 


The Physical Cause of the Death of Christ; William Stroud (or Strovd). 

The Passion of Our Lord — A Psychological Study; Lieut.-Col. O'Gorman, Editor, 

Catholic Medical Guardian, Central Verein, 3835 Westminster PL, St. Louis, 

Bloody Sweat in the Light of Patristic Literature; Timothy Monahan, OFM; 

Licentiate Dissertation; 1921; CUA. 
"Bloody Sweat of Jesus Christ;" W. W. Keen; Baptist Quarterly; 14; pp. 169—175. 
"Further Studies of the Bloody Sweat of Our Lord;" Bibliotheca Sacra; Oberlin, 

Ohio; 1897; 54; pp. 469—483. 
Death of the Cross: A Physiological Study; Dr. E. Le Bee; St. Joseph's Hospital, 

Paris; translated for Catholic Medical Guardian; pamphlet # 850, Catholic 

Truth Society of Dublin; 1926. 
"Shroud of Turin;" Edward A. Wuenschel, CSsR; AER, Nov. '35; illustrated, & 

with liberal quotation from Dr. Vignon. 
Shroud of Turin; Dr. Mynek; illustrated. 

Dogmatic Theology 

The Holy Eucharist and 
Resurrection of the Body 

Timothy Fitzgerald, CP, STD 

Chapter VII of the Constitution on the Church deals with the pilgrim 
nature of the Church. Christians are a people on the march, a people in 
exile, yearning for that day of glory when all things will be restored 
in Christ. The restoration, however, has already begun, because Christ, 
sitting at the right hand of the Father, "is continually active in the 
world that, He might lead men to the Church and through it join them 
closer to Himself and that, He might make them partakers of His glorious 
life by nourishing them with His own body and blood." (Constitution, 
#48) The Eucharist, then, is food for this journey, a marvellous food 
which bestows life and leads to resurrection. 

To the Jews of the Old Testament the notions of life and resurrection 
were a deep mystery. Only close to the time of Christ did they conceive 
of life as somehow enduring after death. This after-life necessarily included 
the resurrection of the body, because their primitive anthropology did not 
distinguish between body and soul. Man was thought of as a living, 

concrete unity. If life were to endure after death it had to include the 
resurrection of the body. So it is that, when Jesus promised life and resur- 
rection to those who partake of His body and blood, He was teaching that 
the Eucharist will bring the whole man, body and soul, to glorious resurrec- 
tion. "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I 
will raise him up at the last day." (John 6:54) 

This concept of the resurrection of the total man being brought about 
by the Eucharist is likewise found in the synoptics. They place the institu- 
tion of the Eucharist at a paschal meal with all its overtones of the 
covenant meal, the messianic times and the heavenly banquet, (cf. G. 
Sloyan, "The Holy Eucharist as an Eschatalogical Meal," Worship 36, 
1962 444-451). Luke (22:18) speaks of the inauguration of the kingdom 
after the resurrection of Christ and shows that we share now in the life 
of the risen Lord by partaking of the Eucharistic meal. Matthew (26:29) 
and Mark (14:25) seem to treat exclusively of heaven, the time of the new 
wine and the fulness of messianic blessings. Again the concepts are entirely 
biblical: eating and drinking at the Lord's table in His kingdom envisions 
the resurrection of the total man, body and soul, redeemed in Christ. 

St. Paul teaches the same doctrine. United physically to Christ by 
Baptism and the Eucharist, the Christian belongs to Him by His very body. 
Indeed, we have already risen with Christ and should seek the things 
which are above. (Col. 3:1) By daily progress in virtue we grow in the 
image of Christ crucified. (Gal. 2:19-20; 5:16-27; 2 Cor. 4:10) By 
eating the Lord's body we proclaim His death until He comes. (1 Cor. 
11:26) By drinking the Lord's blood we seal the new covenant and drink 
of the one Spirit. (1 Cor. 12:13) This same Spirit leads us on as sons 
of God, teaches us to pray and to suffer, and ultimately glorifies us in 
Christ. (Rom. 8:12-17) M.-E. Boismard sums up Paul's teaching this 

"There does exist, then, an intimate bond between the Eucharist and 
the return of Christ. The Eucharist is the glorious body of Christ, 
through which we faithfully enter into communion with God and 
the life-giving Spirit. When He returns, Christ will perfect the work 
He began by giving us the Spirit fully, the principle of eschatalogical 
renewal of the world and of our bodies." "The Eucharist According 
to St. Paul," in The Eucharist in the New Testament. (Baltimore: 
Helicon, 1964) 

Echoes of the scripture are found almost immediately in the Church 
Fathers. St. Ignatius of Antioch calls the Eucharist "the medicine of im- 
mortality, the antidote against death." Irenaeus refutes those who deny a 
bodily resurrection by claiming that "our bodies, partakers of the Eucharist, 
are no longer corruptible, having the hope of eternal resurrection." The 
great Greek Fathers, Gregory of Nyssa, John Chrysostom and Cyril of 
Alexandria speak of the Eucharist as restoring to the body that pristine 
integrity which man had lost by Adam's sin. St. Cyril, in a beautiful ex- 
pression redolent of John (12:24) and Paul (1 Cor. 15:42-44), says that 
Christ by His flesh implants in us a certain "seed of immortality" which 
abolishes all the corruption which is in us. This seed is not to be thought 
of as something physical, but as the intrinsic working of the sacrament 
within us. 

This brief description of the intimate relationship of the Eucharist to 
bodily resurrection suggests some of the possibilities for using this doctrine 
in our preaching. Preachers and catechists have tended to neglect the 
influence of the sacraments, and especially the Eucharist, on the body. 
Yet we are only fully human when body and soul are joined. In mission 
instructions, e.g., this teaching is an added reason for worthy preparation 
for and thanksgiving after Holy Communion. For every Communion re- 
ceived with fervor will not only cause an increase of the virtue of hope, 
which leads us to believe in a complete incorporation in Christ, but will 
also infallibly bring our bodies to a greater glory. This is the Father's 
will: that Christ should lose nothing, not even these frail bodies of ours 
which have served Him so poorly. (John 6:39) Mission sermons on 
heaven, the resurrection, the ascension, the second coming, can all in- 
corporate this teaching. The risen body of the Christian which partook of 
the Eucharist — the sacrament of unity — will share in a community life of 
worship, infinitely beyond the oneness we experience on earth. The 
risen body will be part of the total triumph of Christ and the Church 
brought about by participation in the sacraments. (Cf. Toland, "The Risen 
Body in the Next Life," in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third North Amer- 
ican Liturgical Week, 1963, pp. 274-283) 

The major biblical themes present in St. John's account of the promise 
of the Eucharist can be developed for Forty Hours sermons or for scrip- 
ture services on missions and retreats. A. Feuillet in ]ohannine Studies 
(N.Y.: Alba House, 1964; pp. 53-108) traces many of these themes: the 

heavenly manna — the bread of eternal life; the outpouring of the Holy 
Spirit in the new covenant; the heavenly or messianic banquet. 

The doctrine is of use in speaking to special audiences. Young people 
and married couples should be encouraged by the profound effect of the 
Eucharist on the body. The risen Lord who comes to us in Communion 
gives us the Holy Spirit. The Spirit gradually brings about a transforma- 
tion in our bodies, restoring little by little the wonderful harmony of 
body and soul which existed in Adam before the fall. By His dynamic 
presence, the Spirit lessens the strength of our evil passions and urges us 
on to works of charity. Our bodies become instruments of sanctification. 
Old people, too, (today an ever-increasing audience with particular prob- 
lems) are heartened by the knowledge that while their bodies grow old and 
feeble, their reception of the Eucharist assures them of a radical vitality. 
The Body of Christ is the seed of immortality. "The Lord Jesus Christ," 
promises St. Paul, "will refashion the body of our lowliness conforming 
it to the body of his glory." (Phil. 3:21) 

The resurrection of our bodies, then, will not be just an arbitrary act of 
the divine power, but a true and profound consequence of our incorporation 
with Christ at Baptism, our physical union with Him in the Eucharist, our 
gradual spiritualization under the influence of the Holy Spirit. In other 
words, our glorious resurrection has an intimate connection with the whole 
paschal mystery. "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal 
life, and I will raise him up at the last day." 


C. Davis, "Resurrection of the Body," Clergy Review 43 (1958) 137-150; 205-216. 
A. Feuillet, "Fourfold Death of a Christian," Theology Digest 10 (1962) 31-37. 
M. Buckley, "Holy Eucharist and Holy Spirit," Worship 37 (1963) 332-341. 
J. Galot, "Thanksgiving after Holy Communion," Review For Religious 20 (1961 ) 

To our readers, we are glad to recommend: The Nature of the Moral 
Universal, a dissertation by the Rev. Sebastian MacDonald, CP, STD. $1.50 
per copy. Apply to author, at Holy Cross Hall, St. Meinrad, Ind. 47577 

If you walk with lame men, you'll soon limp yourself." 

— Seumas MacManus 

Pastoral Theology 

The Object of the Parish Mission* 

Jerome Stowell, CP, MA 

The primary aim of mission preaching, if it is to follow the model set 
by the preaching of Christ and the Apostles, must be conversion — metanoia. 
This total conversion of man to God was the object aimed at in the 
kerygma. But just what, precisely, is meant by "conversion"? This will be 
the subject of the present article: the scriptural concept of conversion. 
And, within the limits imposed by this article, we should also like to 
indicate the lines of a theological elaboration of the idea of conversion, and 
its sacramental dimensions. 

A. Old Testament Concept of Conversion: 

The term most frequently used by the Old Testament writers to express 
the idea of conversion is shub. Basically it means a change — whether of 
time, or place, or condition. Thus a change of time — the return of the year 
in II Sam. 11,1. A change of name: Nechao changed the name of Eliacim 
to Joakim in II Kings 23,34. A change of place — the boundary of Zabulon 
turns eastward (Jos. 1,22). And it can mean to turn — "You have turned 
aside from my statutes" (Mai. 3,7). 

While losing nothing of the root idea of an actual physical turning, the 
verb is employed by the sacred writers to denote a turning from good to 
bad, or vice versa — a moral change. Thus we read in I Samuel (7,3) : 

"Samuel told the Israelites: if your hearts are honestly set on coming 
back to the Lord, you must rid yourselves of all alien gods; no Baal 
for you, no Astaroth ; your hearts must wait in readiness on the Lord, 
and serve Him only." 

But it is especially during the Exile that the theme of conversion is 
developed by the prophets. The exiles are far from home. They are 
lonely and oppressed by their captors. But, the prophets make clear, their 
political situation as captives is but an outward expression of their spiritual 
condition in the captivity of sin. God is using this objective, historical situa- 

* Companion piece to "Toward a Renewal of the Parish Mission," by the same 
author, VC, July '65, pp. 18—24. 


tion to bring home to them the reality of sin. Sin is more than an evil act. 
Sin results in a condition — that of captivity by a foreign power. 

The prophet comes to these sad and bewildered exiles with a message of 
hope. He preaches a great return; he calls on the exiles to be converted. 
The people must return to the Covenant if they hope to get back to the 
land granted them through the Covenant. They must be converted to the 
Lord, if they hope to get back to the Temple which marks the place of 
his abode with his people. 

So this prophetic call to conversion is more than a demand for penance 
in sackcloth and ashes. It is the good news that the people will one day 
turn back homewards. At the same time, the prophet calls upon the people 
to turn back to God. In both cases — the idea of getting back home, and the 
exhortation to return to God — the prophet uses the Hebrew term shub. 

"Wandering hearts, the Lord bids you to come back to Him and renew 
your troth ; by ones and twos, from this city or that, from this clan or 
that, he will claim you for his own, and bring you back to Sion." 
(Physical return — back to their farms) 

"And the Lord said to me: carry this message to the north country: 
come back to me, apostate Israel, the Lord says, and there shall be no 
frown of mine awaiting you. I am merciful, the Lord says, and 
vengeance shall not last forever. Only acknowledge thy fault, he tells 
thee, in deserting the Lord thy God." (Spiritual return) 

B. New Testament Concept of Conversion: 

It is only in the context of salvation history that we can understand the 
New Testament call to conversion. By the time of Christ the idea of con- 
version had acquired a definite meaning; it denoted a turning away from 
sin and a return to the Lord. Moreover the dominant note was one of joy, 
not sorrow; it rang with the overtones of a joyous coming back home from 
the land of exile. 

Thus, when St. Mark sums up the early Galilean preaching of Christ he 
tells us that the main theme was: "The time is fulfilled, the kingdom of 
God is at hand. Be converted (metanoiete) and believe the good news/' 
(Mk. 1,15) 

Here the Latin "poenitemini" scarcely translates the term "metanoiete"; 
in fact, it clashes with the rest of the immediate context. For if "metanoiete"' 
is translated "do penance" {poenitemini), then that hardly fits in with the 
idea of "good news." Few people would classify a stirring call to do 


penance, to fast and abstain, as "good news." But the good news our 
Saviour brought was an invitation from the Father, a call to come back 
home. Our Lord who "fulfills" (cfr. Matt. 5,17) the law and the prophets, 
here puts himself in line with the prophetic tradition in his preaching of 
conversion. He comes to tell the people to "return home, for the kingdom 
of God is closer than ever before." His use of the term "metanoia" carries 
the overtones of a glad invitation to a joyous home-coming. Moreover, his 
parables of conversion, like that of the Prodigal Son (Lk. 15,11-31) make 
it plain that the dominant note of conversion is one of joy. This same 
note of joy in getting back is sounded in other parables — like that of 
the shepherd combing the hills for the lost sheep (Lk. 15,4-7), or that of 
the householder searching for the lost coin. (Lk. 15,8-11) It is always the 
restoration of what was lost, the homecoming of the sinner that sets the 
angels to rejoicing, not the sinner's penitential practices. 

If therefore we make conversion the object of mission preaching, it is 
important that we understand this concept in its full scriptural sense. And 
so when Father Lombardi, SJ can fill the churches wherever he preaches 
the "Great Return," he is simply basing his mission approach on the sound 
foundation of our Saviour's message as interpreted in the light of the Old 
Testament. The famous "General Mission of Milan" which was preached 
under the direction of Cardinal Montini, our present Holy Father, also 
developed this idea of conversion as a return to the house of the heavenly 

C. Theological Elaboration: 

Often, we use the term conversion as implying a change in religious 
affiliation. Thus we speak of G. K. Chesterton or John Henry Newman as 
being great converts to the Church. But the fact is that all Christians are 
"converts." Conversion is necessary for all as a condition of salvation. 
"Except you be converted . . . you shall not enter the kingdom of heaven" 
(Matt. 18,3). 

In this sense, conversion is not an event that happens once and for all. 
The sincere Christian goes on being converted the rest of his life ; his con- 
aversion is a continuing process of directing his life ever more completely 
toward God. Conversion in this sense is the object of mission preaching; 
it embraces more, and goes deeper than just trying to "get the people to the 
sacraments." Furthermore, may not the failure to evoke such a conversion 
explain the ease with which so many Catholics lapse later on? Even if, 


previously, God had been assented to as an "object" of belief, it is often 
possible that such an assent has been only "notional" (to use the expres- 
sion of Cardinal Newman). It has not been the "real" assent of the entire 

A genuine conversion which involves the whole of man comes from a 
meaningful personal encounter with God. It is not due solely to "salutary 
reflections on eternal truths." Although new ideas and forceful arguments 
can have a profound effect on a man, yet far deeper is the effect of a new 
friend. A man's entire life can be restructured by the experience of meeting 
a person who brings out the best, the noblest in a man. Therefore, if this 
is the goal of mission preaching — a conversion which in every way is the 
most utterly personal movement, the most complete and radical change 
conceivable — then the missioner must do more than present "proofs." His 
chief effort must be to present a person. He must preach Christ. 

Here, then, is where the true drama of life is played, when a man meets 
Christ in the good news proclaimed by his ambassador, the mission 
preacher. The mission sermon, therefore, cannot be content with getting 
people to perform a religious exercise, like getting to confession. For there 
is a danger that in stressing the importance of getting to the sacraments, 
we would be pointing only to the sign, and not the thing signified. But un- 
less a man is aware of the reality, he may never go beyond the impersonal 
sign, and his conversion remains superficial. He has, indeed, "done some- 
thing," he has gone to confession. But has he himself become changed, 
turned inside out like a glove? Has he, in short, become personally involved 
in the reality of genuine conversion? 

This brief resume of conversion is not meant to imply that our mission 
preaching will be all "sweetness and light." The motive of fear, while 
certainly not dominant, is by no means ignored. Mission preaching is to 
place a man in the presence of Christ, judge as well as redeemer. In this un- 
protected encounter of a man with his God, he is faced with a decision — 
to accept Christ's offer of salvation, or to reject it. It is a decision that 
means life or death, a fearful decision. "He that believeth in him is not 
judged; but he that doth not believe is already judged." (Jn. 3,17) 

Recalling once more the kerygma of Christ: "Be converted ... for the 
kingdom of God is at hand," we learn that the announcement of the king- 
dom is connected with the kairos, the time of grace when man may no 
longer remain neutral or undecided. The threat of judgment weighs upon 
all men ; no one can escape it. 


A meaningful personal encounter with Christ will result in genuine con- 
trition, the core element in conversion. For when confronted with an aware- 
ness of the holiness and goodness of God, every son of Adam is imme- 
diately conscious of his own sinfulness. His spontaneous reaction will be 
like that of St. Peter falling at the feet of Christ and exclaiming "depart 
from me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord." (Lk. 5,8) As Bernard Haring 
puts it, "Contrition is a central act of the virtue of religion because God 
is holy and we are sinners; because religion means personal encounter be- 
tween God and man. To repent of sin is the right response of sinful man 
to God." {Law of Christ, I. p. 427) 

By this sincere compunction, the nerve center of sin is killed off. For sin 
and guilt are not just events of a man's past. They continue to exert an 
influence, in many ways, on a man's attitude. The less a man dares to face 
the guilt of the past, so much the more effectively does it continue to exert 
its influence in the subconscious. But genuine contrition kills sin at its root, 
because it expels pride and self-love which are behind every act of sin. 
Contrition thus gives a new direction to a man's life: no longer toward 
self, but directed in humble gratitude to the merciful Lord. 

To be genuine, therefore, conversion must be essentially Christo -centric. 
So the decision of the sinner to turn back to God means that he must seek 
Christ where he is to be found today, in his Church. One who does not 
seek Christ in his Church is not seeking the real, living, historic Christ. 

The Passionist missioner is greatly helped in all this by many elements of 
our mission structure. The very act of erecting the mission cross makes it 
plain that we have come to present a person, not just an abstract message. 
The dynamics of conversion come from the encounter with the Person of 
Christ, rather than from argumentation, however cogent. 

And in practically every sermon during the course of the mission, the 
preacher should be aiming at the renewal of the baptismal vows, which 
comes as the final exercise. For the experienced preacher knows that in 
the audience before him there is many a so-called "born Catholic" who 
has never personally ratified the commitment implied by Baptism. Such 
a person may be a Catholic in the legal, or canonical sense; but he is far 
from Catholic existentially. Mission preaching must concentrate on the 
reality signified by the sacramental sign. It is to seek to make the entire life 
of the baptized correspond to the full dimension of the sign received. Too 
often a person is baptized, has made his first Communion, and even received 
something of a Catholic education. Yet his assent to the realities of the 


faith is purely cerebral. His moral behavior is simply a matter of conformity 
with an accepted pattern of conduct. And thus he has never ratified the sign 
of his Baptism. Or perhaps he has ratified it too lightly; and his too facile 
ratification has not held up in the face of an indifferent or hostile environ- 

It would be a mistake to think of the renewal of the baptismal vows as 
merely an impressive ceremony, or an attempt at dramatics. For the renewal 
of the vows is the public expression of the renewal of conversion. The 
baptismal vows give witness that a choice has been made, a way of life 
decided upon. By the renewal of the vows the "convert" pledges publicly 
his allegiance to the People of God. By the vows, the convert is taking his 
life into his own hands and committing it to Christ. 


Progress Report on the New Preaching 

Thomas A. Sullivan, CP 

The theme of the presidential address at the charter convention of The 
Catholic Homiletic Society, in New York, December 1958, was "The 
Perennial Rhetoric as the Framework of Homiletic Theory." 1 In developing 
his theme, Very Rev. Joseph M. Connors, SVD made the point that, there 
is a distinctly recognizable and definable body of rhetorical theory which 
has been traditionally the framework of homiletic training. 

The dust clouds stirred up in the face-lifting project of giving a "new 
look" to preaching have now about settled and a fairly well-defined image 
of the contemporary sermon has emerged. 

It appears that what was labelled "perennial" rhetoric seven years ago 
is still homiletically valid. No new theory of sermon composition has 
been offered which improves the traditional sermon form. This is not 
surprising, even in this era of the new theology, for psychology and not 
theology dictates the form of the sermon. The new theology suggests a 
different sermon-content, but to establish a truly contemporary sermon- 

1 Rhetoric, defined by Aristotle: "The art of discovering in a given situation the 
available means of persuasion." 


form, we look to the specialists in the field of communications. A brochure 
on public speaking currently popular quotes Richard C. Borden: "Listeners 
like vertebrate speeches — speeches with a spine. They dislike flabby, shape- 
less speeches that begin nowhere, ramble on in all directions and end up 
in the air." 

The best authorities on the new preaching disclaim any wish to change 
the sermon -form. Father Gerard Sloyan, as President of the National 
Liturgical Conference, insisted that the new preaching does not mean 
"feeding more information to the people, and in making them more 
aware of the salvational implications in the liturgy, for authentic preach- 
ing always has as its goal the eliciting of a response from one's hearers." 
Father Davis proposes: "God's Word is never the mere handing on of 
information. The response to it can never be an attitude of cool intellectual 
detachment. It will evoke either the surrender of faith, and save; or the 
rejection of unbelief, and condemn." 2 

Today's sermon, to be truly authentic and not pseudo-contemporary, 
must have a predetermined specific moral, flowing from the discussion of 
a specific theme, which theme has been developed to suit the expected 
audience reaction when such theme is announced. 

A superficial interpretation of the advocated preaching reform led some 
to expect radical changes in the sermon topics for our specialized preach- 
ing apostolate. Reading into the new insights on the joy of Christian 
living, a rejection of all disturbing motivation for right living, it Was 
thought that mission and retreat sermons on the eternal truths are out- 
moded. Demonstrably, some mission topics in the Directorium do not 
fit well into the current preaching mode — value of the soul, importance 
of salvation, delay of repentance, obligation of hearing Mass, drunkenness. 
But a polyannish scrapping of the truths of Faith — end of man, death, 
judgment, hell — is not at all indicated. Karl Rahner, a liberal theologian, 
challenges: "Where can you hear a sermon on hell these days? How 
many people, when they see someone faced with eternal damnation, cry 
out in a loud voice, with conviction, in anguish: 'Save your soul!' How 
many still have deep in their hearts the Christian fear of death and the 
last judgment? How many are capable of feeling desperately worried — 
I mean in the quiet of their own minds, not as an official gesture — when 
some Catholic acquaintance of theirs dies without the last sacraments? 

2 Theology for Today. 


... It is strange, when the modern priest makes a missionary onslaught 
on anybody, he usually does it by reminding the person concerned that 
he is really a Christian already — i.e., baptized and brought up as a 
Catholic. Why doesn't he do it instead with the thought that this man 
is a pagan who must become a Christian?" 3 

Though the new or renewed theology warrants no change in sermon- 
form, and no sweeping changes in mission sermon-topics, the changes 
in sermon -content are revolutionary. It is in this area that contemporary 
preaching merits to be called new. In the new preaching, the emphasis 
is on the ecclesial and not the individualistic aspects of salvation. The 
member of Christ is to seek salvation in the Body and not as an isolated 
unit. It focuses attention on the efficacy of Christ rather than on man's 
rectitude. It calls for scriptural preaching to supplant a pious humanism. 
It is liturgical, seeking to make men more concerned with the action — 
particularly the sacramental action — of Christ, than with legalism. It 
recognizes modern man's discontent with negativism, and his justifiable 
demand for the inspiration of the Good News. 

This analysis of the present state of the preaching reform is not one 
man's opinion. It represents the majority thinking of an articulate cross 
section of the preaching fraternity. This thinking is revealed in the papers 
read at recent conventions of The Catholic Homiletic Society, in the open 
and full discussion of questions raised by these papers, in the CHS 
Newsletters and the articles in the CHS — sponsored periodical Preaching. 

The CHS is rapidly becoming one of the most dynamic institutions 
on the Catholic scene. It boasts a 250% increase in membership in the 
past two years. There are well over 700 members — missionaries, retreat 
preachers and directors, parish priests, educators, teachers of homiletics, 
mission office directors, Catholic newspaper editors. Practically every male 
religious community is represented and the bigger missionary groups — 
Franciscan, Capuchin, Dominican, Jesuit, Oblate, Marist, Divine Word, 
Paulist, Holy Cross, Redemptorist and Passionist account for more than 
300 of the membership. 

To the 700 plus constituent members are joined associate members, 
sustaining members (honorary), seminarian associate members and, re- 
cently, ecumenical members (non-Catholic clergymen). All members, 
including the ecumenical, have the right to attend the meetings, to 

3 Free Speech in the Church (pp. 59-64). 


participate in discussions and activities and to receive the publications 
of the CHS. Only constituent members can vote on issues and in elections 
of officers. 

The number and the caliber of the membership assures one of a reason- 
ably accurate appraisal of the best thinking today on preaching. The spirit 
of the Society is neither liberal nor conservative. It is progressive, but 
balanced. Freedom of expression is encouraged, but both "far-out" ideas 
and rigid conformity to the past get short shrift from the majority. The 
substitution of "jargon" for new thinking is discouraged and the grandilo- 
quent are advised: "Try that out on the crowd at a race track." CHS 
laymen, experienced in commercial advertising, by pointing out the selling- 
value of a familiar trademark, dissuaded the majority from accepting the 
suggestion of some missionaries that the "mission" be updated by calling 
it "parish renewal." A proposal that poor mission attendance could be 
remedied by shortening the length of the services was dismissed when 
CHS diocesan pastors, speaking from their experience, asserted that 
advance publicity for the mission and competent missionaries, and not a 
fifteen minute time reduction would fill the pews. 

The CHS has the American rights to the Ottawa University Homiletic 
Service and furnished homily outlines for the Sundays and major feast 
days of the past year. Since Advent, all contributions have been made by 
Americans. Two Passionists, Fathers Augustine Paul Hennessy and Aelred 
Lacomara were among the twelve contributors forming the first start. 
The contributors for the season 1965-1966 include Fathers Augustine Paul 
Hennessy and Pius Leabel. All constituent members receive this homily 
service gratis. Other subscribers pay $4 a year. 

A bimonthly periodical, Preaching, has been launched in an experi- 
mental issue, Vol. 0, No. 0. A second issue, to consist of the papers read 
at the latest convention, is due soon. It is planned that Vol. 1, No. 1 
will be ready in January. Father Sylvester McNutt, OP, is editor. He is 
assisted by six sub-editors, each to supervise a special interest — parish 
preaching, missions, closed retreats, homiletics, pre-homiletics and Prot- 
estant studies. Dr. William Thompson of Eastern Baptist Theological 
Seminary is ecumenical editor. 

The bibliography service of CHS is excellent, ranging from appraisal 
of the Preacher's Encyclopedia, 4 vols., $60, to review of 15^ Paulist 
Press pamphlets. A valuable feature of this service is a listing of worth- 


while articles on preaching, culled from Canadian, English, Irish, Austra- 
lian and New Zealander periodicals. 

It is practically impossible for one to read everything appearing on the 
market today. There is danger of accepting one author's thesis as main- 
stream flow when, in fact, he is crossing the stream of contemporary 
thought. The function of the CHS is to use its impressive membership 
of qualified men to evaluate today's myriad and conflicting theories. 


The Scientist in the Brave New World 

Robert O'Hara, CP, MA 

On October, 3, 1964, His Holiness, Pope Paul, addressed the Pontifical 
Academy of Sciences and made the following observation: "The scientific 
world which, in the past, readily assumed an attitude of autonomy and 
self-assurance from which flowed an indifference — if not contempt — for 
spiritual and religious values is now, on the contrary, seized by an aware- 
ness of the complexity of the problems of the world and of man; there 
are also a kind of insecurity and fright before the possible evolution of 
science left without control and to its own proper dynamism." 1 

The Pope's words highlight the fact that the scientist is in trouble. 
Those thrilling days of a generation or so ago are now gone, when scien- 
tists were confident that they could fashion a push button world, free from 
germs and superstition, sickness and hunger, ignorance and the unreason- 
able act. At the moment, however, we are living in a push button world 
which places at our disposal not only artifacts in stupefying profusion, 
which has banished and controlled many diseases, but also has made avail- 
able to us things that can destroy us in one hellish moment, or eliminate 
all organic life in a long painful process. In other words, the simplistic 
good of science is not working automatically for the good of man. The 
scientist, like the homo faber which he is, must also be a homo prudens, 
or he and we are both in bad trouble. This is one aspect of the problem 

1 AAS, 30 Novembris 1964, p. 945. 


suggested by the Holy Father which I would like to spell in this little 

It is difficult to pinpoint just when the scientists began to feel that 
insecurity and fear to which the Pope referred, but for practical purposes 
the date assigned might be that of July 16, 1945, when the first nuclear 
device was exploded in Alamogordo's sands. We are told that the scien- 
tists were, indeed, elated at the success of their efforts but they also 
experienced other feelings. Robert Oppenheimer, who played a key role 
in the development of the A-bomb, has been quoted as saying that he 
"experienced a sense of sin" at the extent of the horror that he had helped 
to unleash. 2 

It was a novel thing for a scientist to speak of sin in connection with 
science. Sin was one of the social factors in a simple society that science 
was to eliminate. And it is true that other scientists have repudiated any 
feeling of guilt in connection with the development of nuclear weapons. 
They have been quick to protest that they were working within the frame- 
work of nature, and if the results were terrible, the blame must be attrib- 
uted to nature, not to the scientists. However, such protestations of inno- 
cence lack the power to convince. More and more scientists are being 
made to realize that their laboratories are part of a larger world and not 
unrelated to it — namely, the wide world of man; they are urged to sense 
that as men they must be concerned with what they do as scientists. If, 
in a particular instance, the scientist might not suspect the problem, others 
are calling his attention to it. 

We are becoming increasingly familiar with the association of the 
name Prometheus with that of the modern scientist. But if we have been 
duly impressed with the beneficent energies the Prometheans have placed 
at our disposal, we are also experiencing doubts whether we will really 
be better off in the long run, if the Prometheans take unto themselves the 
divine omnipotence without enjoying the divine wisdom and pity also. 
Accordingly, the scientist is becoming a suspect if not a sinister figure in 
contemporary society. 

This development is the subject of articles, novels, plays, and not with- 
out reason. As a matter of fact, in the process of making the first atomic 

2 Time, April 26, 1954, p. 20: "In some crude sense which no vulgarity, no 
humor, no overstatement can quite extinguish, the physicists have known sin, and 
this is a knowledge which they cannot lose." 


weapon, the scientists themselves raised the question whether they might 
not initiate a chain reaction which would end up with the disintegration 
of the world. They reached a negative answer but there is no assurance 
that the answer has been definitive. One is tempted to a nostalgia for the 
good old days when the rain maker and the witch doctor were the most 
potent figures on the scene. 

Moreover, there is a growing body of evidence for the opinion that we 
might not have to wait for the Mad Scientist to vaporize us all, in a mo- 
ment of omnipotent aberration. It would appear that continued experi- 
mentation, even under controlled conditions, might be so polluting that 
circumambient air as to poison the very marrow of our bones, multiply 
cancers, and either mutilate the newly conceived or even make all concep- 
tion impossible. Formulas are available according to which one prognos- 
ticates an increase of such evils according to the increase of radiant energies 
in the atmosphere. 3 

The successful manipulation of nuclear energies was a dramatic advance 
in scientific know-how. Hitherto, scientists may be said to have operated 
on Nature. Now they are able to become involved in the natural process 
itself. They work within the very heart of matter. This creates tremendous 
responsibilities for scientists, both as prudent men and theoreticians. 

Another instance of this penetration into the natural process, the very 
evolutionary process of humanity, is associated with the discovery of 
DNA. 4 That is the code in nature which transmits from generation to 
generation specific identities. Scientists already know what DNA is and 
many of its functions; moreover, they hope very shortly to be able to 
break down this secret code of nature and rearrange its elements, thus 
giving the scientist the power of the Creator Himself, to make figures 
according to his own image and likeness, or his prejudices and hatreds. 

To put it bluntly: whom are we to trust with this power? Who enjoys 
the kind of wisdom that must control that kind of omnipotence? We still 
are horrified at the genocide born of Nazi madness, but what further 
dimensions of evil might they not have put forth, if they then knew how 
to manipulate DNA as contemporary scientists anticipate doing? What 
guarantees are there that the mad and malicious will not hesitate to do 

3 Science and Peace; Pauling, Linus. 

4 Riddle of Life; Beck, William S. ; Adventures of the Mind; First Series, Vintage 


what the wise and humane would fear to do? Once entered into the 
evolutionary process, where will homo sapiens go? back to the Nean- 
derthal? or worse? 

There is another facet to the terror that the scientist has launched into 
society — less dramatic perhaps, but equally threatening. Again, for prac- 
tical purposes, we might date our awareness of this problem with the 
appearance of The Silent Spring by Rachel Carson. 5 The thesis of the 
book is that the continued use of insecticides and detergents in the future, 
as in the past, might mean the return of a not-too-distant springtime with- 
out the blessedness of bird song. They will all have been killed off. The 
book is admittedly controversial, and the scientists, business men, and 
farmers, and some members of government, have been quick to emphasize 
the almost miraculous benefits to man through the use of these chemicals. 
However, the public is now alert to the fact that great numbers of birds, 
fish and wild life have been killed off by these products, especially when 
used without caution. Not only have these poisons directly killed organic 
life, but there is much evidence for the opinion that some of them have 
a sterilizing effect. 

Moreover, we are ourselves identified with this problem. We too are 
ingesting these poisons in the food we eat, the air we breathe, the water 
we drink. We have no safe guarantees that we can continue to be exposed 
to an escalation of poisoning in this way, without being poisoned ourselves 
with effects that can be expected, and perhaps others that we don't yet 
anticipate because all the evidence isn't yet available. It is known that some 
of these poisons remain within organisms for years, apparently in a static 
state, until brought into contact with other poisons which have been in- 
gested in a similar way and then terrible things begin to happen. 

One final example of the scientific problem might be suggested. This 
has to do with automation. There is no doubt that automation has done 
much for mankind and it is still only in its early stages of development 
and use. For instance, much of our gross national produce which is the 
envy of the world is the effect of automation. But, here also, the public 
is becoming aware of the by-products of the principle and they are not 
unmixed blessings. Without doubt, automation has reduced the need for 
muscular energy ; perhaps, reduced the need for men. There are those who 
seriously contend that automation, particularly as it develops to the point 

5 Silent Spring; Carson, Rachel; Houghton Mifflin, 1962. 


where automation will itself be automated, will make man obsolete. While 
we can take it for granted that the end result will not be that neat, it is 
safe to assume that society will be confronted with a problem of increased 
leisure. That can be a questionable opportunity. Many will not know what 
to do with those leisure hours if they cannot be usefully employed; and 
not being able to make a real contribution to the good of society, they 
might lose a sense of identity and develop all manner of emotional ills. 
Such a social expendable may question whether science has been good to 
him, in transmuting him from a warrior king in a wigwam to a bum 
on the street corner. 

Apart from that possibility, there are those who insist that automation, 
together with other factors in the world of technology, work for the de- 
personalization of man. There are some who argue that this result is 
inevitable. 6 Automation is based on quantitative processes. There are those 
who maintain that quality will not only be ignored but phased out, in 
the movement toward a perfectly automated society. If, however, personal- 
ity is the most perfect thing in the world, how are we to rate a society 
in which the factor of personality is ignored? And what are we to think 
of the scientist who changes man from a person to a thing? 

The Pope's audience knew whereof he spoke when he adverted to the 
insecurity and fear which the scientists are currently feeling. The scientist 
is experiencing his "time of troubles." "Through its technical results sci- 
ence has exposed man of the twentieth century to risks which he will have 
to face. A scientist who is no professing Christian, but nevertheless a man 
of conscientious sensitivity, Jean Rostand, has said: 'Even beyond com- 
plicity with which it panders to murderous passion, science is, of itself, 
something which we have to fear.' " 7 

Francis Bacon, considered to be one of the fathers of the scientific 
movement, foresaw this development centuries ago. Loren Eiseley, who has 
made a deep study of Bacon's thought, writes: "Only by charity and pity 
did Bacon foresee that man might become fit to rule the kingdom of 
nature. The technological arts alone have concealed in them, he realized, 
a demonic element. They could bring men riches, but they could draw out 

6 The Technological Society, Ellul, Jacques; Alfred A. Knopf, 1964. The Quan- 
titative Society, Wilkinson, John; The Center for the Study of Democratic Insti- 
tutions, 1964. 

7 The Second Vatican Council; Daniel-Rops; p. 125, Hawthorn, 1962. 


of nature powers which then became non -natural because they were subject 
to the human will with all its dangerous implications." 8 

The non-natural can mean the unnatural and that can become the 
demonic. Shakespeare said that "the prince of darkness is a gentleman." 
In our time he might even be a scientist. 

8 Francis Bacon and the Modem Dilemma; Eiseley, Loren; University of Ne- 
braska Press, 1962, p. 18. 

Mission Source Material 

Robert O'Hara, CP, MA 

It is clear to all that liturgical doctrine and action must receive greater 
emphasis than has been traditional on our missions. However, in elaborat- 
ing new orientations, it would be a grave mistake terminating in spiritual 
sterility to project the liturgy simply in terms of narrow ritualism. The 
Council gives us sure guide lines — for example, in the Constitution De Ec- 
clesia. In Chapter 2, sec. 10, the Constitution treats of the exercise of the 
priesthood of the laity. It teaches that the common priesthood of the faith- 
ful and the ministerial or hierarchical priesthood are interrelated, although 
they differ in essence. In explaining the priesthood of the faithful, the 
document points out that the faithful join in offering the Eucharist. More- 
over, "they likewise exercise that priesthood in receiving the sacraments, 
in prayer and thanksgiving, in the witness of a holy life, and by self-denial 
and active charity." 

Again, in chapter 4, The Laity, the Constitution relates the virtuous 
living of the married to the exercise of their priesthood in these words: 
"for all their works ... if carried out in the Spirit, and even the hard- 
ships of life, if patiently borne — all these become 'spiritual sacrifices ac- 
ceptable to God through Jesus Christ.' Together with the offering of the 
Lord's Body, they are most fittingly offered in the celebration of the 
Eucharist." (section 34) The same connection between the liturgy and 
every day living is stressed in Chapter V, on The Universal Call to Holiness 
in the Church. 

I think these few samplings indicate how easily much of the traditional 


preaching material of the mission can be re-worked into a liturgical per- 

The Eucharist 

Even in the days of Pius XII, there were some who were experiencing 
difficulties with the doctrine of the Eucharist and some of the devotional 
practices centered on it. I don't think many of the faithful in the United 
States were fully aware of the problem but were gradually becoming so in 
various ways, and Time brought the whole thing to the attention of Ameri- 
cans in the July 1st issue. The Pope's recent Encyclical, Mysterium Fidei, 
was issued against that background. As is well known, His Holiness de- 
livered a homily on the same subject a short time before, while attending a 
Eucharistic Congress at Pisa, June 10th. La Documentation Catholique, 
July 4, 1965, 1161 fi\, reported that George Huber, a correspondent for 
La Croix, wrote that the Pope declared several times, with emotion reveal- 
ing itself in his voice: "cost e, cost e," "it is so, it is so," when stating the 
reality of Our Lord's Presence beneath the species. 

The same issue of La Documentation Catholique carried joint Letters of 
the Dutch Hierarchy on the Eucharist, and on the Sacrament of Penance, 
warning against a tendency to abolish private sacramental penance. 

The problem of the doctrinal integrity of recent writings and practices 
concerning the Eucharist was not limited to Holland. I might cite a keen 
observation of Cornelius Ernst, OP, in an article in New Blackfriars, 
March 1965, p. 336, n. 3: "Catholic Christianity implies an ontology. 
It is for this general reason that I find unacceptable two recent Catholic 
reinterpretations of transubtantiation, by Father Charles Davis, in Sophia 
3 (1964, Australia), 12-24, and by Father Herbert McCabe, OP, in The 
Clergy Review 49 (1964), 749-59. Existential communication in speech 
and gesture is dependent upon and interpretative of communion in being 
(emphasis mine), not just of human life lived." 

The entire article, "Philosophy in the Seminary," is worth reading for 
other reasons. But I quoted the above sentence because it highlights the 
mysterious interrelationship between the supernatural and the natural — 
distortion of the one causes deformity in the other. Those who might even 
create doubts about the reality of our Lord's Presence in the Eucharist, un- 
wittingly, damage the whole area of the real. For instance, Edwin Clement 
Hoskyns wrote in The Fourth Gospel, p. 108: "The observable world 
witnesses in such a way that, it is what it signifies; or, to speak more 


precisely, is what it signifies when seen by God and apprehended by men. 
Consequently, the language of Faith, which is the language of the Fourth 
Gospel, treats the phenomenal world not as unreal and trivial, except in so 
far as it furnishes symbols of theological speculation, but as possessing a 
dignity of reality which is for the first time made fully clear by the 
Christian revelation." In other words, the chemist and physicist are not 
the only ones who can tell us about the reality of matter and the natural. 

An interesting example of this is given us in a beautiful book, Dogma 
and Poetry, by Malcolm Mackenzie Ross. It is the author's contention that 
English poetry suffered because of the abandonment of the Church's 
doctrine of the Eucharist: "We shall find that the outright abandonment of 
Eucharistic sacramentalism moves poetry in a relatively straight line towards 
an inevitably secular destination." (p. 54) In other words, the denial of 
the Real Presence led to an esthetic loss and ultimately to an inability to 
appreciate "the incarnate dignity of things." The book is a splendid treat- 
ment of the truth that the supernatural saves the natural; any endeavor 
to tone down the supernatural must lead to a devaluation of the simply 

One of the reasons given for not showing any special devotion to the 
Eucharist, apart from the Mass itself, was that the idea was not Scriptural. 
In an article in Nouvelle Revue Theologique, Jan. 1963, pp. 19-39, and 
more recently in a book, Eucharistie Vivante, Father Galot, SJ, argues, as 
one might expect, that if some people don't see any basis in Scripture for 
the cult of the Real Presence it is not because the reasons are not there. 
To synopsize pp. 273-304: in Exodus 29, 44-45, Yahweh consecrated the 
Meeting Tent and promised to dwell in their midst. Subsequently, the 
Temple was the place where the Israelites could "see the face of God." This 
presence was prophetic of the Incarnation and designedly St. John wrote 
that the "Word became flesh and tabernacled (eskenosen) among us." 
In His discourse at the institution of the Blessed Sacrament, Our Saviour 
promised to "dwell" among us, and it is Galot's contention that His 
Jewish audience would perceive a connection between the Eucharist and 
that continued Presence; in other words, the Eucharistic Tabernacle was 
the continuation and fulfillment of the ancient Tabernacle and Temple. 
In short, there is Scriptural basis not only for the Eucharist as sacrifice but 
also as continued Presence. 

Bossuet, in his Elevations, applied to the Eucharistic Presence, the text 
from Apocalypse 5,6, "I saw a Lamb standing, as though it had been slain," 


and Cardinal Alfrinks made the same application in a sermon he gave a few 
years ago. 

Passion of Christ 

There are reasons for fearing that some of our contemporaries, including 
some clerics and religious, are prepared to deemphasize devotion to the 
Passion of Christ; they would theorize that the devotion is not "meaning- 
ful" (the magic word) for the modern mood. Here again the opinion 
might be not only premature but immature. The extraordinary popularity 
of Markings by Dag Hammarskjold would seem to indicate this. At the 
time of writing, the book has been on the best seller list as the number 
one in General Books for 37 weeks, and third in its 47th week. The 
political status of the man would explain some of that popularity, but it 
would not be forcing the evidence to conclude that the contents of the 
work had something to do with it, and the impressive fact for Passionists 
at least is that Hammarskjold became more and more influenced — one 
might say obsessed — by the figure of the Crucified. In 1953 he wrote: 
"He who has surrendered himself to it knows that the Way ends on the 
Cross" p. 91. He became more and more convinced that total self- 
giving ending in death was demanded after the manner of Christ's 
giving: "I came to a time and place where I realized that the Way leads 
to a triumph which is a catastrophe, and to a catastrophe which is a 
triumph, that the price for committing one's life would be reproach, and 
that the only elevation possible to man lies in the depths of humiliation," 
p. 205. Again, written in 1961: 

The gate opens: dazzled 

I see the arena, 

Then I walk out naked 

To meet my death." (p. 206) 

He died in a plane crash September 18, 1961. 

The Passion of Christ still has a meaning for contemporary man. More- 
over, those who read the book can't help but notice what stress this man 
of affairs put upon inner silence; he seemed to have an affinity for that 
"Spirit who speaks to the heart without the noise of words and is there, 
as it were, a soundless sound," (Praeparatio ad Missam). 

"The religious man is the only successful man." 

— Faber 


Retreat Source Material 

Cronan Regan, CP, STD 

John Gallen, SJ, "Community, Worship and Retreat" Worship 39 (1965) 
pp. 287-294. 

How can retreats draw profit from the over-all experience of renewal 
which the Church has felt in these days ? Since retreat is so largely a matter 
of prayer, attention is focused immediately on the liturgy. What impact 
will the liturgical reform make on the spirit and schedule of a retreat? 
What can we learn from the liturgical life of the Church about prayer, 
or about our life together as brothers, or about our apostolic work in 
building up the body of Christ ? 

Meaning of a retreat. The experience of prayer is a listening to the Word 
of God. Not a mere passive absorption, but also an active giving of our- 
selves to this adventure of love. A retreat is a special part of this lifetime 
process of hearing God's Word. It is a time of silence. But a silence that 
is active, filled with God's presence. It is a march into the desert that is 
not an empty stopping but a movement forward. 

Specific programs. Solitude and silence are required as part of a retreat — 
they reflect the attitude necessary to enter into dialog with God. But their 
extent and the order of prayer and reflection must be supple enough to 
permit some variety and adaptation according to the personal experience 
of the retreatant. G. suggests some of the endless themes for retreat con- 
ferences and meditations that the Bible affords. 

Community and liturgical aspects of the retreat. As God's Word finds 
manifold expression (Scripture, liturgy, events, etc.), so there is re- 
quired a corresponding attention from us at these several points. Without 
relinquishing the special context of solitude and private prayer during a 
retreat, there should be a greater use of the elements of communal worship 
and community life. 

a. The liturgical year. There should be a tangible difference in the 
spirit of a retreat conducted during Advent and one during Lent. 

b. Mass. It is essential that the Eucharistic celebration should be the 
fullest possible expression of those who are making the retreat together. 


c. Sacrament of Penance. Practical efforts have been made in recent times 
to place more emphasis upon its ecclesial aspects. In order to bring out 
more clearly the reconciliation of the penitent with his brethren in the 
Church, as well as with Christ Himself, a communal celebration of the 
sacrament can be enormously helpful. Usual practice: readings and a brief 
homily precede the sacrament; brief period when each retreatant may 
confess privately and receive absolution ; all come together for responsorial 
prayer (which may be assigned as the "penance"); a collect closes the 

d. Bible services. Word of God addressed to the whole group — then 
time for personal, reflective prayer. Can be expanded or shortened, used 
as occasional substitute for period of meditation, used to give a summary 
experience of the day's prayer. 

e. Common celebration of parts of the divine office. 

f. Sharing by retreatants of their experience of Christ (a page from the 
Cursillo movement) . May be done by taking a passage of Scripture as the 
subject for mutual prayer. Each member of the group then offers, very 
simply, his reflections on the meaning of the passage. Purpose: to hear 
God's Word spoken through those in whom He lives. 

Thierry Maertens, OSB, Bible Themes — A Source Book (Biblica, Bruges, 
1964) 2 vols. Pp. 502, 507. $16.95 

This is a reference work of the first importance. It has gathered together, 
catalogued, and summarized the development of all the major themes of 
Sacred Scripture. Each of 450 Bible themes is first summarized in a general 
way, showing its origin in the Old Testament, the deepening of its meaning 
through the Wisdom literature and the Prophets, and its climax with the 
fulfillment in Christ and the New Testament. Then, concise commentaries 
throw light on groups of texts from the Bible. 

These remarks from the publisher's blurb are a modest indication of the 
potential this work has for retreat preachers. It is indexed by themes, by 
subjects, and by reference to the lessons of the Liturgical Year (though the 
last named index is not as serviceable as the other two). The volumes 
are a gold mine that should be worked in the preparation of homilies, 
points for meditation, retreat conferences, etc. Every library should have 
it available, and it might not be extravagant for those frequently engaged 
in retreat work to have the set personally. 


Hugo Rahner & Karl Rahner, Prayers for Meditation (Herder & Herder, 
New York, 1963) pp. 71. $1.75. 

The prayers were composed to be recited in common as the last exercise 
of the day during a University Mission. They are filled with theological 
richness and devotional warmth. They could be used "as is," but their 
greatest service might be to enrich our traditional colloquies: The "presence 
of God" and the prayer to Jesus Crucified. 

Good Tidings (published bimonthly by Wm. H. Sadlier, Inc., 11 Park 
Place, N.Y., N.Y. 10007. $1.25 per year). 

The periodical is meant to be of assistance to catechists. But since so 
much of retreat preaching is catechesis, it sould prove useful to retreat 
preachers. Practically every issue gives a fresh format for a Bible Service. 

Quaestiones Disputatae 

There has been not a little controversy, between military chaplains and 
scholars, as to the permissibility of a Catholic attending a Jewish Seder. 
Quid in casu? 

The answer to the question of a Catholic's attendance at a Jewish Seder, 
or Passover Supper, depends a great deal upon one's own experience. 
Those who have had the privilege of sitting at table with a Jewish 
family and of observing the ritual of this festival meal will look favorably 
upon it, as it furnishes them with the opportunity of explaining the origin 
of the first Mass to their Jewish hosts. However those who are still un- 
familiar with the Passover Supper are inclined to agree with the cautious 
opinion of the Rev. Francis J. Connell, CSSR, who wrote on "The Jewish 
Passover Meal" in AER, for April 1956. While he found nothing wrong 
with accepting such an invitation, yet he went on to say: "Since there are 
surely some religious connotations connected with the meal, it is at least 
the better procedure for Catholics not to be present." It should be remem- 
bered that he gave this as his opinion several years prior to the present 
ecumenical era, so gloriously inaugurated by John XXIII, who greeted the 


officials of the United Jewish Appeal with those memorable words of his: 
"I am Joseph, your brother!" 

The American Redemptorist denned the crux of the question precisely 
when he said: "The point at issue is whether or not the Paschal Supper is 
to be regarded as an official liturgical function of the Jewish religion or 
merely as a family meal, with some religious accessories of a private 
nature. The latter seems to be the more probable interpretation. ..." 

He is joined in this evaluation of the meal by outstanding Jewish 
authorities, such as Rabbi Louis Finkelstein, head of the Jewish Seminary 
in New York. The famous writer says of the Seder today: "It is in effect 
a pageant in which ancient Palestinian life is re-created in as detailed and 
precise a form as possible." The Jewish encyclopedia describes the post- 
biblical Passover service as "little more than a survival or memorial of its 
old self." A very popular exponent of modern orthodox Judaism, Herman 
Wouk, author of the best-selling book, This is My God, had this to say 
about the Passover meal as celebrated today: "When Passover is confined 
to a first-night seder with matzos and singing, it becomes a reminiscent 
gesture toward an old folkway, no more." He gives us a description of 
such a meal in the 27th chapter of his ever popular novel, Marjorie 
Mornings tar, under the heading: "The Seder." It is a classic! 

These insights into the Jewish mentality concerning present-day Passover 
Suppers should help to reassure those who might be unduly alarmed over 
the threat to Canon 1258. They should also cause others to look upon 
such an invitation to a Jewish Seder, as an opportunity to meet the needs 
spoken of by the American Bishops' Commission on the Liturgy: 
"... Many are filled with hope for a great advance in meaningful participa- 
tion by all the people in the sacred rites. At the same time it is evident, 
or will soon be evident, that beyond use of the language which the people 
understand, there must be developed an understanding of the 'language' 
of the liturgy in a deeper sense. . . . Understanding the liturgy is not merely 
a matter of vocabulary or of remembering biblical events. Christ's earthly 
life followed in large part its Old Testament prefigurings, and He estab- 
lished the basic rites of His Church on the basis of meanings already 
indicated in the Scriptures. . . . His great act of worship and sacrifice for 
mankind, 'the Paschal Mystery,' was intended as a new Exodus, a passing 
from this world to the Father, and it took place at the time of the pass over 
celebration." (emphasis mine) 

We attend Christmas pageants and Passion plays to remind ourselves of 


Our Saviour's Birth and Death. Why not bring our memory of His "Night 
of Love" to the Jewish Paschal Supper, to remind us of how we should 
learn to love one another. Surely there can be no deeper sense of under- 
standing the language of the liturgy than this! 

If anyone would care to learn more of the educational value in a Jewish 
Seder, he has only to ask any member of the Holy Family Community, 
where fourteen men and women from nearby Beth Israel Temple, West 
Hartford, Conn., conducted a model Seder service in the seminary recrea- 
tion hall during Lent of '65. All, from the youngest postulant to the oldest 
jubilarian, were enthusiastic over what they saw and heard. It was so 
well received that it may now become part of the seminary's annual 
preparation for Holy Week. The Jewish Community in Dunkirk has 
already indicated its desire to render a similar service for those at Holy 

—Victor Donovan, CP, STL 

"The pilgrim who spends all his time counting his steps will make 
little progress." 

— Jean Pierre Camus 

(The Spirit of St. Francis de Sales) 

"Anything will become plausible, if you read all that can be said in 
its favor, and exclude all that can be said against it." 

— Cardinal Newman 

{Present Position of Catholics in England) 

'Two excesses: reason excluded, only reason allowed." 

— Pascal (Pen sees) 

"I can stand brute force, but brute reason is quite unbearable. There is 
something unfair about its use. It is hitting below the intellect." 

—Oscar Wilde 

(The Picture of Dorian Gray) 




Editorial 1 

Passiology . 2 

f Dogmatic 6 

Theology I 

I Pastoral . io 

homiletics 15 

Philosophy 19 

Annotated f Mission Source Material . . . . 24 

Bibliography j „ „ 

(^ Retreat Source Material .... 28 

Quaestiones Disputatae 30 

Recommended by Verbum Cruets to all Religious: The Brothers' News- 
letter, a quarterly published in the interests of the Brothers' Panel of the 
Mission Secretariat. Annual subscription: $1.00. Address the editor: 
Brother Damian, CP, 1901 West St., Union City, N.J. 07087 

The word of the cross . . .is . . . to us . . . the power of God." 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

lerlmm (faria 

Vol. IV January, A.D. 1966 No. 1 

writings. (You can ignore its Protestant bias in religion and its Republican 
partisanship in politics.) 

The Reader's Digest is the most successful magazine in publishing his- 
tory. (In English, its circulation is 15,603,312 copies a month.) I once 
asked the late Fulton Oursler, senior editor of Reader's Digest, the reason 
for its success. He said that it is due to the fact that its founder and editor, 
De Witt Wallace, is the common American. What he likes or dislikes in 
content and style, the ordinary American likes or dislikes. 

The Passionist writer does not have the wide variety of topics available 
to a De Witt Wallace, but no one can deny that the passion and death of 
Christ is a subject of immense appeal to the American reading public. 

Jim Bishop, a popular writer with no special theological or scriptural 
training, wrote The Day Christ Died. It has sold 2,000,000 copies in 
English and is still selling. It has been published also in Holland, Sweden, 
Spain, Japan, Italy, France, and Great Britain. When John XXIII was 
elected Pope, the AP sent a reporter to Venice to ask his secretary if he 
had expected to be elected. The secretary took the reporter to the patriarch's 
desk and showed him a book, open, face down, on the blotter. It was the 
Italian translation of The Day Christ Died. He had read 200 pages. The 
secretary said, "If he had expected to be elected pope, he would have taken 
the book with him." Jim Bishop reached more people, high and low, with 
the story of Christ's Passion than a missionary could reach in a long life 
of preaching. 

I have heard that Cardinal Newman at one time considered becoming a 
Passionist. I have often wondered whether such a step would have ended 
his writing career. 

Suppose Father John Doe, CP, talented, eager to write, and with a real 
promise of becoming a good and perhaps even a great writer, is sent to St. 
Philomena's Monastery after his studies. His time is taken up with retreats, 
days of recollection, occasional sermons, Sunday work, parlor duty, substi- 
tuting in parishes, hearing confessions, etc. These are all good works, but 
in a year or two, Father John sorrowfully arrives at the conclusion that he 
can't do all that and at the same undertake the discipline of writing and 
writing, rewriting and rewriting, necessary to become a successful writer. 
He does the work assigned to him and gives up writing — except for a few 
scattered efforts between other jobs. 

Is writing a Passionist work? Is it important enough to seek out young 

men with a real promise for the future, and give them the leisure and 
encouragement needed to develop into good writers? 

That is a question that can be answered in the practical sphere only by 
superiors — not by a guest editorial writer in Verbum Cruris. 

"The Capitular Fathers wish to make mention of the apostolate of the 
press, which obviously pertains to the ministry of the word of God es- 
pecially committed to us, and which is of the greatest utility both to the 
Congregation and to the Church in these present times. It is therefore 
fitting that we, too, should favor such scientific and literary work, and 
that we should be better provided with competent writers." 

(38th General Chapter Recommendation #3) 


To our cooperative contributors of the North American provinces, and to 
our avid readers throughout five of the six world continents — greetings 
and best wishes for 1966 A. D. (And, apologies for unforeseeable, un- 
avoidable delays. ) 

With this January issue, Verbum Cruris enters upon its fourth year of 
publication. Very gratefully, we thank our contributors for their many 
columns of enduring worth, and our readers of the Eastern Province for 
their response to the recent poll — so indicative of reader interest as to add 
up to a resounding vote of confidence. "Over and above the immediate 
purpose of Verbum Cruris, and its intrinsic merits, it should serve also as 
a proving ground for the apostolate of the press at large." (VC, July '64) 

— AMcD. 

"I know of no individual, in any job or organization, that reached or 
maintained a distinguished goal on a 5 -day week." 

—Charles W. Mayo, MD 

"Shoddiness is the result when shortcuts are sought in matters of mental 

— J. L. Lennon, OP; "Men of Depth"; Columbia; 6-'64 


Paul of the Cross — Exemplar 

Paschal Drew, CP, MA 

Shortly after his accession to the papal throne, Pope Benedict XIV ap- 
pointed a commission to examine the Rule submitted by Father Paul of 
the Cross. The secretary of the commission, after a cursory reading, told the 
saint quite plainly that no one could keep the rule, that it was absurd, 
that he would oppose its approval. Later, he changed his mind. On May 
15, 1741 the pope signed the rescript of approbation. A remark attributed 
to the pontiff on that occasion has come down to us as one of the most 
cherished traditions of the Congregation: "This Congregation of the Pas- 
sion is the last to come into the Church and it seems it should have been 
the first." 

It is impossible to verify the statement. And if anyone wish to regard it 
simply as an engaging story, no one can gainsay him. Nevertheless, it is a 
tradition which we have treasured for more than two hundred years, as an 
apostolic seal on the way of life of our holy Founder. That, of course, was 
the eighteenth century. Times have changed. Science, technology, psychiatry 
are undeniable factors of twentieth century progressiveness. 

In the course of two hundred years, there have been countless interpreta- 
tions of the ideas and ideals of St. Paul of the Cross. Given a choice, we 
should choose this one: They should be so formed in priestly obedience, 
in a simple way of life and in a spirit of self-denial that, they are accus- 
tomed to give up, willingly, even those things which are permitted but are 
not expedient, and to conform themselves to Christ crucified. This is not 
the unverified appraisal of an eighteenth century pope. It is not the pre- 
scription of a die-hard traditionalist. It is not out of date. It applies here 
and now. It is part of #9 the II Vatican Council decree on The Training of 
Priests. To whom should it apply so much as to us who call ourselves 
Passionists ? 

The decree on priestly training together with the Constitution on the 
Liturgy should put an end to speculation regarding the relevance of the 
Passion and the Passionist way of life to the twentieth century. At the same 
time, these things should not be taken as occasion for smugness or for the 

illusion that, new forms and methods are the only requirements needed for 
the efficacious promulgation of the Christian message in the modern world. 

Pope John envisioned the Council as a great examination of conscience ; 
first an individual one on the part of every member of the Church; and 
then, a corporate one on the part of the Church itself, to be made by the 
Council Fathers. It is surprising how quickly the first part of that vision 
was despatched or neglected — how few, apparently, found anything remiss 
in themselves, and how many found the Church and its institutions little 
less than all wrong. 

We cannot preach the Passion without experiencing it. The Constitution 
on the Liturgy warns pastors that "they must lead their flock not only by 
word but by example." We have the means of knowing a great deal more 
about the Passion and the methods of presenting it than our holy Founder 
had. Have we been conscientious in using them ? More than that — without 
derogation of his knowledge or eloquence, we cannot believe but that St. 
Paul's success in preaching the Passion stemmed from the fact that he 
lived it. Most of us have a great way to go before that can be said of us. 
There is the challenge. We have professed the same norms which led St. 
Paul to sanctity. He was a great preacher because he was a great saint who 
was so formed in priestly obedience, in a simple way of life and in the 
spirit of self-denial that he was accustomed to give up, willingly, even those 
things which are permitted but are not expedient, and conformed himself 
to Christ crucified. It can never again be said that the Passionist Congrega- 
tion is the last to come into the Church, but, in showing what it means to 
conform oneself to Christ crucified, we still should be the first. 

Moral Theology 

Civil Disobedience 

Bertin Farrell, CP, STD 

Referring to "The Draft Resisters of 1965," Chandler Brossard, a Look 
magazine senior editor, wrote in the December 28th issue: "Never have 
so few caused so much distress and excitement." A staff writer for Life 
magazine, Shana Alexander, in the Dec. 10th issue, in an article entitled: 
"Evolution of a Peace Creep," describes three anti-war demonstrations 

which she personally witnessed. These articles pin-point a phenomenon 
which is appearing more and more frequently on the American scene — i.e., 
the public burning of draft cards. The moral implications of this act is the 
burden of this brief comment. 

The anti-draft movement is relatively new and has coincided with the 
escalation of the conflict in Vietnam. The majority of the draft and war 
protesters are of college age. It would be difficult to estimate the number 
of college students and other young people (to say nothing of much older 
people) who feel sympathetic to the war and draft protesters. According 
to one estimate, more than 100,000 people throughout the country marched 
in the various anti-war parades and rallies. There were more than 40 dif- 
ferent groups represented in these demonstrations. Draft card burning is 
meant to be a public and dramatic protest against American participation 
in the Vietnam war. 

The burning of draft cards is a violation of The Universal Military and 
Service Act of 1951, as amended by the Senate and the House of Repre- 
sentatives. (House, Aug. 10, 1965 — Senate, Aug. 13, 1965) The pur- 
pose of this legislation was to provide a clear statutory prohibition against 
a person knowingly destroying or mutilating a draft registration card. The 
public burning of a draft card is a violation of a federal law, an act of 
civil disobedience, and a grave sin (objectively considered). 

From a subjective point of view, the only category in which the draft 
card burners can be conveniently placed is that of conscientious objectors. 
No Catholic can maintain that war is intrinsically evil. Anyone may pro- 
test or question our involvement in the Vietnam war. 

All men of good will, presumably, are opposed to war. But the manner 
in which they manifest this opposition is not a morally indifferent matter. 
It was a good thing for the Pope to plead for peace before the UN. But a 
bad thing for that young Catholic worker to burn himself to death before 
the gates of the same institute. Any citizen has the right to join a peace 
march which has been lawfully and legally assembled. But the public burn- 
ing of a draft card is an act of civil disobedience and any person who does 
destroy or mutilate a draft card is subject to a fine of not more than 
$10,000 or imprisonment of not more than five years. 

Nothing contained in the federal law requires any person to be subject to 
combatant training and service in the armed forces of the United States 
who, by reason of religious training and belief, is conscientiously opposed 
to participation in war of any kind. It is interesting to compare the law of 

the land in this matter with the explicit teaching of the Second Vatican 
Council. The federal law reads: "Religious training and belief in this con- 
nection means an individual's belief in a relation to a Supreme Being, in- 
volving duties superior to those arising from any human relation, but does 
not include essentially political, sociological, or philosophical views or a 
merely personal moral code." Any person claiming exemption from com- 
batant training and service because of such conscientious objections, whose 
claim is sustained by the local draft board shall, if he is inducted into the 
armed forces, be assigned to non-combatant service as denned by the Presi- 
dent. On the same subject, the Fathers of the Second Vatican Council said: 
"It seems right that laws make humane provisions for the case of those 
who, for reasons of conscience, refuse to bear arms, provided however 
that they agree to serve the human community in some other way. 

The traditional teaching of moral theology on the morality of war was 
also reaffirmed by the Council in these words: "Certainly war has not been 
rooted out of human affairs. As long as the danger of war remains, and 
there is no competent and sufficiently powerful authority at the interna- 
tional level, governments cannot be denied the right to legitimate defence, 
once every means of peaceful settlement has been exhausted." In view of 
this, it would seem that no Catholic may hold that war is intrinsically evil. 
In case of a doubt about the legitimacy of a particular war — for example, 
our involvement in Vietnam, the presumption is that the government is 
involved in legitimate self-defence. But in any event, the public burning 
of a draft card by a Catholic must be considered an act of civil disobedience 
and a sin against the common good. 

Citation for the amendment re draft cards: 50 Appendix United 
States Code Annotated; Section 462 b 3. The citation for the law re 
conscientious objectors: 50 Appendix United States Code Annotated, 
Section 456 (j). The citation of the Second Vatican Council is from 
the translation in the New York Times, Dec. 9, 1965. 

"One man has enthusiasm for 30 minutes, another has it for 30 days; 
but, it is the man who has it for 30 years who makes a success of life." 

— Cath olic Layman ; 5 - ' 64 

"Economy of words is the first rule of good writing." 


Canon Law 

Canon Law and the Law of Christ 

Fintan Lombard, CP, JCL 

"What is the relationship between Canon Law and the Law of Christ?" 
This is one of the questions answered by Bernard Haring, CSSR, author of 
The Law of Christ, in the most recent publication of the Midwestern Insti- 
tute of Pastoral Theology: The Priest — The Teacher of Morality. Father 
Haring's answer is too lengthy to quote in its entirety, but the following 
excerpts will indicate the tenor and direction of the whole and, it is hoped, 
lead others to read the entire answer. Indeed, we recommend reading the 
entire book, 159 pages in length, which deals with teaching morality in 
sermons, in public and private talks, and in the confessional. 

Father Haring writes: "One possible approach to the problem of the 
relationship between Canon Law and the Law of Christ (although I am 
not totally convinced by it) is to parallel it with the relationship between 
the Holy Rule of religious communities and the Law of Christ. For some 
religious, unfortunately, the Holy Rule occupies, so to speak, their whole 
psychological parking space. Everyone has a certain psychological poten- 
tiality. However, if a person becomes overwhelmed with a fear of com- 
mitting sin, even mortal sin, through the breaking of the Holy Rule, then 
he becomes like the levite and the priest in the gospel who saw the poor 
man lying in the ditch, beaten and robbed, but didn't realize what it meant. 
They point to their rubrics, and worry about small things. Their psychologi- 
cal space is completely taken up with casuistry. 

"This necessary psychological parking space must be guaranteed by 
Canon Law, not occupied by it. Canon Law should build up the external 
order of the Church and make it clear-cut, smooth, and adjustable in the 
face of other needs. In short, it should work in harmony with the whole 
structure of the Church ; and, by way of its presentation, explanation, and 
actual application, it should direct and focus the whole attention of the 
Christian on the one law who is Christ. It must always be expressed in 
terms of service and preparation for the great law of love, preserving the 
external order so that the love of God can grow. 

"Indeed, we have good reason to believe that the new codification of 

Canon Law will live up to all these standards: it will be a preparation for 
the great law of love; it will preserve peace in the external order; it will 
draw the attention of all to the law of Christ. 

"If our love were perfected right now, as it will be in heaven, we would 
always find out exactly, in the fullest manner possible, what is appropriate 
to build up the Church in the kairos. However, we are not as yet totally 
spiritual, our love is not yet perfect; and so we still need Canon Law to 
remind us of these facts and to guide us. Canon Law must express a re- 
sponse to the present needs of the Church. That is the reason why, in the 
last forty or fifty years, the Church has insisted that a course in the History 
of Canon Law be taught — so that the historical situation, as well as the 
spiritual needs of the time when a particular law was enacted, might be 
known and understood. That is the reason why the First Book of Canon 
Law makes it clear that the Church should introduce new customs and pre- 
pare new laws to meet the needs of changing times." 

* * * 
Papal Rescript: Cum Admotae 

Decentralization of authority in the Church will be one of the important 
changes in the Code of Canon Law. Indeed, the work of decentralization 
is already underway. This is evident in the Constitutions and Decrees 
promulgated by Vatican Council II and in the Motu Proprio, " 'Pastorale 
Munus," issued by Pope Paul VI. A further step in this direction, of par- 
ticular interest to clerical religious, was made by the Pontifical Rescript 
Cum Admotae, issued by Pope Paul VI on November 4, 1964, and pub- 
lished in January, 1965, issue of the Acta Congregationis a SS. Cruce et 

Cum Admotae is a list of faculties granted to the Superiors General of 
pontifical clerical religious institutes. It contains nineteen distinct grants, 
eight of which can be subdelegated to Provincials and Vice-Provincials. Of 
the nineteen, those which will interest the individual Passionist, for per- 
sonal or other reasons, are: 

1. To permit the priests to celebrate Mass or distribute Communion at 
any hour of the day in our own houses ; 

2. To permit those priests with poor eyesight or other illness to cele- 
brate daily a Votive Mass of the Blessed Virgin or a Requiem Mass; 

3. To permit aged or infirm priests to celebrate Mass sitting down ; 


4. To dispense sons of non-Catholics from this impediment to Sacred 
Orders and to dispense candidates for the Novitiate from illegitimacy ; 

5. To grant a decree of secularization to subjects in temporary vows; 

6. To permit subjects to live outside a religious house for up to a year; 
if this permission is given because of illness, it can be given for as long as 
the illness lasts ; if given for reasons of the apostolate of the Congregation, 
it can be for more than a year ; 

7. To allow subjects to give away the money or property which they 
own, retaining only what would be necessary for support in case they 
should leave later on ; 

8. To allow subjects to change their wills; 

9. To confirm Local Superiors for a third term in the same house. 

Number 1, 5, 7 and 8 of this list are among those grants which can be 
given to Provincials and Father General has so subdelegated them. 

Cum Admotae was given by Pope Paul to all pontifical clerical insti- 
tutes, exempt and non-exempt. Several of the grants in this important 
pontifical rescript greatly reduce the practical juridic difference between 
exempt and non-exempt clerical institutes. Thus, for example, now non- 
exempt Superiors can grant dismissorial letters for Sacred Orders (c. 964, 
n. 2) and also delegated jurisdiction for confessions (c. 875, #1). They 
are now also able to place acts of jurisdiction for internal government and 
discipline after the fashion of the major superiors of regulars (c. 501, #1). 
Having these three powers, and sharing with exempt Superiors the other 
sixteen grants of Cum Admotae, the Superiors of non-exempt clerical insti- 
tutes thus become signs of the decentralization movement in the Church's 
present aggiornamento. At the same time, these Superiors come closer to 
their being designated as Ordinaries (c. 198, #1). 

"Those who forget the past are doomed to commit its mistakes." 

—Ethical Outlook: 5/6-'64 

"Modern painting is the doodling of idiots." 

— Sir Charles Wheeler, 

Pres., Royal Academy, London 



The Spoken Word 

Damian Reid, CP 

The environment of the spoken word is radically different from that of 
the written word. 

This difference in environment calls for an equivalent modification of 
the message form. 

Two factors in the environment determine this modification: 

First: The author is present and delivers the message in person. 
Secondly: The spoken message — unlike the written one — leaves no 
permanent record of itself. 

The first factor — the author's personal presence — supplies a richer 
variety of communications instruments than are available to the written 

For instance, it provides the experience of human companionship. We 
normally want to be with people. We are gregarious. We gravitate to the 
company of others. We have a sense of being supplemented, completed, 
by others — of being secure when we are with others. This feeling of kin- 
ship and refuge makes a natural atmosphere for communication. Com- 
munication is the natural result of human assembly. It is more natural for 
us to listen than to read. 

Presence, in turn, brings to bear the full range of communications 
equipment. We use words, which are the symbolic expression of the mes- 
sage. But, added to this, we use our voice, which has a vast scope of emo- 
tional coloration, running from coolest detachment to intense passion. We 
gesticulate. We record our feelings in our face. All these instruments help 
to humanize our message. They augment and reinforce each other. 

"Speech is always public. The listener is always there. And alive! Even 
when he is silent. We are going to use the flexibility that we develop in 
conversation in every other kind of speaking that has a purpose. Whether 
in conversation, in conference, or in platform speaking, the method is 
always the same". {Everyday Speech: by Bess Sondel) 


This presence of the author to his audience is reflected in the style of his 
verbal message. 

In any social contact, we talk not only about something. We talk to 
someone. Our sentences are full of personal references. The subjects and 
objects of them become I, and Me, and You, and We, and Us. 

The material we discuss is not something to be commented on as if it 
existed in a vacuum, or a thousand miles away. It is something which has 
an impact on us, and we speak about its impact on us. We do not talk 
about the Gemini rendezvous. We talk about our reaction to it. "Did you 
hear the broadcast of the Gemini rendezvous?" "Did you see the pictures 
of it?" We are actually on the stage in every conversation — even that 
formalized one which we call a sermon. 

The more of this "You and I and We" address appears in our sermon, 
the more intimate and natural and human the performance becomes. 
Which means that the sermon becomes proportionally more effective. 

Personal address is effective also in the written message. And it is 
effective precisely because it injects an illusion of presence into it. Even the 
illusion of presence is dynamic. 

But personal address is imperative in the spoken message. If it is not 
there, our product acquires a remote and formal status. As if it were a 
piece of ancient history or an obscure scientific fact turned up in the course 
of pure research. 

The encyclopedia is a good example of the impersonal style. While it is 
an excellent reference work, it is notorious for being dehumanized and 
unexciting. But conversation — even among strangers — never lacks the 
sense of personal exchange. We constantly reveal ourselves in it. We open 
the windows of our soul. And we look through other windows. 

Because presence adds so much interest to the spoken word, it dispenses 
with some of the style elements which are required in the written word. 

The spoken word tends to be plain and unadorned. Our visible anima- 
tion takes the place of much rhetorical device. We sense that it would be 
superfluous, flashy, in bad taste. Figures of speech which are suitable in 
the written word would appear gaudy and ostentatious in speech. Instead 
of contributing to the communication, they would detract from it. 

A statement like the following might be considered brilliant writing, but 
it would probably be overrich for the listener's stomach. "Henry VII had 
indeed landed on the throne, but to each of his legs had clung one 
aspirant after another; and while he had managed to kick them off, with 


unfailing nimbleness, it was not yet certain that his was a stable monarchy." 
{Henry VIII: by Francis Hackett) 

There is also a simplicity of structure which goes with conversational 
style. In conversation, we usually start with the subject of the sentence. And 
we immediately relate that subject to its action. We say: "He went home," 
or, "He disagreed." Any qualifications of that action, we tend to tack on 
afterward. "He went home. He was disappointed with his reception." "He 
disagreed. His experience had taught him otherwise." We do not launch 
out on suspended sentence forms. 

Newman used a great variety of sentence structures, many of them 
wonderfully sonorous. But many of them, too, disqualify themselves as 
intimate conversational forms. For instance: ". . . . the material world 
which surrounds us. Frail and transitory as is every part of it, restless and 
migratory as are its elements, never-ceasing as are its changes, still it 
abides." (The Second Spring: by John Henry Newman) 

Since simple structures are the ones we are constantly using in conversa- 
tion, they are the ones which we can speak most naturally. No one would 
declaim artificially a sentence like: "He went home." It offers no problem 
of interpretation whatever. But when we torture a sentence into a form 
that we never use in conversation, we have no natural standard to guide us. 
Probably never once in our lives have we ever used in conversation the 
Newman structures quoted above. Nor have we ever heard them used. 
They are entirely foreign to modern American usage. 

These characteristics of spoken style result from the presence of the 
communicating parties. Their presence enriches the occasion with rhetorical 
ingredients and reduces the need for other rhetorical elements. 

But there are certain characteristics of the spoken style which result from 
the poverty of the occasion. 

The spoken word leaves no permanent record of itself. It is only a sound 
and the sound vanishes with its utterance. The hearer cannot refer back to 
it if he does not remember it. 

This fact calls for short sentences — sentences which carry a complete 
idea, a clear idea, without complicated sentence form. The hearer cannot 
glance back from a point half-way through an involved sentence to pick up 
the connection between the first half and the second half. If he has missed 
the significance of the first half while it was being spoken, he will never 
get it. 

The following exemplifies a structural style which may be tolerated in a 


special kind of writing, but never in speaking: "The failure of the Catholic 
mind rather generally throughout Europe to adjust promptly and ade- 
quately to the emigration from the farms to the factories and the attempt 
to meet social change by anachronistic talk about remaining content with 
one's state in life, still conceived of in terms of a static universe, reflect the 
same inability." {American Catholic Crossroads: by Walter J. Ong, SJ.) 

Lack of permanent record also demands more specification on the part 
of the preacher. 

We must preach at a reasonably rapid pace. Otherwise we will appear 
unnaturally sluggish and tantalizing. The hearer will lose patience with us. 

But, while we must preach at a natural pace, there are statements which 
the hearer cannot digest at that pace. This is particularly true of abstract 
statements. He cannot accept an abstract statement and use it as a logical or 
emotional factor unless he can verify it. He immediately asks himself: 
"What does this mean? Exactly what does this apply to?" And unless he 
can answer those questions, the statement might as well not have been 
made. It is ineffective. It is dead. It is positively in the way. 

Instead of making the observation and racing on to another, we must 
stay with it and explain it till the hearer sees the meaning and truth of it. 
And, to put him at his ease, we must let him know that we are going to 
stay with it and explain it. We can use any number of expressions to indi- 
cate this. We might say: "It is like this, etc." Or, "Here is what I mean." 
Or, "For instance." Or, "For example." Or we can plunge immediately 
into an explanation without any verbal preface whatever, as long as he 
knows what we are doing. 

Take this quote from American Catholic Crossroads, cited above: 
"Basically, the reorientation which the modern world has demanded in 
man's understanding of the universe and of himself is a reorientation 
around the fact of evolution — cosmic, organic, and intellectual." In a 
speech or a sermon, that declaration could never stand by itself. It begs for 
clarification. It demands it. 

The essential variations in the spoken word as distinguished from the 
written word arise from those two circumstantial factors: presence and 

The spoken word is rich in presence and poor in memorial. The written 
word reverses this relative fortune. 

"A man without mirth is like a wagon without springs." 



Is There a Hypochondriac in the House? 

Conleth Overman, CP, MA 

When the Greek tragedians examined human nature, they were con- 
cerned with identifying the initial flaw which led the creatures of their 
drama inevitably to a terrible downfall. Although the consequences may 
seem to us out of proportion to the initial cause, the Greeks were expressing 
a universal truth that, an insignificant germ of evil cannot be controlled 
and stamped out like a forest fire. Its "foul contagion spreads," destroying 
not only its first victim, but families and even nations. 

In the twentieth century man is once again the victim instead of the hero 
in literature. But the approach of the modern writer is somewhat different. 
He describes the symptoms of our diseased world, but he seems incapable 
of identifying cause and effect. This follows naturally because he is a 
product of the world he describes, as the Greek dramatists were not. The 
Greeks could stand off and view their legendary characters from a safe 
distance. The modern writer is involved and, with the rest of his fellow 
men, broods on the overwhelming evidence that the world is becoming too 
much for us to handle. We are all of us affected by the daily quota of 
human brutality, the revolutions in morality and ethics, the claustrophobia 
of a steadily shrinking world, the aftermath of wars, the depression and, of 
course, the Bomb. 

We are inclined to think that this preoccupation with our social ills 
started after the Second World War, perhaps because the Nuremberg trials 
forced us all to face the specter of guilt, not only for what we had done, 
but for what we had allowed others to do. Yet our self-analysis, as reflected 
by the literature of the times, goes farther back. In the 1930's, a widely 
read book was entitled Be Glad You're Neurotic, and its message was that 
neurosis was a sign of normality. In 1936 James Farrell published A 
World I Never Made. In the twenties, Scott Fitzgerald was writing with 
bitter irony about the tinselled values of his own generation. Still farther 
back, we have Dreiser aiming his clumsy sledge hammer at materialism 
and human indifference, among other faults of his time. 

In every generation, we have had a few social critics. The striking fea- 


ture of our own age is the extraordinary number of critics and the equally 
extraordinary number of social evils for them to write about, including a 
few that seem to be all our own. Materialism, brutality, the exaggerated 
importance of sex, alienation from our fellows, drugs, liquor, neuroses are 
not new to our literature, any more than they are in life. But the fear of 
nothingness, the loss of hope, the pathetic and often fruitless search for 
maturity, on the vast scale we know, are new. We may proudly claim for 
our own time a national — perhaps even world-wide — nightmare concerned 
with the lack of bulwarks against a terrifying, unidentified abyss. 

There are writers who either have or think they have a vocation to 
examine these evils with the serious purpose of exposing them. There are 
other writers who use them as material simply for their sensational quality. 
Both have their effect on the mind of society. John O'Hara, for example, 
increases the appetite for sensation by feeding it. Katherine Anne Porter, 
on the other hand, lays bare the panorama of social evil, ranging from 
petty malice to stark, unadulterated diabolism in the Ship of Fools, and 
produces in us a revulsion all the more shocking because her pack of major 
and minor devils are nestled in their own cozy, blind indifference. 

Shock is one of the major techniques of contemporary literature. Arthur 
Miller and Tennessee Williams prepared the way for Edward Albee's 
hellish portrait of hatred and despair in Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? 
We thirst for shock brutal and callous enough to crack the contemporary 
milieu like a cocoanut, so we can examine the sources of our communal 

Joyce and Proust bequeathed the legacy of the insignificant detail which, 
merged with a complex of other details, creates the net from which there 
is no escape. This is the method of Lawrence Durrell, and of many con- 
temporary French authors, who find in the observable details the only true 
reality. Comedy with pathos peeping through has enabled Muriel Sparks 
to show the infinite sadness of lives in a context which sharpens her impact 
by almost concealing it. 

Some writers are mechanical, others creative. The mechanics school 
works out a formula which sells books, and sticks to the formula. Even 
creative writers may do this, combining the mechanical craft with insight. 
But usually, the creative vision cannot be contained within the fixed meas- 
ures of a formula. We find this true of Thomas Merton. 

With perception, skill, and creative imagination, the good writer com- 
municates a message worth receiving. But who receives it? The American 


Library Association has estimated that only 30 per cent of the population 
use public libraries. The library statistics must be discounted, since the users 
of public libraries included children, escape readers, and readers of books 
on raising poultry, repairing automobile engines and sundry other things. 
But, counting the people who buy books, attend plays, subscribe to maga- 
zines, and talk about ideas, we may come back to our thirty percent who 
are directly influenced by books or other communications concerned with 
the health of our society. It is an open question whether they are the carriers 
of the germ which provides writers with their material; or whether the 
writers, by presenting a certain image of life, create that image in their 
audience. It is obvious that the image is acceptable since most of us reject 
an idea, however presented, unless we can "relate to it." 

But what about the remaining 70 percent ? Unless they also fit the image, 
we can hardly say that it is valid. The answer lies in the broad spectrum of 
communication media. The message trickles down in a great number of 
ways, including the unintentional influence each of us exerts on people 
with whom we come in contact. Thus, among people who are neither 
readers nor thinkers, we have fierce adherents to the doctrine of non-con- 
formity, which is consequently on the way to becoming conformity. 

Just as non-conformity is becoming conformity, so each message from 
the analysts of our social condition carries within itself the seed of reaction. 
It is never possible, then, at any given moment, to say what characteristics 
of society are waxing or waning. Moreover, society contains a solid core 
which is impervious to ideas of any kind. Could this be the same solid core 
which has survived the fall of earlier civilizations, ready like ants to rebuild 
the anthill with a completely instinctual intelligence ? 

Since we exist in this dubious age, we are unable to see clearly whether 
the arraignment of society by its members is justified, and whether it serves 
a good purpose if it is. Writer and reader interlock. When the gears en- 
mesh, some sort of vision is generated, but unfortunately it has so far been 
a vision of our problems. What we await is a vision of the answers, which 
may be achieved only after another century of queries. By that time, of 
course, its importance to us will be only academic, since it is to be hoped 
that we will be busy then with much more important, eternal truths. 

"Knowledge, like the apple, is a fruit which must be extremely green 
before it is ripe." 

Matador Tribune, Texas 3-12-'64 



Xavier Hayes, CP, MA 

In February, 1965, at Cleveland, the Liturgical Commissions and leading 
church architects from all over the country held a three-day meeting which 
will have important consequences. The purpose of the meeting was to dis- 
cuss the principles of the liturgical renewal and the basic notions of 
worship in relation to church design. Already, the results of the meeting 
are evident in a survey made of the prominent archetectural firms which 
disclosed that, since the Liturgical Constitution was promulgated, none of 
the churches has been designed in the "traditional" form. The changes in 
exterior design, as well as in the arrangement of the sanctuary, have evolved 
from art. 124 of the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy: "And when 
churches are to be built, let great care be taken that they be suitable for 
the celebration of liturgical services and for the active participation of the 
faithful." Two elements will be determining factors in judging the 
suitability of structure and design: the principle of distribution of roles, 
and the performance of the rites according to their nature. (Arts. 27 and 
28.) From these considerations will come new concepts of liturgical space. 
A collaboration among theologians, liturgists and architects is demanded. 
Mainly three areas will be involved: the ambo, the chair, and the altar. 
Since we will be dealing with these areas in our worship and apostolate we 
should be familiar with some of the concepts and principles regarding 


A more ancient and less familiar term has been used to designate the 
sacred place where the Word of God is proclaimed. The modern Biblical 
Movement has focussed attention once again on the importance of the 
Liturgy of the Word and the fittingness of restoring the dignity of its 
proclamation. It goes without saying that the place where God's presence 
in His Word is manifested will have a special dignity and structure. It 
should occupy a permanent place in the sanctuary, where the reader or 
homilist will be visible and audible. Liturgists suggest the use of one ambo 
(though two are permitted) since the Word of God is one. Likewise they 
suggest that, since the Liturgy of the Word introduces us to the Eucharistic 


service, the ambo be placed somewhat in advance of the altar, though the 
relation between ambo and altar (Word and Eucharist) should always be 
clear. There should be no equality between the ambo and the commenta- 
tor's stand. The latter should be altogether subordinate in structure and 
placement. Like the altar itself, the ambo should have a permanent charac- 
ter and should not be used for profane purposes, such as commenting, 
directing the choir, etc. For here a sacred encounter between Christ and 
his people takes place. (For the history of the ambo, cf. Proceedings of 
the National Liturgical Conference, 1959, pp. 90-92.) 


Until recent times, the ministers' bench in the sanctuary was a waiting 
place — a place usually off to the side, where the ministers sat when some- 
thing else was going on or being done. The principle of the distribution of 
roles has changed this. The role of the celebrant is that of presiding over 
the entire service. Hence the term president. The chair is the sign of his 
presidency. The Instruction of Sept. 26, 1964, directs that the chair should 
be placed so that it may be easily seen by the faithful, and provide a posi- 
tion for presiding over the community. (92) The appendix to art. 128 of 
the Constitution indicates that the middle of the apse is the most fitting 
place for the chair. It should be raised so that the position of supervising 
the community is evident both when the celebrant is seated or standing. A 
throne is forbidden except to those who have a right to it, which would 
at least eliminate a canopy over the chair. It should be of good artistry and 
be permanently placed. The placing of the chair presents the greatest prob- 
lem for most existing churches. When the central position cannot be 
achieved, the chair could be placed diagonally at either side of the sanc- 
tuary, so that it partially faces the altar and the congregation. 


The Instruction mentions that "It is proper that the main altar be con- 
structed separately from the wall ... so that the celebration may take 
place facing the people." (91) What has always been legitimate is now 
recommended as normal — and not for antiquarian reasons. The reasons for 
celebration of Mass facing the people are pastoral, since this method has 
proved to the satisfaction of the clergy and laity to be the most suitable 
way to bring out the nature of the Mass, and foster active participation of 
the faithful. Since the use of the altar is now ideally reserved for the 


Eucharistic service alone (the moving of the book from side to side being 
eliminated) it is not necessary that the altar be of a large rectangular size. 
For reasons of visibility of the celebrant at the chair, and better proportion 
with the ambo in the sanctuary, the altar might well be of a modest size 
both vertically and horizontally. Suggested dimensions for the table are 
6 X 4 or 5 X 4, which would allow for two concelebrants on each side — 
ample for most parish situations. A final word about the construction of 
the altar: We must not confuse moderate size with insignificance. In ma- 
terial, design, architectural arrangement it must draw the attention of all 
the worshipers to that place where heaven and earth meet. 


Seasoltz, Wevin: The House of God. New York: Herder & Herder, 1963. 


"Church Architecture, The Shape of Reform," Proceedings of a Meeting on Church 
Architecture: Washington: Liturgical Conference, 1965. 

"A Discussion on Liturgical Design," Catholic Building & Maintenance, January- 
February 1965. 

"Some Plans on Renovating the Sanctuary," Liturgical Arts, August, 1965. 

Mission Source Material 

Robert O'Hara, CP, MA 

The Passion 

"The Pattern of His Death" is an article written by William Yeomans 
in Way, July 1965. It is an excellent treatment of a subject of vital im- 
portance to Passionists. He states that "the passion and death are not the 
object of popular devotion that they used to be." He reports that some who 
spend the third week of the Spiritual Exercises "contemplating the passion 
and death of Christ without reference to the resurrection . . . feel that this 
is out of harmony with the liturgy and modern spirituality ... To spend a 
week on the passion and death of Christ is depressing." While admitting 
that some treatment of the passion in the past may have been defective, he 
affirms that "the modern emphasis on the resurrection is good and healthy 
as long as it does not lead us to play down the passion and death of Christ. 


Instead, it should give to these their full theological and spiritual 

Father Yeomans contends that a feeling of guilt before the massive 
suffering of our time might simply be a human, and not specifically a 
Christian reaction. This merely human attitude can attempt to solve such 
problems by eliminating the sufferer, for instance, through birth control. 
On the contrary, the true way to consider suffering is to contemplate Christ 
suffering and to heed the invitation of Ignatius to "sorrow with Christ 
sorrowful and to be broken with Christ broken." 

The first thing to note in the suffering of Christ is the factor of choice. 
He chose freely to take the way that led to Golgotha. Likewise, the Chris- 
tian must freely elect to endure whatever it is the will of God for him that 
he suffer. 

Furthermore, it is necessary that we see not just man agonizing in the 
sufferings of our world, but Christ suffering in suffering humanity. There- 
fore, we should do all that we can to help as we would strive to bring 
comfort to Christ in pain. 

These are a few of the highlights of an excellent article. 

Yeomans' stressing of the freedom of Christ's will to suffer has refer- 
ence to one of the dominant interests of the contemporary mentality — that 
of personal commitment. It is clear that we must not make the mistake of 
thinking that the past has no meaning for the present and therefore we 
must not only take up modern questions, but also the answers which have 
been suggested. Certainly, we must make truth our own, whatever its 
origin. But above all we must face the problems of our day; pastoral 
concern demands that we find answers not simply to questions of a past 
time or a hypothetical time, but of our own time. That holds true also for 
our treatment of the Passion. This can be done without any distortion of 
the Bible or theological sleight of hand, and it calls for the right kind of 
up-dating in our treatment of the Passion. 

Yeomans' suggestion is echoed in a small work by M. Caster, La 
Redemption Situee Dans Une Perspective Personnaliste. He surveys past 
expositions of the doctrine, and then briefly views it in the light of our 
contemporary concern with the subjective, with the personalist. He tells us 
that we of today are concerned with "situational man." That means we 
accentuate freedom as constitutive of personality. But the existential situa- 
tion of man, in which this liberty must be exercised involves four relation- 
ships: 1) man is in the world; 2) the person lives in community and, 


therefore, liberty is essentially related to charity; 3) good and evil must be 
seen in the light of God's designs both as Creator and Savior; 4) man 
stands in a relationship with the past, present, and future, even the 

Our Saviour in redeeming us made a free response to God, person to 
person. Similarly, we must 1) freely walk the way of Christ; 2) the per- 
sonalist relationship involves our relationship with community — that is — 
the Church; 3) we must profit by the sufferings of life through witnessing 
and mortification ; 4) all this must be done in the temporal dimension but 
terminating in the eternal. 

Anyone at all familiar with contemporary problems knows that, M. 
Caster has given us a few of the key ones, and the attempt to see them in 
the light of the sufferings of Christ calls for no trickery. The Passion has 
the answers to these problems; it is up to us to find them and make them 
known. Our Saviour has saved "situational man" too, and it is our privilege 
and responsibility to cooperate with the redemptive act of Christ. M. Caster 
shows us how it can be done. 

Hans Urs Von Balthasar, in his Word and Redemption, refrains from 
deciding whether "the dualism in philosophy found in French and German 
existentialism . . . expresses the weariness and decadence of our culture, or 
if this defeatism of thought is a symptom of the pathological state of 
modern Europe," but insists that the Church has "no need to borrow its 
modes and movements of thought from those current in the secular world 
... it draws the remedy for its ills from its own store of supernatural 
strength." He offers us one such remedy when he writes (p. 73) that "the 
inner experience of the Redeemer in his Passion . . . should constitute the 
center of the doctrine of the redemption . ..." He continues with a very 
fertile suggestion that we can be led to a deeper understanding of Christ's 
sufferings from "the graces of participation in the Passion given to the 
Church, the experience of the saints, which are quite inexplicable except as 
a participation in Christ's states." . . . "The important thing is not the 
'mystical phenomena,' nor even solely the redemptive function given as a 
grace, but the fact that something of the Passion is, through the grace of 
the Head, consistently being made present in the body, and that the body 
needs to understand what is happening there by relating it to the Head as 
its source and end." 

It seems to me that this idea resembles the explanation of the spirituality 
of St. Paul of the Cross to be found in La Mystique de la Passion, by 


Stanislas Breton, C.P. If the two authors arrived at this conclusion in- 
dependently, the line of reasoning is strengthened. In any case, we have 
another way suggested to us in which to make the Passion contemporary. 

The Four Last Things 

In an essay on "Some Points of Eschatology," in the work cited above, 
Von Balthasar declares: "Eschatology is the storm center of the theology of 
our times." He further makes a point that is of interest to Passionists, 
especially in their missionary apostolate: "Eschatology is, almost more than 
any other locus theologicus, entirely a doctrine of salvation (italics, the 
author's)." It would seem that, one of the things which has contributed to 
the impression that missions are passe is precisely the method of treating 
the Four Last Things. A reaction to that has been building up a long time. 
I can recall a letter published in a Catholic magazine thirty years ago, in 
which a famous missionary of another order condemned the grimness of 
missions in the past and opting for an emphasis on love. However, it 
would be a mistake to completely drop these subjects with a view to up- 
dating. Certainly, we can dispense with the sulphur and the chains and the 
creaking stairs, but there are few subjects of greater interest to the world 
of contemporary thought than these. 

Matthew J. O'Connells, SJ, tells us that "the past few decades have been 
a period of intense interest in the eschatology or the theology of the 
'Last Things.' " He makes this statement in a preface to The Coming of His 
Kingdom, A Theology of the Last Things, by Alois Winklhofer. It is a 
scholarly and contemporary approach to these questions, and proof that 
the whole area of thought must not be by-passed as of little interest to our 
time, and of not much importance in any time. I might call attention to the 
fresh way in which the author treats the Mystery of Evil ; he suggests that 
the cosmos itself might be Hell for the damned soul because of severed 
relationships; "Hell would then be, not a place within the cosmos, 'above', 
or 'below', but a particular constricted relation to the cosmos" (96). 

The doctrine, again, receives strong contemporary endorsement in chap- 
ter VII of the Constitution De Ecclesia which treats of The Eschatological 
Nature of the Pilgrim Church. 

Another example of the way in which the ancient can be made modern 
is given us in a contribution by Yeomans, SJ in a symposium on retreats 
published by the editors of Way, July 1965. His paper was on "The 
Two Standards," and he tells us (p. 25): "Ignatius says that the angels 


did not want to use their liberty in order to reverence and obey their 
Creator and Lord. Exactly what the refusal was can be seen in the con- 
frontation of Christ and Lucifer in "The Two Standards." The sin of the 
angels has a direct reference to Christ, before whose crucified majesty the 
whole of this First Week finds its meaning. For Ignatius, Satan is "the 
enemy of human nature," and, as Lyonnet points out, there could be no 
truer biblical designation of Satan than that phrase. In the Bible, Satan is 
the enemy of man. He attacks man, not God. He is the father of lies and 
a homicide from the beginning, the great deceiver who seeks to destroy 
man. We must give all its force to the johannine expression "from the 

Satan, the enemy of human nature ! How relevant that four hundred year 
old statement is to our time! The very concept of human nature is under 
attack. Is Satan just an interested spectator or is he more immediately 
involved? And missionaries are involved, but on the opposite side. It is 
vital that the lines of division be kept sharp and clear at all times. 

Retreat Source Material 

Cronan Regan, CP, STD 

Retreats for Religious 

The Sisters have been very vocal about their retreats in recent years. 
While it is probably unrealistic to expect that the Spiritual Exercises will 
strike a responsive chord in every one, it is equally unrealistic to presume 
that the criticism stems solely from a small group of malcontents who have 
nothing positive to say to us. 

Once a month the National Catholic Reporter features a two-page 
"Sisters' Forum." In April and June there was considerable space devoted 
to the Sisters' positive hopes and suggestions concerning the content, ap- 
proach and structure of their annual retreats. These pages are always useful 
to a retreat master, since they reflect the current questions agitating the 
Sisters and they seem to be a significant influence in shaping the thoughts 
and aspirations of the Sisters. 

A recent publication, The Retreat Master Faces the Nun in the Modern 
World (St. Mary's, Kansas, 1965) pp. xiii, 90, $1.00 — contains the pro- 


ceedings of an institute held at the Jesuit major seminary, to clarify for 
present and future retreat masters the mentality of the modern-day Sister 
and what she expects of a retreat master. The Sisters who spoke are not 
exactly representative of the "average sister" (e.g., Sr. Jacqueline, S.L., the 
President of Webster College), but they are articulate, perceptive and 
extremely influential. There are some remarks that are unfortunate: "At 
worst, priests are patronizing and, at best, paternalistic." "Whom have we 
canonized? The externally perfect religious." If we do not let these 
generate too much hostility, the pages have much of value. One Sister 
lecturer, accepting the invitation to offer suggestions to the retreat master 
has these observations: 

1. Take time to really study feminine psychology and pray for the 
humility to appreciate and accept feminine traits rather than simply toler- 
ate them. . . . Fathers, if you can't love women as God loves them, then 
ask to be relieved of retreat assignments. 

2. Take for granted that these women are committed to living a life of 
holiness. . . . They expect you to take their aspirations to holiness seriously, 
not with condescension. 

3. Take for granted that superiors as well as subjects are truly interested 
in resolving the crises of religious life. . . . You do us no service by sowing 
discord and discontent and mutual recrimination in our ranks. 

4. Take into consideration that most religious women today are literate, 
and many of them are well educated. Retreat conferences which bear the 
mark of pre-Dtvino Afflante Spiritu exegesis, or pre- Apostolic Constitution 
liturgical reflections will hardly be meaningful or relevant. 

5. It is rash to go into a retreat and talk about renewal and adaptation 
unless you are fully cognizant of the work of Sister Formation Conferences. 

6. Look long and seriously into some of the advances being made in 
spiritual renewal exercises such as are developed by the Cursillo movements 
and the Better World Movement. Perhaps the retreatants do need to engage 
in dialogue and communications on the most important truths of their 

7. Provide as much time as possible for confession and private direction. 

At the end of the booklet there are six workshop discussion outlines, 
which could be very helpful for the retreat master who would like to 
stimulate group discussion among the retreatants. 

More profound and important than the foregoing items is The Chang- 


ing Sister (Fides, Notre Dame, 1965), pp. viii, 326 — a group effort 
edited by Sister M. Charles Borromeo Muckenhirn, CSC. Among the 
most stimulating of the nine papers are those of Sr. Marie Augusta Neal, 
SND: "Sociology and Community Change;" the editor's "Apostolic Holi- 
ness: the Christian Dynamics;" and Sr. M. Aloysius Schaldenbrand, SSJ.: 
"Personal Fulfillment and Apostolic Effectiveness." The essays breathe a 
deeply assimilated sense of the openness and co-responsibility that charac- 
terize Vatican II. They all reflect a renewed awareness of the evangelical 
"agape" and its secular counterpart in the writings of Buber, Marcel, and 
Ricoeur. These are the accents that speak to the Sisters ; the Sisters may help 
us to use them with effect. 

Now entering its second year of publication is the four-page Envoy 
(Duquesne University Press, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15219), a monthly news- 
letter issued by Adrian van Kaam's Institute of Man. Each issue contains an 
essay on an aspect of the human problem of living maturely in a religious 
community — and a large part of each issue is given over to a problem sub- 
mitted by one of the readers, and discussed in separate but converging 
remarks by members of the faculty of the Institute. Ten issues a year. 

From the Celian Hill 

The current scholastic year has brought to SS G & P an exceptional 
number of student-priests, both for higher studies and for the pastoral 
year. After a sabbatical, the pastoral year is again being conducted at 
SS G & P for the student-priests of the Italian provinces. The pastoral 
course will consist of two years, one of which will be spent in obtaining a 
licentiate in Sacred Theology at one of the Pontifical Universities. 

The newcomers and the returnees will find a few changes upon their 
arrival at SS G & P. Under the able direction of the Very Rev. Rene 
Champagne, Econome General, a new and much larger coffee room has 
been prepared to replace the small one which has served the community 
for many years. 

Another change is the renovation of the small chapel next to the old 
coffee room, which was used by the university priests. Those of our priests 


who have stayed as SS G & P will remember the old tile floor, choir stalls 
and wall decor. These have all been replaced: the floor is now of beautiful, 
highly polished marble; benches have replaced the old choir stalls; and 
the walls and ceiling are a light blue color. The miraculous painting of 
Our Lady — from which Mary spoke to Bl. Dominic Barberi — has been 
restored, and replaced over the main altar. 

The community has welcomed another member of our Province to 
SS G & P — Father Alexis Paul, the new English Secretary to Father 

The summer brought an exceptional number of American tourists, 
more than last summer, to the Basilica of SS G & P. They came to visit 
the titular church of Cardinal Spellman and to see at first hand the famous 
excavations — the House of the Martyrs, SS G & P — underneath the Basilica. 
The English speaking priests here were kept busy. 

— Dominic Papa, CP 

Father General is happy to announce the publication of the second 
volume of the critical biography of Our Holy Founder, as commissioned 
by the General Chapter of 1964. Within the 1755 pages of this monu- 
mental work, the learned author, Father Enrico Zoffoli of Presentation 
Province, has given us a very thorough and scholarly study of St. Paul of 
the Cross, the Man and the Saint. 

The first volume, published in the spring of 1963, is strictly an histori- 
cal-biographical portrayal of the "povero Paolo." In this recent volume, 
however, Father Zoffoli unfolds for us the interior life of St. Paul of the 
Cross, having utilized for this work the rich sources of the canonization 
process, but principally, the saint's own writings, especially his letters. 

The October 15, 1965 issue of L'Osservatore Romano carried a glowing 
review of the book. The reviewer writes: "It may be said that this work 
constitutes the model of how the lives of the saints ought to be written ; 
not weighed down (as are some) with the reflections and learning of the 
authors, but presenting an honest narration of the saint's works, thoughts, 
sufferings, aspirations, in their total concrete reality." He goes on to say, 
"I had imagined St. Paul of the Cross as a rather sad saint, extremely severe 
and somewhat ill-humored. Now, to the contrary, I see him as very human, 
gay, affable, supremely absorbed in the love of God, a wise director and 
apostle; a great man because a great saint." 


The new two-year program of Pastoral Theology for the student priests 
of the various Provinces of Italy: for the first year, the sixteen young 
theologians attend classes at the Angelicum, to work for their licentiate in 
Theology; the second year of the program will be conducted at the 
monastery of Our Mother of Holy Hope at Rocca d' Papa, Squarciarelli, 
where the students will receive their course in Sacred Eloquence and also 
be employed in limited pastoral work. 

During the last session of Vatican Council II, the monastery of Saints 
John and Paul was host to eleven of our own Passionist bishops and a 
Bulgarian Bishop, His Excellency, Cyril Kurteff. The latter is a very close 
friend of our Passionist Missionaries who have labored in Bulgaria for so 
many years. The Passionist Bishops were: Their Excellencies: Stanislaus 
Battistelli, Joseph Hagendorens, Martin Elorza, Gregory Olazar, Gabriel 
Sillekens, Gerard Pellanda, Quentin Olwell, Albert Deane, Stanislaus van 
Melis, Urban Murphy, and Paschal Sweeney. 

Saints John and Paul continues to live up to the tradition of being an 
International House for Studies. This year there are six student priests 
from Ireland, one from England, one from the Netherlands, two from 
Poland, five from Portugal and six from Spain. 

—Alexis Paul, CP 

"Nothing is more common in an age like this, when books abound, than 
to fancy that the gratification of a love of reading is real study." 

— Cardinal Newman 
{Idea of a University) 

"Is College Worth It?" Answers of enduring worth, by Joseph L 
Lennon, OP; Columbia, Sept. '65. 



Death-of-God Theology 

Neil Sharkey, CP, STD* 

Today, death-of-God theologians proclaim that Christianity's idea of 
God is obsolete. They maintain that it is no longer possible for modern 
man to think about or believe in a transcendent God, who acts in an 
immanent manner in human history. As a consequence, Christianity must 
survive, if it can, without Him. Its best known advocates are Americans: 
Thomas Altizer of Emory University, Paul van Buren of Temple Uni- 
versity, William Hamilton of Colgate Rochester Divinity School, and 
Gabriel Vahanian of Syracuse University. Altizer foretells the collapse of 
Christendom and the approach of a secular world without God. Van 
Buren maintains that any talk about God is philosophically meaningless. 
Hamilton asserts that theologians must live today without faith or hope. 
Vahanian argues that God, if there be a God, is known to man only in 
terms of his own culture and thus is basically an idol. 

The arguments underlying this new theology are philosophical and 

Philosophical Suppositions 

The philosophical suppositions of this new theology are related to 
modern science and empirical positivism. 

1. Modern science begins with data that are either immediately sensible 
or are known as inferences from sense data. The movements of sub-atomic 
particles, when not known by immediate observation, can be known in- 
directly by some of their observable effects or concomitants. What modern 
science seeks is immanent intelligibility. Any recourse to an infinite, 
spiritual God to explain the universe is judged not scientific. Why? 
Because any explanation in terms of God is an explanation extrinsic to the 
sphere of observable data. Yet the question remains : how does one explain 
the intelligible quality of all sensible data? The death-of-God theologian 
would maintain that the intelligibility of reality is no more than an ex- 
perience of an experiencing subject. This, of course, is a recourse to 

* VC correspondent: Tubingen, West Germany. 


2. The philosophical suppositions of this new radical theology are also 
related to linguistic analysis and logical empiricism. In 1936, A. J. Ayer, in 
Language, Truth and Logic, asserted that statements, or propositions, not 
reducible to empirical science, like those of ethics and religion, are unverifi- 
able and meaningless. R. B. Braithwaite, in his now famous lecture, An 
Empiricist 's View of the Nature of Religious Belief, given in 1955, ac- 
cepted Ayer's conclusions that religious propositions do not make any 
sense and cannot be true. Religious historical statements, such as those 
found in the Bible, merely express the commitment of those who made 
them to a general way of life, from which their moral policies are derived. 
The religious man confirms himself in his disposition to act in a set way 
by appeal to certain "stories." The Christian differs from those of other 
religions in his use of the Gospel stories and, to a lesser extent, the state- 
ments of the rest of the Bible. Dogmas and creeds are stories in an 
extended sense. Paul van Buren is an advocate of linguistic analysis and, in 
keeping with the suppositions of this thought, denies the objective truth of 
statements that cannot be verified empirically. 

What we have here is a new form of Logical Positivism which, in its 
earliest form, maintained that no assertion had meaning unless it were 
verifiable in sense-experience. Such a supposition is founded on an extreme, 
narrow view of the function of language and the nature of experience. One 
may easily err by attributing a uniqueness to a method which it does not 
possess, by maintaining that the only truth is scientific truth, and the only 
real being is that revealed by positive science. By doing this, one asserts 
something which is not subject to scientific verification and, at the same 
time, reduces the total field of reality and truth to a particular mode of 

Theological Suppositions 

Rudolf Bultmann (1884- ) travels the road of New Testament schol- 
arship and existential philosophy, as opposed to modern science and em- 
pirical philosophy, yet reached a similar theological destination. According 
to Bultmann, the essential Christian message stated in the New Testament 
is associated with a mythological and unscientific conception of reality. 
According to this world-view, angels and demons may interfere at any 
moment in the affairs of our earth which exists below a physical heaven 
and above a physical hell, and on which divine beings have human sons 
who prove their heavenly origin by actions which go beyond the laws of 


nature. These mythological ideas are totally irreconcilable with the scientific 
attitude of man, and Christianity must be purged of them before modern 
man can be expected to accept it. Statements about the historical past and 
future, about the miracles of a God-man, a future resurrection, and judg- 
ment of mankind have no meaning in themselves, and are irrelevant to the 
essence of Christian faith, which is a divine word addressed to men, 
setting before us a possibility of human existence for which we are sum- 
moned to decide. 

Bultmann's criterion of true faith is the same as Ayer's criterion of non- 
sense — that empirical fact has no bearing whatever on a religious statement 
or proposition. Van Buren, in The Secular Meaning of the Gospel, ob- 
served the similarity between modern empirical philosophy and Bultmann's 
theology, in spite of all the differences in terminology in which they are 
expressed. Thus the opinions of the new school of Godless Christianity 
tend to become a combination of both: Not only is the whole world-view 
of the New Testament quite unacceptable to modern man, but the term 
"God" has no meaning. Thus the Christian believer who is truly modern 
will not differ at all from the unbeliever on any matter of objective fact: 
he will differ only in that he has been gripped by the New Testament in 
such a way that, it provides the guiding moral influence of his life. Jesus is 
not God -man but only our present human ideal. 

Traditional Christianity 

The Sacred Scriptures, as is obvious, were written in a language derived 
from a pre-scientific age. They offer no scientific explanation of the uni- 
verse. The writers of both the old and new Testaments express their 
thought in the analogies and metaphors taken from their own cultural 
traditions, and in keeping with the contemporary understanding of the 
natural order. But this is not to say that there is present no relation what- 
soever to metaphysics. Neither our Lord nor the writers of the Bible held 
that, the God of whom they spoke had been unknown to the people of 
prior times. 

Further, historical Christianity has always proclaimed the objective 
reality of certain historical facts — of which the more important are that 
Jesus lived, acted and spoke in a way like that which the Gospels describe, 
that He was crucified, died, that He truly rose from the dead, that He is 
both God and man. They have also believed His promises about the future, 
that heaven and hell are objective realities, that eternal happiness with God 


may be won or lost by men according to their present dispositions and 
actions. Christians follow Christ in the belief that His promises are true. It 
was in light of their belief in definite historical events that, their faith and 
moral lives were justified. "Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of 
Nazareth, a man attested to you by God with mighty works and wonders 
and signs which God did through him in your midst, as you yourselves 
know — this Jesus, delivered up according to the definite plan and fore- 
knowledge of God, you crucified and killed by the hands of lawless men. 
But God raised him up, having loosed the pangs of death, because it was 
not possible for him to be held by it." (Acts 2: 22-4.) 

It is just these facts about the past and future which pertain to the 
essence of Christianity which are dismissed by Bultmann, van Buren, and 
the other death-of-God theologians, as mythological accretions to the 
gospel. Of course, Christianity's dependence on particular historical facts 
renders it open to the objection that these facts are not true. Men in every 
age may be tempted to deny these facts. Some will reject them. For many, 
Christ and Christianity contradict what they think human life ought to be. 
Only faith discerns. But it is just these facts which specify its objective 
meaning: what it asserts and what it believes. Christianity cannot remain 
when one takes away its belief in matters of historical fact. 

In conclusion, it may be that the thought and talk of the death-of-God 
theologians shock some Christians and scandalize others; but what they 
indicate is a truth the Thomistic theologian has always known: the truth 
of the Christian faith — beyond the questions of definite historical fact — 
depends upon the truth and vitality of metaphysics. Before we can pro- 
claim the Christian belief to thoughtful people we must understand the 
basic principles of reality. Modern science pursues its work in an area of 
mystery. It is philosophy, or metaphysics, which seeks to determine the 
deepest possible answer to the fact of being and the particular beings we 
see. It alone can bring a man to the point where the only reasonable 
answer to the mystery of being is an absolute, infinite, and spiritual Reality 
whom we call God. As John Cobb has written (The Christian Century, 
March 3, 1965, pg. 265) : "The emerging atheism of our day is rooted in 
highly self-conscious and reflective thought. Any adequate response to its 
challenge must be seriously made at its own intellectual level. Modern 
dominant philosophical currents oppose the renewal of belief in God ; it is 
impossible for us to avoid a struggle with them. Natural theology has thus 
become, as never before in Christian history, a matter of utmost urgency 

for the Church." 




"Religious should remember there is 
no better way than their own example 
to commend their institutes and gain 
candidates for the religious life." 

— Vatican II 

Decree, The Adaptation 
and Renewal of the Re- 
ligious Life, # 24. 



Guest Editorial 1 

Editorial 3 

Passiology 4 

Moral Theology 5 

Canon Law 8 

Homiletics 11 

Literature 15 

Liturgy 18 

Annotated ( Mission Source Material .... 20 

Bibliography ^ Retreat source Material .... 24 

From the Celian Hill 26 

Fundamental Theology . 29 

"In my youth, I stressed freedom. In my old age, I stress order. I have 
made the great discovery that, liberty is a product of order." 

—Will Durant 

". . . The word of the cross . . .is . . . to us . . .the power of God." 

(1 Cor.: 1:18) 

Berbmn (txxttxB 

Vol. IV April, A.D. 1966 No. 2 

On the other hand, only too many men, only too often behave as if 
they were structured at the low level of the sense creature. Although en- 
dowed with intelligence and free-will, the bodily senses predominate. 
Example are the dipsomaniac, the narcotics addict, the glutton, the sex 
addict. Such examples are commonplace, but so extreme as to bespeak 
more or less amorality. 

Even more tragic is the man who is not amoral, but who — despite a 
normal sense of morality — lapses into inadvertence as to his dignity and 
his potential as an intellectual, self-determining creature. Underdeveloped 
potential results in a more or less retarded person. Most of us, most of 
the time, are normally alert in the exercise of our five-sense animal en- 
dowment. However, we may need to develop a "self -consciousness" of 
the endowment wherewith the Creator has made our nature unique — 
our rationality. 

Character and even temperament should be under the governorship of 
reason. Otherwise, foibles weave the crazy quilt pattern of daily be- 
havior, as we cheat our better selves. With this man or that, it is not 
merely a question as to which feature of human nature will gain and 
maintain the mastery — the animalistic or the rational? Rather, it is a 
question as to how refined an extent we are alert to, self-conscious of 
our dignity and potential nobility as intelligent, self -determining persons. 
We cannot afford to lapse into inadvertence. To do so can reduce even 
the religious or the priest to the level of a human automaton. 

2) We are supermen: 

No matter how inspiring, no encomium ever penned, as to the dignity 
and potential nobility of human nature, is more than a fragmentary pic- 
ture of our unearthly estate. To say that the Creator has designed to pro- 
mote us, to elevate us to a supernatural status is to bespeak the last word, 
in the exercise of omnipotence, and of Self-diffusive benevolence. Thereby, 
we have become God's supermen. Can we imagine a Divine Person be- 
coming incarnate, and suffering a passion unto death, for mere rational 
animals ? 

Even the Almighty could not supernaturalize a rabbit. He could super- 
naturalize the so-called angel — and us — because of our spiritual features, 
our intellect and free will. He need not have done so, because such an 
endowment is connatural to God alone. By our supernatural transforma- 
tion, we share in the divine knowledge of God and man, in divine wis- 
dom, in divine ambition, and in the joy that renders the Triune God 


eternally blissful. This unearthly saga of our future destiny, of our here 
and now opportunities is in no way offset by the fact that, derelicts sprawl 
in the gutters of Skid Row, or that religious or clerics may, at times, live 
more or less "below par." 

The ramifications of our supernatural anatomy, of our supernatural 
organic and functional health are such as to call for earnest study. For 
a panoramic survey of God's superman, we refer the reader to a diagram. 2 

It seems safe to say that not a few of the saints would have been no 
match for the most of us, on the score of religious education. But what 
little they knew, they realised to the point of being influenced. To be in- 
fluenced betimes, we may need to refocus our realisation that, we are 
men of j///? ^natural destiny, that we cannot "play neutral." Through Isaias, 
the Almighty had occasion to chide His original chosen people: "For my 
thoughts are not your thoughts: nor your ways my ways, saith the Lord." 3 
Our thoughts, our ways, as of today, are a gauge of our eternal tomorrow. 

— AMcD. 


The Flight from the Cross 

Matthew Nestor, CP 

In this unique period of renewal and adjustment, our fourth vow with 
all its implications and ramifications concerning our religious life, our 
preaching and teaching, deserves more of our attention, thought, and 
study than ever before. Many things once taken for granted are now 
either openly questioned or denied, or else just nonchalantly brushed 
aside. In a very real sense, we are witnessing what might be well described 
as The Flight from the Cross. The protagonists of this avant-garde school 
are eager and anxious to have us all but eliminate the philosophy and 
theology of the cross, in religious life and discipline, our mode and extent 
of recreation, in much of our preaching and teaching. So often these 
things are either proposed or accomplished without any valid authority, 
under the guise of following either the spirit or the letter of the Vatican 
Council. Already the sad effects of this school of thought and conduct 
are painfully evident. 

2 Consult centerfold. 

3 LV: 8. 


The patrimony of St. Paul of the Cross is a precious legacy. It is a 
document that is crystal clear: our Holy Rule. As a result, the nature, the 
purpose, the special spirit, and the unique tradition of our Congregation 
are not open to question. Furthermore, Pope Paul VI reminds us that, 
as far as any changes are concerned, it is the work of general chapters 
to accommodate religious constitutions to "the changed conditions of the 
times." So too, our Holy Father points out that change must be accom- 
plished in such a way that "the proper nature and discipline of the in- 
stitute is left intact." No renovation of discipline is to be introduced 
excepting what accords with the specific purpose of the institute. Changes 
made along these lines will always be welcome and beneficial, and at 
the same time help us to preserve a sense of identity as well as a sense 
of history. It will not be a case of change simply for the sake of change. 
Consequently, it seems proper to conclude that for us as Passionists, 
the emphasis these days should be much more on renewal than change. 

We can never get way from the fact, try as we may, that the Passion 
of Christ is not a closed book or a finished chapter. The Passion of Christ 
is not just an historical event. It is a way of life. The Church clearly 
teaches that Christ in His Passion is not only the efficient cause of 
our salvation, but also the exemplary cause. Hence we must travel the 
way Christ trod: we must share His Passion. 

The Passion, then, lives on in us, in you and me and every member 
of the mystical body of Christ which is His Church. True, Christ is beyond 
the reach of the whip, the crown of thorns, the nails, and the lance. Yet 
the Passion is always with us, it lives on in us. The Church teaches that 
at Baptism we are incorporated into Christ, and so each one of us becomes 
an alter Christus. As other Christs, each one of us is destined somehow, 
somewhere, sometime to live out in his own life some phase of the Passion 
of Christ. There is no escape. Will it or no, the cross will come to each 
one of us. Fortunately the cross is fitted to each shoulder, since God does 
not try any man beyond his strength. For any one of us to rebel or refuse 
does no good, for the cross will remain. Indeed, refusal brings the 
staggering burden of a second cross — the useless cross of rebellion. To 
forget this truth means failure, especially for a Passionist. 

Some years back, a religious who shied away from the burden of the 
cross wrote a pathetic autobiography entitled: / Was a Monk. Unwittingly, 
his narrative revealed that his greatest misfortune was this: he seldom 
if ever stood under the shadow of the cross. His whole religious life 


revealed a pattern of privilege and pampering. He took flight from the 
cross and so failed in his religious vocation. 

As Passionists, we generously vow not only to preach and teach the 
Passion, but also to live it — and this is the most difficult part of all. We 
need an abundance of God's grace to make all of this a reality in our 
lives. Human nature being what it is, there is always the tendency to 
retrench, to qualify, to make distinctions that are oftentimes dangerously 
fallacious. Our fidelity to such a demanding vocation is not something, 
then, that can be taken for granted. Long and diligent study in the School 
of Jesus Crucified is required to ensure perseverance. And there are no 
substitutes for prayer, penance, and fasting. 

Frequently, we hear it said that our youth in the formative stage of 
the religious life are aimless and unenthusiastic, because all element of 
challenge is missing from their lives. This sounds strange to veteran 
religious, because the vows most certainly constitute enough of a chal- 
lenge to test the mettle of any man. The fact of the matter seems to be 
that, we are actually robbing our youth of many of the helps they need 
to face this challenge of the vows, by eliminating much of the discipline 
and discomfort in their lives. Because of this, the challenge the vows 
present is overly burdensome on those who have been gradually weaned 
away from watching, praying, and fasting. As is so often the case with 
pampered children, these young people often lose respect for those re- 
sponsible for their direction. It is only logical for them to conclude that 
their leaders wanted to please, to be appreciated. These young men came 
to us to be trained, formed, directed. They came to be told. They did not 
come to be asked: "What do you want to do?" The heroic challenge, 
ironically, has been taken over by the secular agencies. While so many 
monasteries and convents relax their rules and add luxuries, the Peace 
Corps asks young people bluntly: "Would you like to work sixteen hours 
a day helping others help themselves?" 

Apropos of the failure of religious leaders to lead their subjects instead 
of being led by them, the story about the French generals during World 
War II is a good case in point. Two generals had just finished lunch at 
a Parisian sidewalk cafe. They were still sitting there, enjoying the sun 
and the sights, when a group of soldiers marched by. One general said 
to the other: "There go some of our soldiers. We are their leaders. Let 
us follow them." What happened to the French is now a matter of history. 

The following quotation from the recent Decree on Priestly Ttmtimg is 
both timely and significant. "The students should understand most clearly 


that, they are not destined for domination or for honors, but are given 
over totally to the service of God and the pastoral ministry. With a par- 
ticular concern should they be so formed in priestly obedience, in a simple 
way of life and in the spirit of self-denial that, they are accustomed to 
giving up willingly even those things which are permitted but are not 
expedient, and to conform themselves to Christ crucified." If this be ex- 
pected from secular seminarians, how much more should be expected 
from Passionists. 

The cross, then, must overshadow our whole lives. The Passion must 
have an influence on everything in our lives. It must influence our preach- 
ing and teaching, our praying and studying, our eating and drinking, our 
recreation. Briefly, the Passion must determine our whole standard of liv- 
ing, for otherwise we are frauds. Our distinctive Passionist spirit will 
flourish when this is true of our lives. Once we have lost this spirit, our 
reason for existence as a religious congregation might well be called into 
question. Certainly no Passionist should attempt to take a detour, to 
reach Christ by any other way than the way of the Cross. 

One of our great concerns, at this moment, should be the type of train- 
ing given in our monasteries and houses of study where our young 
religious and postulants spend their formative years, preparing for the priest- 
hood and apostolic work. Those who are supposed to lead them and in- 
spire them, by the obvious sincerity and sanctity of their lives, should be 
mature and permeated with the spirit of the Passion. The discipline should 
not be determined by what is done in diocesan seminaries. A young man 
preparing to preach the Passion should live and study where there is an 
atmosphere of prayer, penance, silence, and in so far as it is possible and 
practical, solitude. The virtues of poverty, chastity, and obedience are not 
nurtured in places where the type of discipline in vogue resembles that 
of the fraternity house or the college dormitory. It is significant that, in 
the recent Decree on the Adaption and Renewal of the Religious Life 
proclaimed by Pope Paul VI, there is not one word that would justify 
some of the departures recently made from our traditional discipline for 
students. The softness we have recently acquired seems to be the reason 
for our many failures, for our marking time instead of marching forward, 
as far as vocations are concerned. 

We are told that Socrates, in his day, had to contend with sophists who 
thought they could solve all of the world's problems with their adroit 
reasoning — oftentimes just double-talk. George Orwell in his book 1984, 
writes that soon we shall have to contend with those whose mental gym- 


nasties might be aptly described as double-think — they talk about one 
thing but actually mean its opposite. The genuine Passionist possesses 
devotion to the truth, the truth of the cross, the truth many today seek 
to evade or ignore: he preaches Christ and Him Crucified. He is never 
content to mouth mere jargon that may sound pius enough, but which 
lacks sincerity as well as substance. 

At this moment we are all familiar with words that, for some, amount 
to a new vocabulary — words like liturgy, renewal, commitment, dedica- 
tion, involvement, etc. All the concepts involved here are really "old 
stuff" for a Passionist. The liturgy, for example, is nothing new to any 
one of us. Our training prepares us to know and appreciate the richness 
of the liturgy. It is not mere ritual to us. It is refreshing, too, when we 
stop to consider that, St. Paul of the Cross anticipated the Vatican Council 
by hundreds of years, as far as the use and importance of the liturgy is 
concerned. The same may be said of the importance of preaching. St. 
Paul, by means of the Holy Rule, still teaches his children how to make 
such things as renewal, dedication, and commitment realities, rather than 
just words or avant-garde jargon. But all this implies staying close to 
the cross. Prayer, penance, silence, and solitude — as taught in the School 
of Jesus Crucified — are the helps we must use to bring about the type of 
world and church that the Vatican Council envisions. It is folly, then, 
to abandon the wisdom of the cross by trying to tone down the Passionist 
spirit in our lives, in our monasteries, or in our apostolic endeavors. 

Pope Paul is constantly reminding us, as priests and religious, of the 
need for and the importance of the renewal of the inner man. This is 
something very difficult to accomplish. It is something far removed from 
oozing satisfaction over a few liturgical changes. Renewal calls for sacri- 
fice and for manly virtue. What, then, is the best pattern for renewal in 
our lives? Here is the answer: we must live the Passion. We dare not lead 

In a changing world, there is one message that never loses its power: 
the Passion of Christ is still the Divine Magnet that attracts and moves 
souls. Veteran preachers continue to be amazed at the way even very 
sophisticated audiences respond to the story of the Passion. Nevertheless, 
it is also true that reluctance to preach the Passion is not uncommon in 
this our day. Very often, it is due to the fact that the preacher is spiritually 
bankrupt, and he cannot give to the people something he does not possess. 
If a preacher, no matter how accomplished, does not live the Passion, he 
has little to offer the people of God except words — empty words. It is 


the blood, sweat, and tears of a crucified life that prepares a priest to 
preach well on the sufferings of Christ. Furthermore, there is nothing 
in theology, even the new theology, that justifies de-emphasizing the Pas- 
sion. It is necessary first to prove to a sinner that God loves him — and 
the Passion certainly proves that. Once this is accomplished, the sinner 
will be more receptive to such themes as the social aspects of the Gospel. 
Relevant to the truth of the statement that, we must live the Passion in 
our own lives if we are to preach it and teach it effectively, there comes 
to mind the example of an outstanding Passionist, Bishop Cuthbert 
O'Gara. His suffering at the hands of the Communists is now a familiar 
story, but one detail is worthy of repetition here. 

At Bishop Cuthbert' s trial he was stripped, like Christ, of all his robes 
and was forced to stand nearly naked before his judges. As in the case of 
Christ, the verdict was arranged or predetermined. Years of sickness and 
suffering followed in concentration camps. Released only when the Com- 
munists wished to avoid the bad publicity, attendant on having him die 
on their hands, he had to be carried on a stretcher en route to freedom. 
As he was about to cross the bridge that led to Hong Kong and freedom, 
somehow or other, a Communist official managed to return to Bishop Cuth- 
bert his pectoral cross and chalice. Although arrangements had been made 
for these things to be buried in a secret place, here they were now in 
his own hands once again. How significant! 

Surely we all agree that Bishop Cuthbert could never have endured such 
a Gethsemani in China, unless he had first learned to live the Passion as 
a priest and religious. The time this great Passionist spent in prayer, 
penance, and solitude in the School of Jesus Crucified prepared him well 
for such involvement, dedication, and commitment. May such noble ex- 
ample inspire all of us to cherish our fourth vow and to remain faithful 
to Passionist ideals and traditions. Let us never take flight from the 
cross, for in its shadow we shall find security and serenity. 

"If life looks cloudy, maybe the windows of your soul need washing." 


"Having ability is not as important as the dedicated use of it." 

— Arkansas Baptist 

"Forgiveness does not leave the hatchet handle sticking out of the 
ground." — Grit 


Pastoral Theology 

The Campus Apostolate 
Alban Harmon, CP, JCL 

In 1893, five medical students at the University of Pennsylvania formed 
a club for Catholic students. The students asked Father Patrick Garvey, 
the pastor of St. James Church, to be their chaplain and advisor. It was 
similar to other Catholic clubs organized at various colleges. In one way 
it was different. This group chose Cardinal Newman as their patron. The 
students and their chaplain studied the writings of Cardinal Newman, 
especially his Idea of a University, arranged lectures on medical ethics 
and theology. Following the example of Cardinal Newman, they en- 
deavored to understand and show to others, the relevancy and importance 
of theology to the entire curriculum. 

At other colleges and universities students formed Newman Clubs. 
This apostolate has been growing constantly over the years. Today there 
are about a thousand such organizations throughout the country. 

The press often focused some attention on the Church's work in the 
secular campus community. An interview with a chaplain explained the 
purpose of his apostolate. It gave some idea of the number of hours spent 
with the students. The organization of the "club" itself was described, 
along with the various activities of the group. Usually some mention was 
made of the problems facing this specialized apostolate. The general tone 
of many of these articles was that, the Newman Club alone had the task 
of somehow preserving and protecting the faith of the Catholic student 
at the secular college. A good number of these Newman Clubs had dy- 
namic and sparkling programs to offer the students. But many did not. 
Often a lack of personnel and funds hampered the work. In many in- 
stances, a curate at the nearby church divided his time between the parish 
and the campus. In some cases his presence on the campus was tolerated 
but little was done to help him. The work of these chaplains was little 
understood and, in so many cases, almost unknown to the Catholic popu- 
lation of the diocese. However, in spite of many handicaps these men 
performed a tedious and often heroic task. 

This effort by the Church to deepen the spiritual and cultural life of 
the Catholic student was a holding action. It was not an ideal situation. 


The Church could not gi\e this apostolate the full attention it deserved. 
There were enough problems to be solved in regard to Catholic elementary 
schools, high schools and colleges. Today and in the years to come, much 
more attention must be given to the problems facing Catholic students 
on the secular college campus. What was considered a holding action in 
the past is becoming a definite and accepted trend in the American Church. 
What was considered an unfortunate situation — Catholics attending secular 
or non-Catholic colleges — is a situation that is not going to diminish but 
will increase each September. So some changes in attitudes have to be 
made for the future of this apostolate. The Second Vatican Council has 
already pointed out the way, and has offered guidelines in the decrees on 
the Church, the liturgy, religious freedom and ecumenism. We often speak 
of the home of the future, the car of the future, the seminary of the future. 
The Church has to plan carefully for the Newman apostolate of the future, 
or better, the Christian community on the secular campus. To have some 
idea of the Newman apostolate of the future, the following statistics will 
be helpful. They were drawn up by the National Newman Chaplains 
Association and printed in the latest chaplains manual. The figures list 
the estimated enrollment of students (Catholic and non-Catholic) attend- 
ing Catholic colleges, and the number of Catholic students at secular 
colleges. The survey makes these predictions of future college enrollment. 

Catholics in 


Catholic Colleges 

Secular Colleges 













The Passionists have been working in Atlanta since 1955. The main 
effort was directed to establishing and building up St. Paul of the Cross 
Parish. There was some contact with the Catholic students at the Atlanta 
University Center during the following years. Some came to the rectory 
for instructions and counselling. In 1962, Father Raphael Amrhein was 
appointed chaplain for the Catholic students at the Center. He had to do 
the pioneer work of contacting college presidents, deans of men and 
women, ministers, etc. The next step was tracking down the Catholic stu- 
dents and faculty members. The Province can be proud of the work he 
accomplished here. He made a wonderful impression on the students and 
faculty. All were saddened by his return to our monastery in Baltimore. 


Quite often the seniors and juniors ask about him. Before speaking about 
the apostolate on the campus, a few facts about the Atlanta University 
Center may be helpful. 

The Atlanta University Center comprises one graduate school, four 
colleges and a theological college. The graduate school is Atlanta Univer- 
sity. The colleges are: Clark (co-ed), Morehouse (men), Morris Brown 
(co-ed), Spelman (women). The Interdenominational Theological Center 
is the sixth member of the complex. The oldest institution is Atlanta Uni- 
versity. It celebrated its one-hundredth anniversary last year. Morehouse 
College will have a centennial celebration in 1967. 

All are Negro colleges. They were founded by Negroes and mainly 
supported and staifed by Negroes. They have received help from various 
foundations and now are receiving more grants from the federal govern- 
ment for dormitories, laboratories, science programs, etc. The greater 
majority of the students are from the southern states. The remainder are 
from the north-central and north-eastern states, from cities like Chicago, 
Detroit, Washington, D.C., Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, New York and 
Buffalo. Spelman and Morehouse Colleges each have about a dozen ex- 
change students from northern colleges such as Bowdoin, Oberlin, Dart- 
mouth, North Central, Cedar Crest. They are few in comparison to the 
total enrollment of the Center, which is about 4500 students. The gradu- 
ate school and the four colleges make up the Atlanta University Center. 
But the unity of the Center is more on paper than a reality. This is one 
of the major problems. There is a lack of communication among the col- 
leges, faculty and students. A situation like this leads to reduplication 
of facilities and educational programs. The whole question of consolida- 
tion is a very touchy issue. It seems the future demands of the Center 
will force some degree of consolidation. With more of the previously all- 
white colleges opening their doors to Negro students, the Atlanta Univer- 
sity Center will have to face more competition in recruiting Negro students. 

It is difficult to get an exact number of the Catholic students. An ap- 
proximate figure is 190. This includes resident and city students. About 
sixty percent attend Morehouse and Spelman colleges. The majority of 
these have attended a Catholic elementary school. Of this total Catholic 
group, the largest number are from cities with an appreciable Catholic 
population like Baton Rouge, New Orleans, Mobile, Montgomery, Bir- 
mingham, St. Louis, Louisville and Atlanta. The rest are from small towns 
scattered throughout Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and the Carolinas. 
Catholic foreign students come from Nigeria, Kenya, Malawi, Tanganyika, 


India and Taiwan. Ten faculty members are Catholic. The apostolate is 
mainly directed to this Catholic group and through them to students of 
other faiths. The center of this whole operation is the Newman House. 

In the fall of 1964, Archbishop Paul J. Hallinan agreed to rent a house 
for the apostolate at Atlanta University. The house is centrally located 
within the college area and has been a wonderful asset to the work. The 
students helped to paint the walls, hang drapes and get some good used 
furniture. Now it has a chapel, office, meeting room, library and kitchen 
facilities. A number of friends have donated various items. It is nothing 
palatial by any means, but it is a place where the students can study and 
make use of our library. And also a place for celebrating Mass, counselling, 
and discussion. 

The main effort — as far as the Newman House is concerned — is to 
provide for the religious and educational needs of the students. Strictly 
social functions are not emphasized because fraternities and sororities offer 
numerous opportunities on the campus. We have held meetings once or 
twice a week, in which we could discuss religious subjects and the moral 
implications of the headlines and magazine articles. But getting students 
off the campus and to a meeting is quite a job. Usually only a small per- 
centage come to hear a visiting speaker or take part in the programmed 
lecture series. Some students are simply not interested in "religion." For 
others it is a question of available time. They are under more pressure to 
keep up their class work, and the daily assignments, quizzes, exams, re- 
ports and term papers consume most of their "free" time. There is, how- 
ever, the small faithful group who are interested in the program and 
regularly attend Mass at the Newman House. These form the hard core 
group and are the contact people on the various campuses. 

Each Sunday we celebrate Mass at Danforth Chapel. This is a small 
meditation chapel on the Morehouse College campus. Attendance at Sun- 
day Mass is very good. Next year we may have to have two Masses on 
Sunday. Dr. Benjamin Mays, the President of Morehouse College, gave 
the Catholic students permission to use it and he also takes care of the 
maintenance. We can use it also on other occasions such as holydays, 
Lenten devotions, etc. The students have welcomed the changes in the liturgy 
and participate fully in the Mass. Each Sunday there is usually a group 
of Protestants who attend Mass with their Catholic friends. The liturgy 
is a real attraction. Another service offered by the Newman House is the 
library. These two — the liturgy and the library — are important. 

The library is small but adequate. We have built it up to about 800 


volumes. This includes paperbacks. It is a Catholic library and there is 
no attempt to compete with the college libraries. The books cover the 
fields of theology, scripture, philosophy. The selections we have on the 
Vatican Council and its decrees are popular, as are those concerning dat- 
ing, marriage, education, church and state problems, religious liberty, 
censorship, etc. The Council decrees on the Church, the liturgy and 
ecumenism, we have used for discussions. A number of spiritual reading 
books are available. Also on hand is a supply of leading Catholic maga- 
zines: The Sign, America, Catholic Mind, Catholic World, Ave Maria, 
The Catholic Reporter, Georgia Bulletin, The Boston Pilot, etc. All the 
students have to take a two-semester course in the history of religion. So 
when they are studying Christianity they often use the library for study 
and term papers. Protestant students often stop in for an explanation of 
Catholic doctrine which was discussed in class or a dormitory bull-session. 

In the past two years, there have been numerous opportunities of speak- 
ing to the students in class. Three of the college ministers have asked for 
lectures on the nature of the Church, the Reformation, the Council of 
Trent and the Second Vatican Council, mixed marriages, birth control, 
Catholic customs and devotional practices. Fathers Dennis Walsh and 
Edward Banks gave some of these lectures a few years ago. A few weeks 
ago Father Christian Kuchenbrod spoke to a senior religion class on the 
work and results of the Second Vatican Council. The memory of Pope 
John and John F. Kennedy and the ecumenical movement have done much 
to erase the distorted image of Catholicism. There is a renewed interest 
in the "mother" Church. Along with these lectures, there have been op- 
portunities to speak at the morning meditation services, which are held 
three times a week.